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fluctuation
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  涨落
     the law of fluctuation, that is, the different forms of random micro—fluctuation happens in the system of social and cultural psychology, when a certain micro—fluctuation is enlarged by positive feedback, exceed the critical point, form hyper—fluctuation and lead to sudden change;
     涨落突变规律,即社会文化心态系统内部经常随机发生不同形式的微观涨落,当某种微观涨落被正反馈作用放大超过临界点,形成巨涨落,随之引发突变;
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  “— fluctuation”译为未确定词的双语例句
     REFLECTION, TRANSMISSION AND DIFFRACTION——FLUCTUATION OF STEADY CURRENT FIELD
     稳定电流场的反射、透射、衍射——波动性
短句来源
     RESEARCH OF ON-LINE FLOCCULATION CONTROL METHOD FOR HIGH TURBIDITY WATER BY ONE PARAMETER—FLUCTUATION OF TRANSMITTED LIGHT INTENSITY
     高浊度水透光率脉动单因子絮凝投药控制方法研究
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  相似匹配句对
     Fluctuation of forest community.
     森林群落波动的探讨
短句来源
     FLUCTUATION AND EVOLUTION OF SYSTEMS
     涨落与系统的进化——兼析辩证法关于进化内部根据的思想
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The X ray diffraction of liquid potassium has been studied with MoKa radiation using the double filter differential method. The result of analyzing the intensity curve shows that the density fluctuation curve of liquid potassium resembles very much that of liquid sodium. Both curves have two maxima at r(2W/eN)-1/3 = 0.93 and 1.65 and two

著者应用鉏之Ka射线以定液态钾之构造,得液态钾之构造与液态钠者同於是知凡结晶构造同属一类之单原子物质液态构造亦同属一类而液钾态及钠之构造皆可称曰同属含心立方类(Body-centered cubic type),蓋此类之构造与固态之含心立方晶系可证明具有密切关系也

This is a critical exposition and analysis of the modern developments in the theory of turbulent motion of an incompressible fluid. We begin with the review of the mixture length theories based upon Reynolds' equations of mean motion. Secondly, we analyze the principal contributions to the theory of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Thirdly, we discuss the treatment of the general turbulent shear flow by means of Reynolds' equations of mean motion and the dynamical equations of velocity correlations which are...

This is a critical exposition and analysis of the modern developments in the theory of turbulent motion of an incompressible fluid. We begin with the review of the mixture length theories based upon Reynolds' equations of mean motion. Secondly, we analyze the principal contributions to the theory of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Thirdly, we discuss the treatment of the general turbulent shear flow by means of Reynolds' equations of mean motion and the dynamical equations of velocity correlations which are derived from the equations of turbulent velocity fluctuation. We also point out at the same time that although this method yields theoretical results which are in better agreement with experiment than the results of the mixture length theories and furthermore the theory also leads to the theoretical distributions ot the mean squares of velocity fluctuation, on account of the presence of the higher order velocity correlations in the equations, it continuously leads to unclosed systems of differential equations and hence meets difficulties which are difficult to overcome. Therefore, based upon the above retrospect of the developments of the theory of turbulence and the recent work on the vorticity structure of the homogeneous isotropic turbulence in its final period of decay, we finally propose a new approach to the turbulence problem: The basic component motion of turbulence is vortex motion due to the action of viscosity of the fluid. The dynamical equations which govern the vortex motion of turbulence are Reynolds' equations of mean motion and the equations of velocity fluctuation derived from the Navier-Stokes equations by the averaging process. We also emphasize the importance of Reynolds' recognition that the turbulent motion of a fluid can be separated into the mean motion and fluctuation. The future theoretical investigation is to look for the vortex motions which are solutions of these two sets of equations. In order to make the solutions of the problem unique and comparable with experimental measurements, they should also satisfy statistical conditions on the distribution of vortices analogous to Kol-mogoroffs condition in his statistical theory of locally isotropic turbulence at high Reynolds number turbulent flows.

这篇论文的内容是关於不可压缩流体的湍流理论近代发展的综合性介绍舆分析。我们首先评述了根据Reynolds的平均运动方程所建立的混合长度理论。其次,分析关於均匀各向同性湍流的主要理论工作。第三,讨论了运用Reynolds的平均运动方程和根据速度涨落方程求得的速度关联函数的动力学方程来处理具有Reynolds剪应力的普通湍流运动问题。同时说明这个方法虽然能够给出比混合长度理论舆实验较为接近的理论结果并能提出速度涨落平方平均值的理论分布,但是由於在求出的速度关联的动力学方程中出现高次元的速度关联,它继续地导致不封闭的微分方程组因而遇到不易克服的困难。因此,从以上湍流理论发展的回顾和最近关於均匀各向同性湍流在后期衰变运动的涡性结构工作,我们在最后提出了对今后湍流理论研究工作的新看法:湍流运动的基本组成部分是流体粘性作用所引起的涡旋运动;这个涡旋运动的动力学根据是用平均的方法后Navier-Stokes方程所导出的Reyonlds的平均运动方程典带度涨落方程。我们并着重说明Reynolds认识到湍流运动可分作平均运动与涨落运动的重要性。今后的理论工作则在於求这两组动力学方程的涡旋运动解,而这种类型的解并须满足像在高Re...

这篇论文的内容是关於不可压缩流体的湍流理论近代发展的综合性介绍舆分析。我们首先评述了根据Reynolds的平均运动方程所建立的混合长度理论。其次,分析关於均匀各向同性湍流的主要理论工作。第三,讨论了运用Reynolds的平均运动方程和根据速度涨落方程求得的速度关联函数的动力学方程来处理具有Reynolds剪应力的普通湍流运动问题。同时说明这个方法虽然能够给出比混合长度理论舆实验较为接近的理论结果并能提出速度涨落平方平均值的理论分布,但是由於在求出的速度关联的动力学方程中出现高次元的速度关联,它继续地导致不封闭的微分方程组因而遇到不易克服的困难。因此,从以上湍流理论发展的回顾和最近关於均匀各向同性湍流在后期衰变运动的涡性结构工作,我们在最后提出了对今后湍流理论研究工作的新看法:湍流运动的基本组成部分是流体粘性作用所引起的涡旋运动;这个涡旋运动的动力学根据是用平均的方法后Navier-Stokes方程所导出的Reyonlds的平均运动方程典带度涨落方程。我们并着重说明Reynolds认识到湍流运动可分作平均运动与涨落运动的重要性。今后的理论工作则在於求这两组动力学方程的涡旋运动解,而这种类型的解并须满足像在高Reynolds数运动的局部各向同性湍流理论中所提出的统计条件,方能使解满

The intestino-intestinal inhibitory reflex has been studied in conscious dogs provided with two Thiry fistulas.It was observed that: (1)Distention of a segment of intestine by an inflated balloon at a pressure of 5-10 mm Hg regularly produced rhythmic contractions of the same segment without obvious change of tone,but if the intra-intestinal pressure was raised to about 25 mm Hg,the movement became peristaltic, with great fluctuation of tone and rhythmic contraction. (2)A greater increase of intra-intestinal...

The intestino-intestinal inhibitory reflex has been studied in conscious dogs provided with two Thiry fistulas.It was observed that: (1)Distention of a segment of intestine by an inflated balloon at a pressure of 5-10 mm Hg regularly produced rhythmic contractions of the same segment without obvious change of tone,but if the intra-intestinal pressure was raised to about 25 mm Hg,the movement became peristaltic, with great fluctuation of tone and rhythmic contraction. (2)A greater increase of intra-intestinal pressure of one segment caused reflex inhibition of both segments.Very occasionally,however,re- flex augmentation occurred. (3)The threshold of pressure stimulus for reflex inhibition decreased on repeated stimulation,so that finally it might reach a value of as low as 20-30 mm Hg.On the other hand the intensity of inhibition increased on repetition. (4)The intestinal motility and its reflex change varied with the state of cortical activity of the animal.The intestinal movements diminished in amplitude when the dog became sleepy on the stand,but regained their size once the animal was aroused.On the other hand,when the dog showed uneasiness and excitement on the stand,intestino-intestinal inhibitory re- flex was greatly depressed. (5)The sound of metronome or electric bell was used in combination with the pressure stimulus.At the very beginning the unconditioned re- flex was inhibited by the extraneous stimulus,which is considered as a case of external inhibition.The external inhibition gradually subsided on re- petition and clear-cut conditioned reflex was established after about 40 combinations.The conditioned reflex could be easily extinguished and re- established,just as in the case of other reflex systems.

在狗的慢性实验中,以5—10毫米水银柱的压力扩张一段小肠时,本段肠发生整齐的节律性收缩活动,如压力在25毫米水银柱左右时,则发生阵发性节律收缩及相应的紧张度的变化,更大压力引起广泛的肠抑制反射。重覆刺激可提高感受野的敏感性。大脑皮层对小肠的节律性活动及小肠运动的抑制反射具有影响,睡眠时肠运动减弱,而新异动因对肠抑制反射有外抑制作用,动物在暴燥不安时,不易引起肠抑制反射。在肠—肠抑制反射的基础上,可以节拍器及电铃声建立条件反射,约40次结合后条件反射即可明显出现。在长期间隔后,条件反射消退,但很容易重新建立起来。

 
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