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The material presented here is a synopsis of the Ph.D thesis of the author, cf.
      
These derivatives exhibited in vitro stability in buffers of pH 2.0 and 7.4 for 6 h and were readily hydrolyzed by human plasma esterases to liberate the parent drug.
      
Crossing time and renewal numbers of two PH-renewal processes
      
This paper considers how to find some joint distributions and their marginal distributions of crossing time and renewal numbers related to two PH-renewal processes by constructing an absorbing Markov process.
      
Effects of concentration, pH value, and flow rate of naringin extract on the adsorption of naringin by X-5 resin were studied.
      
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A.The Soils Since the goological formation of this mountainous area is quite uniform,a vertical distribution of soils is obviously observed. At the top of the mountain with an elevation of 8,500 feet,the podzolic soil is found. The process of podzolization is clearly shown by the translocation of clays,organic matter, and active aluminum from an upper to lower layer.The gray brown podzolic soil is distributed in areas ranging from 7,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation.It is developed under forest and has a...

A.The Soils Since the goological formation of this mountainous area is quite uniform,a vertical distribution of soils is obviously observed. At the top of the mountain with an elevation of 8,500 feet,the podzolic soil is found. The process of podzolization is clearly shown by the translocation of clays,organic matter, and active aluminum from an upper to lower layer.The gray brown podzolic soil is distributed in areas ranging from 7,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation.It is developed under forest and has a surface covering of leaf litter and a surface soil with high content of organic matter.In places at an elevatin from 3,900 to 7,000 feet the yellow podzolic soil is dominant.At an elevation below 3,000 foot the red podzolic soil and the sketetal soil are fonnd. The analytical data of the soils of this area may be summarized as follows: 1.pH values of the soils:In the whole area,since the parent rock (gneiss) is poor in basic constituents,soils are all acid in reaction.The pH of the different horizons of the soils ranges from 4.0 to 5.5.The A_0 and A_1 horizons are usually less acid than B horizon,the A and B horizons are much more acid than the parent rock.This shows the leaching process of the soils under such a humid atmosphere. 2.Organic Matter of the soils:The organic matter content of the soils in this area is greatlg influenced by the kind of the vegetation cover.At an elevation of 8,500 feet, the soil developed under forest has 38.92% of organic matter in the A_1,while that under grass has only 11.08% of organic matter in the corresponding horizon.However as the vegetation cover is constant,the dopth of the A_1 and its organic matter content are evidently affected by the elevation.At an elevation of 3,000 feet,the A_1 horizon of the red podzolic soil is only 1 cm.in depth,and it has 3.37% of organic matter.At an elevation of 8,500 feet,howerver,the A_1 horizon of the podzolic soil is 7 cm.in depth, and it has 11.08% of organic matter.In addition,deposition of organic matter in the B horizon is clearly found in the podzolic soil,but it has not been seen in soils found at lower elevation. 3.Active aluminum of the soils:All the soils in this area are high in active aluminum. They contain from 20 to 16 p.p.m.of active aluminum.The content of active aluminum in the different horizons of the same profile has a very close relationship with the pH values of the corresponding horizon.The less acid the reaction the smaller is the amount of acitve aluminum.The active aluminum of the soil is usually higher in amount than that of the parent rock from which the soil is derived. 4.Available calcium magnesium,and potassium of the soils:All the soils are general- ly low in available calcium,magnesium,and potassium.The comparatively high content of these elements in the A horizon is derived from the leaves of the vegetation which are grown on that soil. 5.Available phosphorus of the soils:All the soils of this area are low in available phosphorus. 6.Available nitrate:All soils in this area are very low in nitrate. B.The Vegetation 1.The plants growing on soils of this area are most calcifuge species which are acid- loving (Vaughan and Wishe,1937).As far as the chemical analysis of the soil is concer- ned,those species may be assumed as not only acid-loving,buy also active aluminum- loving (Hutchinson,1943). 2.The distribution of the calcifuge plants In this area is apparently affected by the local climate in terms of elevation.Some of them (temperate plants) are confined to high elevation,others(tropical plants) being limited to low elevation,Two groups of the plants may be given as follows.Many of them are of the same species as those found in southwestern China (Hou,1944). (a) Plants mainly ocurring in areas at elevations from 7,000 to 8,500 foot (temperate plants): Pteridophyta: Destaedtia Scabra (Wall.) Moore Diranopteris linearis Under. Hicrioptris glauea Under. Hymenophyllum crispatum Wall. Hymenophyllum exsertum Wall. Lidsaya cultrata Sw. Lycopodium clavatum L. Plagiogyria pyphylla (Kunze) Mett. Pteridium aquilinum Wightianum Trym Pteris aspericaulis Wall. Flowering Plants: Castanopsis tribuloides A.DC. Lindera pulcherrima Bth. Osbeckia crinata Bth. Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Rhododendron grande Wight Pieris formosana D.Don Vaccinium refersceda HK. Vaccinium serrasum Wight (b) Plants mainly ocurring in areas at elevation from 1,000 to 3,000 feet (tropical plants): Pteridophyta: Adiantum philippense L. Blechnum orientale L. Aglaoorpha coronaus Copel Lycopodium cernum L. Nephrolepsis cordifolia Presl Tectaria spp. Polypodium ucidum Roxb. Flowering plants: Oxyspora paniculate DC. Themeda arundinacea Ridl.

1945年10月中旬,作者留印三月另一周,曾作三次野外调查,计包括印缅边区、恒河平原及喜马拉雅山东南麓等三区,茲先将大吉岭区调查结果,草成此文。调查区域大吉岭位于喜马拉雅山东南麓,在我国西藏边境,全区是山地,海拔自1000到9000尺不等,主为酸性的片麻岩地层,在拔海6500尺地点,年平均气温为56.3℉.,年雨量为122寸。土壤灰壤——灰棕壤组合:在拔海8500尺左右的山顶,灰壤见于草地上,而灰棕壤则发育在森林之下。灰棕壤——灰化黄壤组合:在拔海7000—8000尺地带,森林下仍是灰棕壤,而草地上则为灰化黄壤。灰化黄壤——粗骨土组合:在拔海1000—3000尺地带,片麻岩生成灰化红壤,酸性砂岩生成砾质土。全区土壤特征可归纳如下: (1)土壤 pH 值:全区因土壤母质为酸性片麻岩,各类土壤剖面亦为酸性反应;pH 值约自4.0至5.5。A_1层之 pH 值恒较 B 层为大,而土壤剖面内之 A 层及 B 层均较母岩之酸度为高。 (2)土壤有机质:从土壤有机质分析结果观之,显示植物种类对于土壤有机质之含量高低,有密切的关系,在拔海8500尺之地带,发育于森林下的灰棕壤,表土含有机质38.92%,而同处草类和蕨类植物...

1945年10月中旬,作者留印三月另一周,曾作三次野外调查,计包括印缅边区、恒河平原及喜马拉雅山东南麓等三区,茲先将大吉岭区调查结果,草成此文。调查区域大吉岭位于喜马拉雅山东南麓,在我国西藏边境,全区是山地,海拔自1000到9000尺不等,主为酸性的片麻岩地层,在拔海6500尺地点,年平均气温为56.3℉.,年雨量为122寸。土壤灰壤——灰棕壤组合:在拔海8500尺左右的山顶,灰壤见于草地上,而灰棕壤则发育在森林之下。灰棕壤——灰化黄壤组合:在拔海7000—8000尺地带,森林下仍是灰棕壤,而草地上则为灰化黄壤。灰化黄壤——粗骨土组合:在拔海1000—3000尺地带,片麻岩生成灰化红壤,酸性砂岩生成砾质土。全区土壤特征可归纳如下: (1)土壤 pH 值:全区因土壤母质为酸性片麻岩,各类土壤剖面亦为酸性反应;pH 值约自4.0至5.5。A_1层之 pH 值恒较 B 层为大,而土壤剖面内之 A 层及 B 层均较母岩之酸度为高。 (2)土壤有机质:从土壤有机质分析结果观之,显示植物种类对于土壤有机质之含量高低,有密切的关系,在拔海8500尺之地带,发育于森林下的灰棕壤,表土含有机质38.92%,而同处草类和蕨类植物发育下的灰壤的表土,仅含有机质11.08%,但在相同的植物环境下,拔海高度或局部气候,也是支配土壤有机质含量的重要因素,例如在拔海3000尺地带,长有草类的灰化红壤,仅有极薄之有机质层,该层有机质含量为3.37%,而在拔海8500尺地带,长有草类的灰壤,则有较厚层有机质,其含量为11.08%。 (3)可溶性铝质:全区土壤含有高量可溶性铝,大约自20至160 p.p.m.,其含量与 pH 值高低相关,土壤 pH 值愈酸,可溶性铝含量就愈高。 (4)可溶性钙镁及钾质:全区土壤之可溶性钙,镁及钾等之含量均较低,但就同一土壤剖面而言,富于有机质的 A。或 A_1层的钙镁和钾质,常较 B 层为高,此点显示此等成份是来自植物遗体,亦即指示土壤中有机质与肥力之关系。 (5)全区土壤有效磷含量均甚低。 (6)全区土壤硝酸态氮之含量均极低,并有下淋现象。植物本文所论植物,仅以作者所采集而经各专家鉴定为限,其中以蕨类植物为主。本区的土壤都是酸性反应,所见的植物是以嫌钙性者为主,这些嫌钙性植物与拔海高度的关系很显著,兹将常见的植物种类,叙述如下: (一)主分布于拔海7000—8500尺地带的植物: 蕨类植物 Dennstaedtia scabra(Wall.)Moore Dicranopteris linearis Under. Hicriopteris glauca Under. Hymenophyllum crispatum Wall. Hymenophyllum exsertum Wall. Lindsaya cultrata Sw. Lycopodium clavatum L. Plagiogyria pycniphylla(Kunze)Mett. Pteridium aquilinum Wightianum Trym. Pteris aspericaulis Wall.种子植物 Castanopsis tribuloides A.DC. Lindera pulcherrima Bth. Osbeckia crinata Bth. Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Rhododendron grande Wight Pieris formosana D.Don Vaccinium referesceda HK. Vaccinium Serrasm Wight(二)主分布于1000—3000尺地带的植物: 蕨类植物Adiantum philippense L.Blechnum orientale L.Aglaomorpha coron(?)us copelLycopodium cernuum L.Nephrolepsis cordifolia PresslTectaria spp.Polypodium lucidum Roxb.种子植物Oxysoira paniculata DC.Themedra arundinacea Ridl.

Von Knorre first suggested the use of benzidine and o-tolidine for the determination of tungsten. With the latter reagent, he succeeded also in separat- ing tungstate from phosphate. Later on, o-dianisidine and vanillylidene benzidine have been proposed as precipitants for tungstate. The optimum pH ranges for the quantitative precipitation of tungstate by means of these precipitants and tetraminodiphenyl, which have not yet been found in the literature, are: benzidine pH: 2.0-5.5 o-tolidine 2.9-4.7...

Von Knorre first suggested the use of benzidine and o-tolidine for the determination of tungsten. With the latter reagent, he succeeded also in separat- ing tungstate from phosphate. Later on, o-dianisidine and vanillylidene benzidine have been proposed as precipitants for tungstate. The optimum pH ranges for the quantitative precipitation of tungstate by means of these precipitants and tetraminodiphenyl, which have not yet been found in the literature, are: benzidine pH: 2.0-5.5 o-tolidine 2.9-4.7 o-dianisidine 2.0-4.1 vanillylidene benzidine 1.7-3.9 tetraminodiphenyl 1.7-4.8 The effect of introducing various groups into the benzidine molecule upon the tungsten precipitating property is not profound. The relation between quantitative precipitation of tungstate with benzidine and the product of concentrations of both constituents before precipitation Was studied. It is found that quantitative precipitation of tungstate ions Can be realized only when the product of concentrations of reactants before precipitation is equal to or greater than 0.8 × 10~(-5), and the moles of benzidine added must be at least equal to that of tungstate. The gravimetlic determination of tungsten by means of o-tolidine may be applied to samples containing as low as 10 mg of rungsten trioxide in 200 ml solution, if an absolute error of 0. 5 mg can be tolelxted. For larger quantities of tungsten present in sample, the absolute errors amount to only 0.1-0.2 mg. Tetraminodiphenyl may be used as a tungsten precipitant, but no advantage over benzidine Wan found in our present studies.

1.用二胺聯苯及其數種衍生物沉澱鎢酸根時,其適宜的pH範圍如下:[4,4′]二胺聯苯 pH:2.0-5.5[3,3′]二甲基[4,4′]二胺聯苯 2.9-4.7[3,3′]二甲氧基[4,4′]二胺聯苯 2.0-4.1[4]對胺聯苯氮甲烯[2]甲苯酚 1.7-3.9[3,4,3′,4′]四胺聯苯 1.7-4.8 2.用[4,4′]二胺聯苯作沉澱劑時,二胺聯苯和鎢酸根在沉澱前的濃度之乘積與後者沉澱完全與否的關係,曾加研究。 3.用[3,3′]二甲基[4,4′]二胺聯苯作沉澱劑時,能测定低至10毫克的三氧化鎢。

This communication reports the results of a study of the gravimetric deter- mination of lead as normal phosphate, known as Vortmann and Bader method, which has been recently examined by Hubicki and Rys. According to our findings, tartaric acid should be added only when antimony is present. With the addition of tarearic acid unusual large excess of precipitant as suggested by Vortinann and Bader is required for complete precipitation. The suitable pH range for the precipitation of tertiary lead phosphate...

This communication reports the results of a study of the gravimetric deter- mination of lead as normal phosphate, known as Vortmann and Bader method, which has been recently examined by Hubicki and Rys. According to our findings, tartaric acid should be added only when antimony is present. With the addition of tarearic acid unusual large excess of precipitant as suggested by Vortinann and Bader is required for complete precipitation. The suitable pH range for the precipitation of tertiary lead phosphate is 6.5 to 10. Below pH 6.5, the precipitation will be incomplete, owing apparently to the formation of acid phosphate(s). Beyond pH 10, no experiment has been made, because no advantage is gained by working in such alkaline media. The concentration of the precipitant in sdlution after reaction should be within 0.00085-0.0033 molar in order to obtain good results. The precipitates may be ignited at any temperature from 650℃ up to at least 900℃. The practice of drying the pre- cipitates at 130℃ to constant weight suggested by Hubicki and Rys should be discarded, since the precipitates still contain noticeable amounts of water after drying to constant weight at that temperature. It is preferred to use the method of precipitation from homogeneous solution. With this technique in practice dense, crystalline and easily filterable precipitates are obtained; and small quantity of lead, as low as 5 mg, may be determined satisfactorily. The effect of presence of some alkali and ammonium salts has also-been studied.

本文報告用磷酸根測定鉛重量法的各種適宜條件。溶液的pH值應在6.5至10之間。過剩沉澱劑在溶液中的濃度應為0.00085——0.0033M。沉澱應在650℃-900℃間灼燒之;如在130℃乾燥,則沉澱內的水份不能完全驅盡。均勻沉澱可改善沉澱的性質,並可测定少至5毫克的鉛。如溶液中無銻,則不必加酒石酸。

 
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