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conversion
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     On Conversion
     论转化构词法
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     conversion of flavanones.
     黄烷酮的转化.
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  conversion
But there appeared to be species difference in arteether metabolism, highest conversion being recorded with humans followed by rats and monkeys.
      
Aldose reductase (AR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glucose to sorbitol, which is in turn converted to fructose by sorbitol dehydrogenase.
      
The conversion of CNB could reach 99.9%, and the dechlorination of chloroaniline (CAN) was less than 1.9% when catalyzed by Pt-Sn-B/CNTs and more than 8.0% when catalyzed by common hydrogenation catalysts.
      
Results show that HY is an efficient catalyst for the acetalization and ketalization with high conversion and selectivity in mild conditions.
      
Under these conditions, the conversion and selectivity were over 50% and 97%, respectively.
      
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In this paper a modified method is recommended for the determination of rubber hydrocarbon present in kok-saghyz rubber by means of bromination.This method is rapid and accurate.A conversion factor of 0.298 is obtained for con- verting rubber bromide content to rubber hydrocarbon content for kok-saghyz rubber.The conversion factor agrees well with the theoretical value.

本文报告了用重量溴化法测定青橡胶草生胶中橡胶烃的各种适宜条件,并求得了由溴化橡胶换算为橡胶烃的换算因数为0.298。三氯甲烷可用来防止溴化橡胶的结膜,同时并可防止溴与橡胶的置换反应。每10毫升橡胶液应加溴化溶液2毫升。溴化反应可在常温进行。三氯醋酸可使橡胶容易溶解,对分析结果无显著影响,用或不用均可。溴化法无论在分析时间上和精确度上,均较直接抽提法和间接测定法为优。

A sample of butadiene-styrene copolymer obtained from emulsion polymerization at 50℃ with 80% conversion has been doubly fractionated into fractions by adding successive amounts of methanol at 25℃ into a 1% solution of the polymer in benzene. From the weight and intrinsic viscosity of each fraction obtained, an integral weight distribution curve was drawn according to the method of Schulz and Dinlinger. The differential distribution curve exhibits a rather sharp maximum around the molecular weight of 50,000,...

A sample of butadiene-styrene copolymer obtained from emulsion polymerization at 50℃ with 80% conversion has been doubly fractionated into fractions by adding successive amounts of methanol at 25℃ into a 1% solution of the polymer in benzene. From the weight and intrinsic viscosity of each fraction obtained, an integral weight distribution curve was drawn according to the method of Schulz and Dinlinger. The differential distribution curve exhibits a rather sharp maximum around the molecular weight of 50,000, in agreement with many published results including one obtained from ultracentrifuge data. The fractions with [η]>3, i.e., M>500,000 took a couple of weeks to go into solution, indicating an appreciable degree of branching or slight cross-linking of the macromolecules. The viscosity data of the fractions in toluene at 30℃ show that the values of k' snd β of the equations Inη_r/C = [η] - [β] [η]~2C η_(sρ)/C = [η] + k' [η]~2C are constant, k'=0.36, being independent of molecular weight and k' + β = 1/2 for fractions with [η]>3. For fractions with [η]>3, k'>0.36, in conformity with the findings of Cragg and others that k' increases rapidly with the presence of branching or cross-linking. Besides, we found that for these fractions, k'+β>1/2, which relationship can also be used for the detection of branching in butadiene-styrene copolymer.

本文報告測定本所合成研究室用乳液聚合在50°時所製備的丁苯橡膠分子量分佈的結果。我們在1%苯溶液中,加入甲醇作沉澱劑經分級沉澱後,用粘度法測定各級份的分子量。所得分子量分佈曲線,在分子量等於50,000處有一個明顯的高峯,與前人的結果相符合。特性粘數[η]>3的級份,從它們的溶解度和在甲苯溶液中的粘度數據,我們認為有顯著的支鏈和交聯的存在,約佔試樣的25%。甲苯溶液的粘度數據指示在[η]<3時,k′=0.36,與分子量無關,而且k′+β=1/2;當[η]>3時,k′值顯著地增大,而且k′+β>1/2。 這些差異的大小,我們認為可以看作丁苯橡膠分子支鏈或交聯程度的一種量度。 從本實驗所得的丁苯橡膠的分子量分佈曲線,我們建議同時用■和■來做橡膠的品質指示。

There was described a condition for the action of hydrogen peroxide on some mercapto-pyrimidines. 2-Ethylmercapto-pyrimidines [Ⅰ, X=Cl, OCH_3, OC_2H_5, NH_2, NHCH_3 or N(C_2H_5)_2] reacted with hydrogen peroxide in ethanol to form 2-hydroxy-pyrimidines [Ⅱ, X=Cl, OCH_3, OC_2H_5, NH_2, NHCH_3 or N(C_2H_5)_2]. The reaction is represented as follows: In case that X in formula Ⅰ was C_2H_5S, it was possible to prepare uracil (Ⅱ, X=OH).By means of the above mentioned new reaction, the following pyrimidine derivatives...

There was described a condition for the action of hydrogen peroxide on some mercapto-pyrimidines. 2-Ethylmercapto-pyrimidines [Ⅰ, X=Cl, OCH_3, OC_2H_5, NH_2, NHCH_3 or N(C_2H_5)_2] reacted with hydrogen peroxide in ethanol to form 2-hydroxy-pyrimidines [Ⅱ, X=Cl, OCH_3, OC_2H_5, NH_2, NHCH_3 or N(C_2H_5)_2]. The reaction is represented as follows: In case that X in formula Ⅰ was C_2H_5S, it was possible to prepare uracil (Ⅱ, X=OH).By means of the above mentioned new reaction, the following pyrimidine derivatives were prepared:2-Hydroxy-4-X-pyrimidine (Compound Ⅱ)Nature of X Empirical Formula m.p.CI C_4H_3ON_2Cl 152-154°OCH_3 C_5H_6O_2N_2 132-134°OC_2H_5 C_6H_8O_2N_2 168-170°OH C_4H_4O_2N_2 320°(with becomposition)NH_2 C_4H_5ON_3 290-292°(with decomposition; needles transformed to cubes at 190°)X=NHCH_3 C_5H_7ON_3 268°X=N(C_2H_5)_2 C_8H_(13)ON_3 280-281°The mechanism of the action of hydrogen peroxide on 2-ethylmercapto-4-chloro-pyrimidine was considered as follows: 2-Ethylmercapto-4-chloro-pyrimidine reacted with hydrogen peroxide to form 2-ethylsulphonyl-4-chloro-pyrimidine, which was then further oxidized by hydrogen peroxide to yield 2-hydroxy-4-chloro-pyrimidine and ethyl sulphonic acid. For supporting this interpretation, the authors attempted to oxidize with hydrogen peroxide 2-ethylsulphonyl-4-chloropyrimidine, which was prepared by Sprague and Johnson's method.2-Ethylmercapto-6-alkoxy-pyrimidine (Ⅰ, X=OCH_3 or OC_2H_5) reacted with hydrogen peroxide in ethanol to form 2-hydroxy-4-alkoxy-pyrimidine (Ⅱ, X=OCH_3 or OC_2H_5) in a lower yield and uracil in a higher yield. This phenomenon was interpreted as follows: 2-ethylmercapto-6-alkoxy-pyrimidine (Ⅰ, X= OCH_3 or OC_2H_5) reacted with hydrogen peroxide to form 2-hydroxy-4-alkoxy-pyrimidine (Ⅱ, X=OCH_3 or OC_2H_5) and ethyl sulphonic acid, the latter acting as a catalyst, which would accelerate the conversion of 2-hydroxy-4-alkoxy-pyrimidine (Ⅱ,X=OCH_3 or OC_2H_5) into uracil (Ⅱ, X=OH). The change is represented as follows:2-Hydroxy-4-chloro-pyrimidine was reduced to 2-hydroxy-pyrimidine, m.p. 178-180° or m.p. 180-182°, by (a) the action of zinc dust in ethanol in presence of ammonium hydroxide and (b) by the catalytic reduction in presence of palladium-charcoal in ethanol.

1.2-乙硫醇基嘧啶[Ⅲ,X=Cl,OCH_3,OC_2H_5,NH_2,NHCH_3或N(C_2H_5)_2]与過氧化氫在乙醇溶液中作用,形成2-羥基嘧啶[Ⅳ,X=Cl,OCH_3,OC_2H_5,NH_2, NHCH_3或N(C_2H_5)_2]。 2.以過氧化氫氧化2-乙硫醇基+氯代嘧啶形成2-羥基-4-氯代嘧啶的反應歷程,作者建議如下:首先過氧化氫氧化2-乙硫醇基-4-氯代嘧啶為2-乙磺醯基-4-氯代嘧啶,再以過氧化氫進一步氧化得到2-羥基-4-氯代嘧啶。 3.2-乙硫醇基-4-烷氧基嘧啶与過氧化氫作用,形成產量較低的2-羥基-4-烷氧基嘧啶,和產量較高的2,4-羥基嘧啶。 4.2-羥基-4-氯代嘧啶(1)在乙醇溶液中,有氫氧化銨存在下和鋅粉作用及(2)在乙醇溶液中,以鈀-碳為催化劑,進行催速氫化,均還原為2-羥基嘧啶。

 
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