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softening
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     Membrane softening and application
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  softening
During the high-temperature wear period, severely influenced by friction heat, obvious softening and plastic flow can be found on the friction surface of the brake block, its anti-shearing ability is weakened, and adhesive wear is intensified.
      
The mechanical properties, melt flow rate and Vicat softening point of PPMN significantly had a preferable reinforced state at 6-8 phr PP/MMT graft copolymers (PPGM).
      
In this paper, the soil-water interaction is investigated with the full-scale field inspection of rainwater infiltration and comprehensive experiments, including wetting-induced softening tests, swelling, and shrinkage tests.
      
Infiltration of rainwater not only results in wetting-induced softening of the shallow unsaturated soil layers, but also leads to the increase of horizontal stress.
      
Unified solution of limit loads of thick wall cylinder subject to external pressure considering strain softening
      
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The softening point and Young's modulus of polymethylmethacrylate at low temperature with various contents of dibutyl phthalate have been measured by using a consistometer and a dilatometer respectively. The relationship between the molar con- centration of dibutyl phthalate, N, and the softening point, T, can be expressed by the equation T=112-947N. An explanation for the difference between the coefficient 947 and the value 228-232, previously obtained by Zhurkov, is suggested. The addition of...

The softening point and Young's modulus of polymethylmethacrylate at low temperature with various contents of dibutyl phthalate have been measured by using a consistometer and a dilatometer respectively. The relationship between the molar con- centration of dibutyl phthalate, N, and the softening point, T, can be expressed by the equation T=112-947N. An explanation for the difference between the coefficient 947 and the value 228-232, previously obtained by Zhurkov, is suggested. The addition of 1% or more dibutyl phthalate substantially improves the low temper- ature impact strength of polymethylmethacrylate, but it shows no appreciable change in Young's modulus at room temperature with 1-5% dilbuytl phthalate.

測定了不同苯二酸二丁酯含量的聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯的軟化温度、二級轉變温度和低温彈性模數,得出苯二酸二丁酯含量和軟化温度的關係式:T=112-947N。並從低温彈性模數說明添加苯二酸二丁酯後改進了聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯的低温度衝擊強度。

γ-(6-Methoxy-2-carboxy-3,4-dihydro-l-naphthyl)-butyric acid was reduced in the presence of 5% Pd-C to the saturated acid, γ-(6-methoxy-2-carboxy-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro- 1-naphthyl)-butyric acid, by the method of Bachmann and co-workers. From this reaction only one of the two diastereoisomers was obtained as the principal product. This acid was resolved into its optical antipodes with brucine in anhydrous methanol. The 1-γ-(6-methoxy-2-carboxy-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-1-naphthyl)-butyric acid-brucine salt, being...

γ-(6-Methoxy-2-carboxy-3,4-dihydro-l-naphthyl)-butyric acid was reduced in the presence of 5% Pd-C to the saturated acid, γ-(6-methoxy-2-carboxy-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro- 1-naphthyl)-butyric acid, by the method of Bachmann and co-workers. From this reaction only one of the two diastereoisomers was obtained as the principal product. This acid was resolved into its optical antipodes with brucine in anhydrous methanol. The 1-γ-(6-methoxy-2-carboxy-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-1-naphthyl)-butyric acid-brucine salt, being less soluble, was readily obtained pure in crystalline form. After a middle fraction was taken off, the filtrate was evaporated to dryness and the d-γ-(6-methoxy-2-carboxy- 1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-1-naphthyl)-butyric acid-brucine salt was obtained as a gummy mass. No attempt was made to purify this fraction of the salt. By dissolving the crystalline portion of the brucine salt in an appropriate amount of chloroform and shaking the solution with 2N KOH for four times, followed by acidification of the alkaline solution, pure 1-acid was obtained as a colorless crystalline compound. After recrystallization from benzene-ethanol, the pure 1-acid melted at 171-172°and its [α]_D~(25) is -123°. The d-acid was liberated from the last gummy fraction of the brucine salt in the same fashion and after recrystallization from benzene-ethanol, it melted at 171-172°and its [α]_D~(25) is +121°. The 1-acid was esterified with diazomethane and its dimethyl ester was cyclized by the Dieckmann reaction. The sodium salt of the product from the Dieckmann reaction was methylated with CH_3I following the method used by Bachmann and co-workers in their synthesis of estrone A, and a mixture of the diastereoisomers of d-1-keto-2-methyl-2- carbomethoxy-7-methoxy-1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, 12-octahydrophenanthrene was obtained as a yellow oil. By recrystallizing from acetone-petroleum ether only the least soluble isomer was obtained pure. It melted at 114-116°and its [α]_D~(25) is +89°in anhydrous ethyl alcohol. In the same fashion, d-γ-(6-methoxy-2-carboxy-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-1-naphthyl)-butyric acid was esterified and cyclized by the Dieckmann reaction followed by methylation and a mixture of the diastereoisomers of 1-1-keto-2-methyl-2-carbomethoxy-7-methoxy-1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, 12-octahydrophenanthrene was obtained as a yellow oil. By recrystallizing from acetone-petroleum ether, only the least soluble isomer was obtained pure. It melted at 114-116° and its [α]_D~(25) is -90.4°. By means of the Reformatsky reaction between d-1-keto-2-methyl-2-carbomethoxy-7- methoxy-1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, 12-octahydrophenanthrene and methyl bromoacetate, a methyl- d-1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-carbomethoxy-7-methoxy-1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, 12-octahydrophenan- threne-1-acetate was obtained. This dimethyl ester was recrystallized from methyl alcohol. It melted at 86-88° with slight previous softening and its [α]_D~(25) is +113.6° in anhydrous ethyl alcohol. In the same way, the methyl 1-1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-carbomethoxy-7- methoxy-1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, 12-octahydrophenanthrene-1-acetate was obtained from the 1-keto ester. The dimethyl ester was recrystallized from methyl alcohol; it melted at 86-88° with previous softening and its [α]_D~(25) is -113° in anhydrous ethyl alcohol.

1.用Cr_2O_3精製過的乙酸爲溶劑,5% Pd-C爲催化劑,γ-(6-甲氧基-2-羧基-3,4-二氫化萘-1-)丁酸很容易還原爲γ(6-甲氧基-2-羧基-1,2,3,4-四氫化萘-1-)丁酸。由此反應,祇得到一個非對映體爲主要產品。將此非對映體在純甲醇溶液內與馬錢子鹼化合,得到兩部分溶解度不同的鹽。溶解度較小的鹽結晶析出。此部分爲l-γ-(6-甲氧基-2-羧基-1,2,3,4-四氫化萘-1-)丁酸-馬錢子鹼鹽。由此鹽得到 l-γ(6-甲氧基-2-羧基-1,2,3,4-四氫化萘-1-)丁酸。將溶劑除去後得到的剩餘物爲d-γ-(6-甲氧基-2-羧基-1,2,3,4-四氫化萘-1-)丁酸馬錢子鹼鹽。由此部分得到d-γ-(6-甲氧基-2-羧基-1,2,3,4-四氫化萘-1-)丁酸。 2.由1-γ-(6-甲氧基-2-甲氧羰基-1,2,3,4-四氫化萘-1-)丁酸甲酯用Dieck-mann反應及甲基化後,得到d-1-酮-2-甲基-2-甲氧羰基-7-甲氧基-1,2,3,4,9,10,11,12-八氫化菲的非對映體混合物。由d-γ-(6-甲氧基-2-甲氧羰基-1,2,3,4-四氫化萘-1-)丁酸甲酯用Dieckmann反...

1.用Cr_2O_3精製過的乙酸爲溶劑,5% Pd-C爲催化劑,γ-(6-甲氧基-2-羧基-3,4-二氫化萘-1-)丁酸很容易還原爲γ(6-甲氧基-2-羧基-1,2,3,4-四氫化萘-1-)丁酸。由此反應,祇得到一個非對映體爲主要產品。將此非對映體在純甲醇溶液內與馬錢子鹼化合,得到兩部分溶解度不同的鹽。溶解度較小的鹽結晶析出。此部分爲l-γ-(6-甲氧基-2-羧基-1,2,3,4-四氫化萘-1-)丁酸-馬錢子鹼鹽。由此鹽得到 l-γ(6-甲氧基-2-羧基-1,2,3,4-四氫化萘-1-)丁酸。將溶劑除去後得到的剩餘物爲d-γ-(6-甲氧基-2-羧基-1,2,3,4-四氫化萘-1-)丁酸馬錢子鹼鹽。由此部分得到d-γ-(6-甲氧基-2-羧基-1,2,3,4-四氫化萘-1-)丁酸。 2.由1-γ-(6-甲氧基-2-甲氧羰基-1,2,3,4-四氫化萘-1-)丁酸甲酯用Dieck-mann反應及甲基化後,得到d-1-酮-2-甲基-2-甲氧羰基-7-甲氧基-1,2,3,4,9,10,11,12-八氫化菲的非對映體混合物。由d-γ-(6-甲氧基-2-甲氧羰基-1,2,3,4-四氫化萘-1-)丁酸甲酯用Dieckmann反應及甲基化後,得到1-1-酮-2-甲基-2-甲氧羰基-7-甲氧基-1,2,3,4,9,10,11,12-八氫化菲的非對映體混合物。由每一組非對映體混合物,我們現在祇分離了在丙酮-石油醚混合溶劑中溶解度最小的那部分結晶體。 3.由d-1-酮-2-甲基-2-甲氧羰基-7-甲氧基-1,2,3,4,9,10,11,12-八氫化菲及溴代乙酸甲酯,用Reformatsky反應,得到d-1-羥基-2-甲基-2-甲氧羰基-7-甲氧基-1,2,3,4,9,10,11,12-八氫化菲-1-乙酸甲酯。由l-1-酮-2-甲基-2-甲氧羰基-7-甲氧基-1,2,3,4,9,10,11,12-八氫化菲及溴代乙酸甲酯,用Reformatsky反應,得到l-1-羥基-2-甲基-2-甲氧羰基-7-甲氧基-1,2,3,4,9,10,11,12-八氫化菲-1-乙酸甲酯。

The phenomenon that a pyrometric cone does not bend over at its own soften-

我们研究中温系窑用锥(пК123—146)产生冻结现象的条件、原因及不冻结锥应有的化学矿物组成,指出该系锥的冻结是由于锥体中的液相在适当的条件下析出晶体所致。等轴晶系方石英的析晶引起ПК123—130号锥发生冻结;而ПК132—146各号锥冻结的原因则可能是由于析出莫来石。Na_2O,K_2O含量对冻结有决定性的影响。ПК130—123各号锥应用钾长石,НК132—146各号锥应用钢长石可以制得不会冻结的该系窑用锥。还有在研究MgO对冻结的作用时证明以菱苦土作为MgO的原料对解决窑用锥的冻结问题是有害而无益的。

 
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