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irrigation
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  相似匹配句对
     irrigation;
     灌水、地下水位埋深;
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     On the technology of irrigation of rice
     论水稻生产的灌溉技术
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     (5) Irrigation of the antenior chamber.
     (5)前房冲洗。
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     (4)consider the necessity for irrigation;
     (4)播前灌溉的需要性;
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  irrigation
Characteristics of root growth in a fast-growing and high-yield poplar plantation under subsurface drip-irrigation
      
'I-214') were studied under two contrasting conditions, subsurface drip-irrigation (SDI) and normal irrigation (CK), on the sandy soil of Chaobai River, Beijing.
      
The Dabieshan District is a main ecological area with a function of soil and water conservation where seven large reservoirs and irrigation systems of the Pishihang are distributed.
      
Spraying wheat seedlings with these extracts, in contrast to the irrigation of soil, markedly diminished infection in plants with powdery mildew.
      
Since infiltration arises as a result of irrigation or input from atmospheric water, it actually acts in certain seasons of the year and not all year long.
      
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Anthracnose of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) caused by Colletotrichumhibisci Pollacci has been a limiting factor of kenaf production in China.Thedisease was found to be seed-borne,both externally and internally.The efficacyof conventional methods of hot-water treatment against internal mycelium wasfound to vary with lots of seeds tested,and with the moisture content of seedsduring the time of and after presoaking.Complete control of the disease wasobtained by treating the seed at 50℃ for 15-20 minutes after...

Anthracnose of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) caused by Colletotrichumhibisci Pollacci has been a limiting factor of kenaf production in China.Thedisease was found to be seed-borne,both externally and internally.The efficacyof conventional methods of hot-water treatment against internal mycelium wasfound to vary with lots of seeds tested,and with the moisture content of seedsduring the time of and after presoaking.Complete control of the disease wasobtained by treating the seed at 50℃ for 15-20 minutes after presoaking at20℃ for 24 hours.The percentage of seed germination after treatment wasreduced to 70 as compared with 90 in the controls. In addition to hot-water treatment,steeping of seeds in an aqueous solutionof 0.5% Uspulum at 24-26℃ for 24 hours gave very promising results.Theseedlings developed from treated seeds were found to be more vigorous thanthose from the untreated ones,apparently due to the stimulating effect of thefungicide. Aqueous extracts of garlic (Allium satiuwn L.) were tried as seed disinfectant.Steeping naturally infected seeds in a 1-2% aqueous solution of dried garlicpowder at 24-26℃ for 24 hours checked the disease significantly,but the percen-tage of germination of treated seed was also reduced.The addition of glycerol,ethanol to the extract by 2% gave batter results. The fungus in the host debris in the field in Peking and other localities inNorth China were found in most cases to be unviable after 2 winters.Culturalpractices such as field sanitation,deep ploughing and irrigation after harvestwere found to be effective in disease control if clean seeds were used. During growing season,a mixture of.1 part oi phenyl mercury acetate to19 parts of hydrated lime applied as dust after rain gave much better controlof the disease than bordeaux mixture. Many malvaceous species,except Hibiscus sabdariffa L.,were found to beimmune from the disease.Considerable difference in susceptibility was notedamong different varieties of kenaf from various parts of China.The southernvarieties were as a rule more resistant than the northern ones as observed infield tests in Peking.

1.洋麻炭疽病种子消毒处理,由于洋麻的开花特性和內在菌的问題,一般不易达到徹底的目的。2.預浸的温度和时間,对于烫种的影响,实际上是預浸后种子的含水量問題。在一定温度下,延長預浸时間,不仅可以增加种子的含水量,并且可以减少种子间含水量差异的幅度,从而提高烫种的效果。种子在20℃预浸24小时、在50℃烫15—20分钟,效果比其他处理为好。3.有机汞剂浸种和植物杀生素浸种,同样获得了良好的结果。0.5%乌斯普隆水溶液、大蒜干粉1:50倍浸出液在24—26℃浸种24小时,防病效果在90%左右;惟大蒜浸液对于种子的發芽率有一定程度的抑制作用。4.遺留田问洋麻受病組織中的洋麻炭疽病菌,二个冬季后基本上丧失了生活力。秋耕冬灌可以加速病株殘余的腐爛,促进病菌生活力的消失。5.洋麻生長期中撒布赛力散:消石灭(1:19)粉剂,防病的效果优于波尔多液。6.洋麻品种中对于炭疽病表現不同的抗病性。南方型品种较北方型品种抗病。选育适于华北栽培的南方型洋麻品种是解决目前华北和东北洋麻生产问題的一个主要途徑。

On the basis of a series of soil survey made in the Hwaiho Valley(淮河流域),a plan on land classification for this area has been proposed asreferences for making arrangement in establishing irrigation systems,inland utilization,as well as in soil improvement.Three fundamental principles are considered to be important on landclassification,i.e.(1)the practices in soil improvement must be consideredin connection with those in land utilization,(2)the land classificationshould be considered on land utilization...

On the basis of a series of soil survey made in the Hwaiho Valley(淮河流域),a plan on land classification for this area has been proposed asreferences for making arrangement in establishing irrigation systems,inland utilization,as well as in soil improvement.Three fundamental principles are considered to be important on landclassification,i.e.(1)the practices in soil improvement must be consideredin connection with those in land utilization,(2)the land classificationshould be considered on land utilization both of the present day and of thefuture time,and(3)the main factors and criteria adopted for landclassification must be appropriate to the particular regional conditions.The main factors used in land classification of the Hwaiho Valley aresuggested as follows:(1)soil types together with their physical andchemical properties,(2)geomorphological characteristics,(3)depth andchemical composition of ground water,(4)present status and furtherimprovement in drainage and irrigation,(5)present status in land utiliza-tion and estimate on soil productivity,and(6)fundamental problems inthe promotion of soil fertility.According to the factors just mentioned,a system of land classificationhas been proposed for the Hwaiho Valley where the land may be classifiedinto seven main types.

淮河流域土壤改良利用分区的目的是供水利方面选择灌区和初步计划灌溉设施及农业方面确定农业区划和改进农业技术措施的参考。分区的基本原则有三:第一,土壤改良必须与利用规划结合,其次分区应注意综合性、长远性和现实性,第三划区的主要因素和标准必须符合地区的特点。淮河流域土壤改良利用分区的主要参考因素为(1)土壤发生分类和主要理化性质,(2)地貌,(3)地下水的深度、矿化度及化学组成,(4)灌溉排水现状及需要改进的情况,(5)土地利用现状及对生产的评价,(6)提高土壤生产力的关键性问题。

It has been experienced that in Peking immediately after the soil is defrozen in the spring, no trace of soft-rot bacteria can be isolated from the field soil, although this organism can be readily isolated from the undecomposed residues of the Chinese cabbage in the field, if there is any. The soft rot of the Chinese cabbage in cellar develops throughout the storage period. It is therefore convinced that the-primary source of infection of the soft rot of the Chinese cabbage is either from the undecomposed residues...

It has been experienced that in Peking immediately after the soil is defrozen in the spring, no trace of soft-rot bacteria can be isolated from the field soil, although this organism can be readily isolated from the undecomposed residues of the Chinese cabbage in the field, if there is any. The soft rot of the Chinese cabbage in cellar develops throughout the storage period. It is therefore convinced that the-primary source of infection of the soft rot of the Chinese cabbage is either from the undecomposed residues from the field or from the debris in the cabbage cellar. The seed Chinese cabbage from the cellar after overwintering is planted out at the end of march and meanwhile carries the soft rot organisms to the field. Furthermore, a number of insects serves as spreaders. Isolations of a number of insects found either in cabbage cellar or in spring cabbage fields reveal that 76% of Sarcophaga sp., 66.8% of Fannia sp., 4% of Apis mellifera, 40% of Athalia rosae and 30% of Plutella maculipennis are found to carry soft-rot organisms both externally and internally. The results of an field experiment point out that the early diseased cabbage plants in the field serve as centers of infection of the soft-rot disease. The bacteria are disseminated in the field by the irrigation water. However, only those cabbage plants which are wounded at the basal part are liable to the attack. It is therefore suggested that in addition to the control of insect pests in connection with the adequate cultural practice, the thoroughness of eliminating the centers of infection by prompt removal of the diseased plants from the field every time before irrigation must be observed. In the present paper a rapid method for determining the pathogenic soft-rot bacteria from the soil is described.

白菜軟腐細菌Erivinia aroideae不能在田間土壤中越冬,但能在未分解的病菜根和病菜叶中越冬。用病根及病叶等所作的堆肥中不能分离出具有致病力的軟腐細菌。菜窖中的废菜叶为軟腐細菌越冬及繁殖的主要場所之一?杭居陕橛?Sarcophaga sp.)及花蝇(Fannia sp.)传布到田間的感病作物上,另外也可以由蜜蜂(Apis mellifera L.)、叶蜂(Athalia rosae L.)及小菜娥(Plutella maculipennis curtis)等繼續在白菜間传布。此外窖中移出的菜种株上亦带有病原細菌。因此認为菜窖中及田間殘菜根的越冬細菌是軟腐病的初次侵染源。菜畦內发生的早期病株是軟腐細菌的供給者。凡是畦內菜株受伤而有早期病株时全畦发病最重;畦內菜株无伤而无早期病株时发病最輕。在菜株受伤的情况下,早期病株的影响特别显著。灌溉水有在畦內传布病原細菌的能力。建議在防治中結合栽培及防虫必須注意在每次灌水前及早拔除早期病株,以增进防治的效果。

 
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