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thyroid gland
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  甲状腺
     Among the 40 cases , 14(35%) was thyroid gland dysplasia,8 (20%)was thyroid absence,6(15%) was enlargement of thyroid, 5(12.5%) was capsula glandulae thyroideae,4(10.5%)was thyroid ectopy and 3(7.5%) was nomal thyroid gland.
     【结果】 40例先天性甲低患儿中甲状腺发育不良14例(35%),甲状腺缺如8例(20%) ,甲状腺增大6 例(15%),甲状腺囊性变5例(12.5%),甲状腺异位4例(10.5%),甲状腺正常3例(7.5%)。
短句来源
     After adding the lead rubber whose lead equivalent is 0.35mm Pb,the center is 0.070μGy,the crystal is 0uGy smaller than the thyroid gland is 0.02μGy,the sex glands is 0μGy.
     附加铅当量为0.35mm铅橡皮后,中心线为0.070μGy、晶体<甲状腺即0<0.02μGy、性腺为0μGy。
短句来源
     The Effect of Microwave on Thyroid Gland and T_3、T_4 in Blood Serum
     微波辐照对大鼠甲状腺及血清T_3、T_4的影响
短句来源
     (2)The detection of p21WAF1/CIP1, cyclin E and MMp-2 is valuable todifferentiate between benign and malignant neoplasm of thyroid gland and prognsis.
     (2)联合检测cyclin E、p21~(WAF1/CIP1)和MMP-2蛋白的表达将有助于良恶性甲状腺肿瘤的鉴别及预后的判断。
短句来源
     Results The average size of thyroid gland was 4.47 cm×1.26 cm(left),4.71 cm×1.29 cm (right), respectively.
     结果 左、右甲状腺平均大小分别为 4.47cm× 1.2 6cm、4.71cm× 1.2 9cm ;
短句来源
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  甲状腺腺
     24 cases show the method of operation:13 of them are simple parathyroidectomy,2 of them are en bloc resection(thyroid gland plus neck lymph nodes) ,6 of them are simplex resection of the tumour,and 1 of them are partial resection of the tumour.
     24例报道手术方式,初治13例合并行甲状腺腺叶切除或部分切除,2例合并甲状腺腺叶切除+颈淋巴结清扫,6例行单纯肿块切除,1例行姑息肿块切除。
短句来源
     Objective This article inquires into the reasonable resecting operation method of the thyroid gland.
     目的 探讨甲状腺腺叶切除的合理手术方法。
短句来源
     Methods:125 patients with thyroid diseases underwent operation,RLN were dissected in general,the primary mass were treated by lobectomy or isthmus and lobectomy of thyroid gland.
     方法 :手术治疗甲状腺疾病 12 5例 ,术中显露喉返神经 ,行甲状腺腺叶或腺叶 +峡部切除术治疗原发灶。
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  “thyroid gland”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Effects of Low Concentration Samarium Chloride on the Ultrastructure and Function of Rat Thyroid Gland
     Effects of Low Concentration Samarium Chloride on theUltrastructure and Function of Rat Thyroid Gland
短句来源
     The average ratio of the highest absorption 131iodine of the thyroid gland was(0.687±0.134)and(0.551±0.165),respectively,P <0.001;
     平均最高摄131I率分别为(0.687±0.134)和(0.551±0.165),P<0.001;
短句来源
     The activities of ACP,AKP,ATPase,5—Nase,LDH,SDH and CPDH reduced in thyroid gland.
     ACP、AKP、ATPase、5—Nase、LDH、SDH、GPDH活性感弱。
短句来源
     The expression of Fas antigen or bcl 2 protein had no statistic difference among various thyroid gland tissues(F=2.78,P>0.05;F=2.56,P>0.05).
     3 种组织中Fas 抗原和bcl2 蛋白表达没有统计学差异(F=2.78,P>0.05;F=2.56,P>0.05)。
短句来源
     The swollen rate of Thyroid Gland was 5.85%.
     甲状腺肿大率5·85%;
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  thyroid gland
Primary thyroglossal duct carcinoma should conform to the following criteria: localization of the carcinoma to a clearly demonstrable thyroglossal duct cyst or tract; clinically or histologically confirmed absence of carcinoma of the thyroid gland.
      
In the presence of thyroid gland masses or cervical lymphadenopathy, thyroidectomy or neck dissection should be recommended.
      
Age- and sex-related features, biological rhythms (seasonal and circadian), and the dependence on the work specificity were studied for the activities and interrelations of the adrenal cortex, thyroid gland, and catecholamines.
      
The indigenous population of the Extreme North and migrants were shown to have marked functional adaptive hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and diffuse goiter in 15% of cases.
      
The size of the thyroid gland and the level of the thyroid hormones in the aboriginal population are within the average European range.
      
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The relation between different functional states of the thyroid and changes of tyrosine concentration in the gland and in plasma have been studied in rats. Administration of thiouracil and of small amount of iodine which caused the thyroid gland to show histological picture of hyperfunction,considerably reduced the free tyro- sine content per unit weight of the gland and increased its concentration in the plasma. Large doses of iodine which caused the thyroid gland to show histological picture...

The relation between different functional states of the thyroid and changes of tyrosine concentration in the gland and in plasma have been studied in rats. Administration of thiouracil and of small amount of iodine which caused the thyroid gland to show histological picture of hyperfunction,considerably reduced the free tyro- sine content per unit weight of the gland and increased its concentration in the plasma. Large doses of iodine which caused the thyroid gland to show histological picture of hypofunction,brought about the converse changes in tyrosine concentration,i.e.,an in- crease in the gland and a decrease in plasma.

本工作研究了不同机能状态的甲状腺和游离酪氦酸合量变化之间的关系。主要结果如下:(一)在硫尿嘧啶和小剂量碘作用下,甲状腺呈机能亢进的组织学图相,在大剂量碘的作用下形成机能低下的图相。(二)在硫尿嘧啶和小剂量碘的作用下,甲状腺内的游离酪氨酸含量(以每单位组织算)显著减少,而血浆的游离酪氨酸浓度增高。(三)用大剂量碘饲养的动物的甲状腺的酪氨酸合量(以每单位组织算)升高,血浆的酪氨酸浓度降低。

The efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in muscle mitochondrial preparations from rats exposed to the cold for different intervals was compared with that of the controls with respect to their P/O ratio. The results showed that after 1 day's exposure to the cold the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was considerably depressed, which however, gradually increased as the time of cold exposure was prolonged and finally reached the normal level after 3 months in the cold. The rate of oxygen uptake Q(?) of...

The efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in muscle mitochondrial preparations from rats exposed to the cold for different intervals was compared with that of the controls with respect to their P/O ratio. The results showed that after 1 day's exposure to the cold the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was considerably depressed, which however, gradually increased as the time of cold exposure was prolonged and finally reached the normal level after 3 months in the cold. The rate of oxygen uptake Q(?) of muscle mitochondria from cold-exposed rats showed no significant change from their controls, indicating that the depressed P/O ratio was due to a lowered phosphorylative ability rather than to an elevated oxygen consumption.In an attempt to explore the mechanism of this phenomenon, the activity of ATPase was determined and no significant change was observed for the rats exposed to the cold.In the course of this study we found that the muscle mitochondria from the coldexposed rats swelled. The selling was most pronounced when the rats were exposed to the cold for 1 day and then gradually returned towards the normal state as the time of cold exposure was prolonged. Almost no swelling could be noted for the rats exposed to the cold for 3 months. This pattern of structural change in the muscle mitochondria seemed to be parallel to that of the change in P/O ratio, indicating a close relationship between the change in biochemical function and that in the structure of mitochondriaBesides, a first increase in weight of adrenal gland and then of thyroid gland was also observed during cold acclimation.The possible significance of these findings to the chemical thermogenesis of coldacclimation was briefly discussed.

(1)本工作对大鼠在冷适应过程中肌肉线粒体氧化磷酸化效能的变化进行了观察,并对产生变化的机制做了初步探讨。(2)大鼠在低温下生活一天,肌肉线粒体的P/O比值下降为对照组的70%左右,随冷冻时期的加长,P/O此值逐渐恢复,至三个月时已与对照组无显著差异。此变化与线粒体的氧摄取量无关。(3)大鼠冷冻一天后,肌肉线粒体ATP酶活性无显著变化。(4)在低温下生活一天的大鼠,肌肉线粒体有膨胀及“老化凝聚”现象;在冷适应过程中又逐渐恢复正常。(6)在冷冻过程中腎上腺及甲状腺先后出现增大现象。(6)本文对肌肉线粒体氧化磷酸化的变化与体温调节的关系以及导致变化的可能机制作了简短的讨论。

The ~(14)C-labeled gossypol acetic acid (Sp.Act.2.665μci/mg) used in this experiment and the care and trea-tment of animals were the same asthe previous report.Wistar adult malerats selected for uniformity of weight(about 200g) were placed in individu-al metabolic cages,the feces,urine andexpired air were collected daily formeasurement in one group of animalsfollowing a single oral dose (20μci/7.5 mg) of ~(14)C-gossypol,acetie acid.The animals were anesthetized and kil-led after varying intervals of time (i.e.12...

The ~(14)C-labeled gossypol acetic acid (Sp.Act.2.665μci/mg) used in this experiment and the care and trea-tment of animals were the same asthe previous report.Wistar adult malerats selected for uniformity of weight(about 200g) were placed in individu-al metabolic cages,the feces,urine andexpired air were collected daily formeasurement in one group of animalsfollowing a single oral dose (20μci/7.5 mg) of ~(14)C-gossypol,acetie acid.The animals were anesthetized and kil-led after varying intervals of time (i.e.12 hours,1,2,4,9 and 14 days,3animals for each time).The bloodwas collected and various organ tis-sues as well as the contents of gastro-intestinal tract were removed,lyophili-zed and weighed ground for liquidscintillation counting by oxygen com-bustion.The free and bound gossypolwere extracted from parts of the aboveorgans,and an analysis of the ratioChanges of the free to bound gossypol(F/B) in the metabolic process wasmade.To the daily dose group,therats were given labeled gossypol atthe dosage of 4.5μci/5 mg daily and were anesthetized and killed 2 weeks,3 weeks,one and two weeks following the withdrawal of the drug (2 animalsfor each time period).Samples of tis-sues and excreta were prepared formeasurement according to the proce-dures as described above.The resultsobtained were summarized as follows.1.It was found that the injected~(14)C-labeled gossypol excreted rapidlythrough feces,urine and expired airfollowing the oral administration.Themain pathway of excretion was fromthe feces,followed by exhaled CO_2 andurine.The amount of ~(14)C eliminated in19 days was 83.50% in feces,11.73%in expired CO_2 and 2.51% in urine. The high excretion rate in feces sug-gested that the circulation and me-tabolism of gossypol through liver-bile-feces were the main pathway of elim-ination and detoxication of the gos-sypol from the body.The exhaledCO_2 appeared to be a metabolic pro-ducts of decarbonylation of formyl-~(14)C-gossypol,and thus,the decarbo-nylation is also one of the pathway ofelimination and dtoxication of gossypol.The low gossypol excretion in urine might be related to their nonionized large molecules of gossypol which were uneasied to pass through the renal glomeruli but were more favored toreabsorption by the renal tubules.2.After a single oral dose of~(14)C-labeled gossypol to male rats at thedosage of 2oμci/7.5mg/animal,thetime taken for the elimination fromthe body of one half of the radioac-tivity was 60 hours (i.e.t1/2=2.5days).According to this half-life valueof excretion,it was possible to cal-culate that the time for the clearanceof gossypol from the body would beat the 23rd day or nearly so,it wasmostly corresponding to our data thatit took 19 days to eliminate 97.74%of the dose from the animal body.3.The data obtained by radioac-tivity measurement of the tissues fromrats fed ~(14)C-labeled gossypol demon-strated that the contents and the epi-thelial lining of gastro-intestinal tractand the liver had the highest specificradioactivity.They reached their peaklevels one day following a single oral dosing.The blood also reached its peak at the first day,however,its specific activity was lower than that of the above visceral organs.The specific radioactivity in the heart,kidney,sple-en,lung,pancreas,diaphragm andtestis were low at the early stages ofdrug adiministration,but rapidly rea-ched to their peak at the 4—9th day.Among the organs,the spleen,kidneyand heart contained more higher speci-fic activity than that of other organs.The endocrine organs such as adrenal,pituitary and thyroid gland also con-tained a fairly high specific activity.Whereas,the hypothalamus,medullaoblongata and spinal cord had the lo-west activity only.The specific acti-vity in various organs decreased ingeneral with the increase of time dura-tion,and dropped to their minimumamount 19 days after the administra-tion.4.The pharmacokinetics of ~(14)C-gossypol in rats that on daily dosingwere almost the same as in the rats ofsingle oral dosing group.Two weeksfollowing the administration,all tis-sues contained radioactivity,with the brain having the lowest activity.The contents and tissues of alimentary canal as well as liver had the highest specific acitivity also,followed by spleen,kidney,heart,lung pancrease,diaphragm and testis.They reached their peak levels after 3 weeks of daily dosing.But thereafter,the specific acitivitysteadily decreased to a lower level.Two weeks after the withdrawal oftreatment,the activity in various tis-sues decreased to their minimum am-ounts.These reaults indicated thatthe pharmacokinetics of ~(14)C-gossypolin both dosage groups were basicallysimilar in distribution pattern,and thedata of quantitative measurement andautoradiographic investigation werecoincided with each other either.5.The results demonstrated thatthe ratios of free gossypol (F) to boundgossypol (B) in the contents and tissuesof different parts of the gastro-intes-tinal tract,liver,and feces were lowat the early stages of drug administr-ation.However,the value of theseratios had progressively increased withtime in both dosing grops.These data suggested that the gossypol might mainly metabolized as a binding form during early stages of medication within rat body.Subsequently,the proportion of free gossypol and other metabolites increased with time throughoxidation,hydrolysis and decarbonyla-tion of the bound gossypol in varioustissues,resulting in soluble or air formand cxcreted via feces,urine and expir-ed air.

1.大鼠口服标记棉酚后迅速通过粪、尿和呼气排出。粪排出量最多,占口服总剂量的83.5%;其次为呼气中的~(14)CO_2,占11.73%;尿中的含量最少,只占2.51%。经粪排出率最高,表明通过肝脏—胆汁—粪的代谢和排泄是排除体棉酚的主要途径和解毒过程。呼气中的CO_2是棉酚代谢过程中脱羰基作用的产物,这一过程也是体内棉酚解毒过程的一种方式。尿中排泄量低,可能与棉酚的非离子化态大分子结构不易通透肾小球而有利于肾小管的重吸收有关。2.大鼠一次口服标记棉酚20微居里/7.5毫克后,从体内排出总剂量的半量的时间(t(1/2))为2.5天,按排泄半量规律推算,从体内清除所需的时间约为服药后的第23天左右,与我们在第19天实测的体内残留率比例大体相符。3.分布于脏器组织中的标记棉酚的定量测定结果表明:胃、肠道内容物,胃、肠道组织和肝脏中的比活性最高,在服药后1天即到达它们的高峰强度水平。血液的活性在1天内亦到达高峰。但其比活性较上述脏器组织为低。心、肾、脾、肺、胰、膈肌和睾丸等主要脏器组织的比活性在服药后的初期较低。到第4天才达到它们各自的高峰水平。其中脾、肾、心的比活性较其他脏器为高,内分泌腺中的肾上腺、垂体和甲状腺...

1.大鼠口服标记棉酚后迅速通过粪、尿和呼气排出。粪排出量最多,占口服总剂量的83.5%;其次为呼气中的~(14)CO_2,占11.73%;尿中的含量最少,只占2.51%。经粪排出率最高,表明通过肝脏—胆汁—粪的代谢和排泄是排除体棉酚的主要途径和解毒过程。呼气中的CO_2是棉酚代谢过程中脱羰基作用的产物,这一过程也是体内棉酚解毒过程的一种方式。尿中排泄量低,可能与棉酚的非离子化态大分子结构不易通透肾小球而有利于肾小管的重吸收有关。2.大鼠一次口服标记棉酚20微居里/7.5毫克后,从体内排出总剂量的半量的时间(t(1/2))为2.5天,按排泄半量规律推算,从体内清除所需的时间约为服药后的第23天左右,与我们在第19天实测的体内残留率比例大体相符。3.分布于脏器组织中的标记棉酚的定量测定结果表明:胃、肠道内容物,胃、肠道组织和肝脏中的比活性最高,在服药后1天即到达它们的高峰强度水平。血液的活性在1天内亦到达高峰。但其比活性较上述脏器组织为低。心、肾、脾、肺、胰、膈肌和睾丸等主要脏器组织的比活性在服药后的初期较低。到第4天才达到它们各自的高峰水平。其中脾、肾、心的比活性较其他脏器为高,内分泌腺中的肾上腺、垂体和甲状腺的比活性亦较高。而神经系统中的丘脑下部、延脑和脊髓的比活性则均较低。各脏器的比活性随时间而递减下降,到第19天后均下降至微量水平。4.连续给药组脏器组织中的标记棉酚分布动态与上述一次给药组基本相同。连续每日服药2周后,所有组织均出现放射活性,其中脑组织的比活性最低,胃、肠道壁及其内容物以及肝的比活性最高。其次为脾、肺、心、肾、胰、膈肌和睾丸。这些主要脏器在连续服药3周后达到各自的比活性高峰水平。以后即逐渐下降。停药2周后均下降至微量水平。上述结果表明两个给药组的棉酚分布的变化动态基本一致,定质和定位的结果亦基本相符。5.棉酚的代谢:两个服药剂量组的胃、肠道组织,肝组织,胃、肠道内容物和粪中的游离棉酚(F)和结合棉酚(B)的比值,在服药后的初期均较小。以后随时间而逐渐递增。反映了棉酚在体内的早期代谢形式以结合棉酚为主,以后在脏器组织中通过氧化、分解或转化,游离棉酚及其代谢产物的比例增加,通过粪、尿和呼气(脱羰基后的CO_2)排出。

 
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