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     The influence of depth of
     经反复考察整机,并研究模板压缩孔深度的影响。
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     On the “In-Depth-Report”
     浅谈“深度报道”
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  depth
It is well-known that the ring of invariants associated to a non-modular representation of a finite group is Cohen-Macaulay and hence has depth equal to the dimension of the representation.
      
For modular representations the ring of invariants usually fails to be Cohen-Macaulay and computing the depth is often very difficult.
      
In this paper1 we obtain a simple formula for the depth of the ring of invariants for a family of modular representations.
      
Also, the experiments prove that it is feasible to use the method to develop a domain automatic abstracting system, which is valuable for further in-depth study.
      
By studying the core algorithm of a three-dimensional discrete wavelet transform (3-D DWT) in depth, this paper divides it into three one-dimensional discrete wavelet transforms (1-D DWTs).
      
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A.The Soils Since the goological formation of this mountainous area is quite uniform,a vertical distribution of soils is obviously observed. At the top of the mountain with an elevation of 8,500 feet,the podzolic soil is found. The process of podzolization is clearly shown by the translocation of clays,organic matter, and active aluminum from an upper to lower layer.The gray brown podzolic soil is distributed in areas ranging from 7,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation.It is developed under forest and has a...

A.The Soils Since the goological formation of this mountainous area is quite uniform,a vertical distribution of soils is obviously observed. At the top of the mountain with an elevation of 8,500 feet,the podzolic soil is found. The process of podzolization is clearly shown by the translocation of clays,organic matter, and active aluminum from an upper to lower layer.The gray brown podzolic soil is distributed in areas ranging from 7,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation.It is developed under forest and has a surface covering of leaf litter and a surface soil with high content of organic matter.In places at an elevatin from 3,900 to 7,000 feet the yellow podzolic soil is dominant.At an elevation below 3,000 foot the red podzolic soil and the sketetal soil are fonnd. The analytical data of the soils of this area may be summarized as follows: 1.pH values of the soils:In the whole area,since the parent rock (gneiss) is poor in basic constituents,soils are all acid in reaction.The pH of the different horizons of the soils ranges from 4.0 to 5.5.The A_0 and A_1 horizons are usually less acid than B horizon,the A and B horizons are much more acid than the parent rock.This shows the leaching process of the soils under such a humid atmosphere. 2.Organic Matter of the soils:The organic matter content of the soils in this area is greatlg influenced by the kind of the vegetation cover.At an elevation of 8,500 feet, the soil developed under forest has 38.92% of organic matter in the A_1,while that under grass has only 11.08% of organic matter in the corresponding horizon.However as the vegetation cover is constant,the dopth of the A_1 and its organic matter content are evidently affected by the elevation.At an elevation of 3,000 feet,the A_1 horizon of the red podzolic soil is only 1 cm.in depth,and it has 3.37% of organic matter.At an elevation of 8,500 feet,howerver,the A_1 horizon of the podzolic soil is 7 cm.in depth, and it has 11.08% of organic matter.In addition,deposition of organic matter in the B horizon is clearly found in the podzolic soil,but it has not been seen in soils found at lower elevation. 3.Active aluminum of the soils:All the soils in this area are high in active aluminum. They contain from 20 to 16 p.p.m.of active aluminum.The content of active aluminum in the different horizons of the same profile has a very close relationship with the pH values of the corresponding horizon.The less acid the reaction the smaller is the amount of acitve aluminum.The active aluminum of the soil is usually higher in amount than that of the parent rock from which the soil is derived. 4.Available calcium magnesium,and potassium of the soils:All the soils are general- ly low in available calcium,magnesium,and potassium.The comparatively high content of these elements in the A horizon is derived from the leaves of the vegetation which are grown on that soil. 5.Available phosphorus of the soils:All the soils of this area are low in available phosphorus. 6.Available nitrate:All soils in this area are very low in nitrate. B.The Vegetation 1.The plants growing on soils of this area are most calcifuge species which are acid- loving (Vaughan and Wishe,1937).As far as the chemical analysis of the soil is concer- ned,those species may be assumed as not only acid-loving,buy also active aluminum- loving (Hutchinson,1943). 2.The distribution of the calcifuge plants In this area is apparently affected by the local climate in terms of elevation.Some of them (temperate plants) are confined to high elevation,others(tropical plants) being limited to low elevation,Two groups of the plants may be given as follows.Many of them are of the same species as those found in southwestern China (Hou,1944). (a) Plants mainly ocurring in areas at elevations from 7,000 to 8,500 foot (temperate plants): Pteridophyta: Destaedtia Scabra (Wall.) Moore Diranopteris linearis Under. Hicrioptris glauea Under. Hymenophyllum crispatum Wall. Hymenophyllum exsertum Wall. Lidsaya cultrata Sw. Lycopodium clavatum L. Plagiogyria pyphylla (Kunze) Mett. Pteridium aquilinum Wightianum Trym Pteris aspericaulis Wall. Flowering Plants: Castanopsis tribuloides A.DC. Lindera pulcherrima Bth. Osbeckia crinata Bth. Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Rhododendron grande Wight Pieris formosana D.Don Vaccinium refersceda HK. Vaccinium serrasum Wight (b) Plants mainly ocurring in areas at elevation from 1,000 to 3,000 feet (tropical plants): Pteridophyta: Adiantum philippense L. Blechnum orientale L. Aglaoorpha coronaus Copel Lycopodium cernum L. Nephrolepsis cordifolia Presl Tectaria spp. Polypodium ucidum Roxb. Flowering plants: Oxyspora paniculate DC. Themeda arundinacea Ridl.

1945年10月中旬,作者留印三月另一周,曾作三次野外调查,计包括印缅边区、恒河平原及喜马拉雅山东南麓等三区,茲先将大吉岭区调查结果,草成此文。调查区域大吉岭位于喜马拉雅山东南麓,在我国西藏边境,全区是山地,海拔自1000到9000尺不等,主为酸性的片麻岩地层,在拔海6500尺地点,年平均气温为56.3℉.,年雨量为122寸。土壤灰壤——灰棕壤组合:在拔海8500尺左右的山顶,灰壤见于草地上,而灰棕壤则发育在森林之下。灰棕壤——灰化黄壤组合:在拔海7000—8000尺地带,森林下仍是灰棕壤,而草地上则为灰化黄壤。灰化黄壤——粗骨土组合:在拔海1000—3000尺地带,片麻岩生成灰化红壤,酸性砂岩生成砾质土。全区土壤特征可归纳如下: (1)土壤 pH 值:全区因土壤母质为酸性片麻岩,各类土壤剖面亦为酸性反应;pH 值约自4.0至5.5。A_1层之 pH 值恒较 B 层为大,而土壤剖面内之 A 层及 B 层均较母岩之酸度为高。 (2)土壤有机质:从土壤有机质分析结果观之,显示植物种类对于土壤有机质之含量高低,有密切的关系,在拔海8500尺之地带,发育于森林下的灰棕壤,表土含有机质38.92%,而同处草类和蕨类植物...

1945年10月中旬,作者留印三月另一周,曾作三次野外调查,计包括印缅边区、恒河平原及喜马拉雅山东南麓等三区,茲先将大吉岭区调查结果,草成此文。调查区域大吉岭位于喜马拉雅山东南麓,在我国西藏边境,全区是山地,海拔自1000到9000尺不等,主为酸性的片麻岩地层,在拔海6500尺地点,年平均气温为56.3℉.,年雨量为122寸。土壤灰壤——灰棕壤组合:在拔海8500尺左右的山顶,灰壤见于草地上,而灰棕壤则发育在森林之下。灰棕壤——灰化黄壤组合:在拔海7000—8000尺地带,森林下仍是灰棕壤,而草地上则为灰化黄壤。灰化黄壤——粗骨土组合:在拔海1000—3000尺地带,片麻岩生成灰化红壤,酸性砂岩生成砾质土。全区土壤特征可归纳如下: (1)土壤 pH 值:全区因土壤母质为酸性片麻岩,各类土壤剖面亦为酸性反应;pH 值约自4.0至5.5。A_1层之 pH 值恒较 B 层为大,而土壤剖面内之 A 层及 B 层均较母岩之酸度为高。 (2)土壤有机质:从土壤有机质分析结果观之,显示植物种类对于土壤有机质之含量高低,有密切的关系,在拔海8500尺之地带,发育于森林下的灰棕壤,表土含有机质38.92%,而同处草类和蕨类植物发育下的灰壤的表土,仅含有机质11.08%,但在相同的植物环境下,拔海高度或局部气候,也是支配土壤有机质含量的重要因素,例如在拔海3000尺地带,长有草类的灰化红壤,仅有极薄之有机质层,该层有机质含量为3.37%,而在拔海8500尺地带,长有草类的灰壤,则有较厚层有机质,其含量为11.08%。 (3)可溶性铝质:全区土壤含有高量可溶性铝,大约自20至160 p.p.m.,其含量与 pH 值高低相关,土壤 pH 值愈酸,可溶性铝含量就愈高。 (4)可溶性钙镁及钾质:全区土壤之可溶性钙,镁及钾等之含量均较低,但就同一土壤剖面而言,富于有机质的 A。或 A_1层的钙镁和钾质,常较 B 层为高,此点显示此等成份是来自植物遗体,亦即指示土壤中有机质与肥力之关系。 (5)全区土壤有效磷含量均甚低。 (6)全区土壤硝酸态氮之含量均极低,并有下淋现象。植物本文所论植物,仅以作者所采集而经各专家鉴定为限,其中以蕨类植物为主。本区的土壤都是酸性反应,所见的植物是以嫌钙性者为主,这些嫌钙性植物与拔海高度的关系很显著,兹将常见的植物种类,叙述如下: (一)主分布于拔海7000—8500尺地带的植物: 蕨类植物 Dennstaedtia scabra(Wall.)Moore Dicranopteris linearis Under. Hicriopteris glauca Under. Hymenophyllum crispatum Wall. Hymenophyllum exsertum Wall. Lindsaya cultrata Sw. Lycopodium clavatum L. Plagiogyria pycniphylla(Kunze)Mett. Pteridium aquilinum Wightianum Trym. Pteris aspericaulis Wall.种子植物 Castanopsis tribuloides A.DC. Lindera pulcherrima Bth. Osbeckia crinata Bth. Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Rhododendron grande Wight Pieris formosana D.Don Vaccinium referesceda HK. Vaccinium Serrasm Wight(二)主分布于1000—3000尺地带的植物: 蕨类植物Adiantum philippense L.Blechnum orientale L.Aglaomorpha coron(?)us copelLycopodium cernuum L.Nephrolepsis cordifolia PresslTectaria spp.Polypodium lucidum Roxb.种子植物Oxysoira paniculata DC.Themedra arundinacea Ridl.

Pleonomus canaliculatus Falderm. is one of the most destructive soil-inhabitinginsects to wheat in Honan. It causes considerable losses to the crop in spring bycutting the underground part of the stems, causing withering and death of the plant.The life history, distribution, host plants, morphology and rearing methods of theinsect are given in this paper. The overwintering adults become active in spring. Eggs are laid in the topsoil about the plant. They hatch in 5-8 weeks and the larvae grow to maturity inat...

Pleonomus canaliculatus Falderm. is one of the most destructive soil-inhabitinginsects to wheat in Honan. It causes considerable losses to the crop in spring bycutting the underground part of the stems, causing withering and death of the plant.The life history, distribution, host plants, morphology and rearing methods of theinsect are given in this paper. The overwintering adults become active in spring. Eggs are laid in the topsoil about the plant. They hatch in 5-8 weeks and the larvae grow to maturity inat least 15 months. Pupation takes place during late August up to mid-septemberand the pupal stage requires about 2 weeks. The young adults remain and overwinterin their pupal cells. Fall plowing to a depth of 6 to 9 inches soon after the harvest of summer cropswill destroy a great number of pupae and young adults by breaking up their cells inthe soil. The larvae are thus turned up and exposed to the predators. Rotation ofcrops by using sesame or legumes instead of millet preceding wheat, and summerfallow of the land are found to be helpful to lessening the infestation. Control may be effective by dusting γ-BHC (at,1.5 to 2.5 kgs of 0.5% γ-BHC permow mixed with 3 parts of dry soil or sand) into the top soil by means of a tripodhand-driller between the rows just before the activity of wireworms in spring.

1.沟金针虫需2年以上完成一代生活史。越冬成虫2月下旬出土,3月中旬至4月中旬为活动盛期,产卵在1至2寸表土内,卵于5月初孵化,卵期为5至8星期。老熟幼虫8月下旬开始化蛹。9月中旬起羽化,蛹期约2星期。成虫羽化后即行越冬。 2.越冬幼虫2月底至3月中旬开始向表土活动(10厘米处地温8—12℃左右),3月中旬及4月全月是为害盛期(80%以上幼虫集中在1至2寸之表土内),8月至12月表土之幼虫密度极小(仅有虫1.2—6.8%),不致为害成灾。 3.沟金针虫之天敌除一种壁虱(Cheyletus sp.)和一种蜘蛛及蚂蚁外,尚有寄生菌2种,具中一种经鉴定为冬虫夏草(Cordyceps sp.)之一种。 4.小麦整地时适当深犁(5—7寸)并精耕细作能毁杀大部分蛹体及成虫,并可将幼虫翻上来供鸟类捕食(9,10月间97%老熟幼虫,在5—7寸土内化蛹及羽化,同时88%幼虫分布于1—7寸土内)。此外以芝麻与豆类为小麦前作及夏季休间结合翻耕曝晒亦能减少虫害损失。 5.沟金针虫在河南的主要为害期系在春季,所以早春於麦行间耩666毒土或毒沙以毒杀向表土上升之幼虫是值得继续研究的。

Computation of vertical stress in soil beneath loaded area is greatly simplified by influence chart, which was proposed by N. M. Newmark in 1942.The main purpose of this paper is to present a method to modify the Newmark's chart. Instead of the concentric circles in the original chart, concentric squares are used. The latter is more convenient to estimate number of blocks. Further, a so-called "influence value curve" is introduced to avoid different tracings for different depths at which stress is computed.The...

Computation of vertical stress in soil beneath loaded area is greatly simplified by influence chart, which was proposed by N. M. Newmark in 1942.The main purpose of this paper is to present a method to modify the Newmark's chart. Instead of the concentric circles in the original chart, concentric squares are used. The latter is more convenient to estimate number of blocks. Further, a so-called "influence value curve" is introduced to avoid different tracings for different depths at which stress is computed.The influence chart with concentric squares for computing vertical deformation in subgrade soil is also discussed.

推算地基土壤由於建築物重量所引起的應力和變形,是估計建築物沉陷的必經步驟。利用感應圖的計塊法來推求應力和變形,紐馬克教授曾先後於1942年和1947年發表。這種方法,特別是以感應圖求土壤中的垂直應力,當遇到不規則形的建築物基礎時,或研究各基脚相互間的應力影響時,工程界採用的很多。本文主要內容是對感應圖圖解法提出下面四點改進的方法,以便利地基和基礎的設計工作:一.原方法的應力感應圖由若干同心圆形圈所組成,本文改用許多同心正方形,使估計不成整塊的塊數時,比較準確。二.筆者製成“感應值曲線”。當需要計算不同深度處的垂直應力,基礎平面圖祇需根據其中某一深度為比例尺繪製,其他深度處的垂直應力,可根據感應值曲線求得。這樣,避免原方法中每個深度耍繪不同的基礎平面圖以及每次計點塊數的麻煩。三.當地基土壤屬於不允許横向膨脹狀態,本文根據e-p曲線所得的壓縮公式,製成多條曲線,以便利計算。四.當地基土壤可假定屬於彈性狀態時,筆者製成正方形的變形感應圖,以便利彈性地基上具有不規則形基礎的建築物的沉陷計算。

 
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