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     The Study on Wear Regularity, Design and Performance Test of Diamond Bit and Diamond Saw
     金刚石钻头和金刚石锯片磨损机理、设计及性能测试研究
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     STUDY OF THE LOAD ON THE JOURNAL BEARINGS OF THE TRICONE BIT BY THE METHOD OF ANALYSIS OF THE RANDOM PROCESS
     用随机过程分析方法研究牙轮钻头轴承载荷
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     ANALYSIS OF SHOCK WAVE IN DTH BIT
     潜孔钻头中冲击波的分析
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     Impact action bit
     冲击式钻头
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     THE DESIGN FEATURE OF MODEL X74-310 ROTARY BIT AND IT'S APPLICATION
     X74-310型硬岩三牙轮钻头的设计特点及应用效果
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     The Development of the N-channel Silicon Gate 1024 Bit MOS RAM
     BD7503硅栅N沟道1024MOS随机存贮器的研制
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     A HIGH SPEED ECL 256×1 BIT RAM
     高速ECL256字×1随机存储器
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     PRINCIPLE OF SEISMIC PROSPECTING WITH ONE BIT RECORDING
     一记录的地震勘探原理
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     THEORY AND PRACTICE OF SIGN BIT FAST CORRELATIVE VELOCITY SPECTRUM
     符号快相关速度谱的原理与实践
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     High Speed 14 Bit Digital-Analog Converter
     快速14电流型数字模拟转换器
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  比特
     Research on Image Compression Encoding and Deblocking Algorithm at Low Bit Rates
     图像压缩编码及低比特率下去块效应算法的研究
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     The Study of Data Compression Algorithm for Synthetic Aperture Radar at Low Bit Rates
     低比特率合成孔径雷达数据压缩算法研究
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     10 Channel 10 Bit A/D Converter Based on Single Board Computer SDK-85
     用8085单板微处理机实现10路10比特A/D转换器
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     Less Bit Quantization and Correlation of Noise Signals
     噪声信号的低比特量化及相关
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     IMPROVEMENT OF LOW BIT RATE LPC VOCODER
     改进低比特率的LPC声码器
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     Research on Low Bit Rate Audio Coding
     低率音频编研究
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     Low Bit Rate Image Coding Based on Wavelet Transform
     基于小波变换的低率图像编研究
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     The Principle of the Bit Recovery of the Modelling Method for Positive/Zero/Negative Justification
     模型法正/零/负速调整的速恢复原理
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     Intrafield DPCM image encoding with low bit rate and picture quality assessment
     低率场内预测DPCM图象编及其图象质量评价
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     A New High Quality Low Bit Rate Speech Waveform Vector Quantization Coder
     一种新型的高质量低率波形矢量量化编
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Experimental results show that the proposed approach can reduce the computational cost of full search and fast multi-block motion estimation by 80 % and 45 %, respectively, with similar visual quality and bit rate.
      
The proposed algorithm also reduces by 75 % the computational cost of the large-small mode isolation algorithm for low-motion sequence coding, and with 0.06 PSNR gain and 3.7 % reduction in bit rate.
      
In underwater acoustic communication, because the available bandwidth of the channel is severely limited, the direct-sequence spread-spectrum scheme can only be realized at low bit rates.
      
The bit error performance is correlative not only with the interference-signal ratio (ISR), the frequency offset and the phase of the CW interference sensitively, but also with the individual spread spectrum code sequence.
      
DCT_M model for excitation parameter in low bit rate vocoder
      
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Cotton seeds collected from plants infected by Verticillium ablo-atrum were used for the purpose of studying seed transmission of the pathogen. Although verticilliate conidiophores had been observed occasionally under low-power microscope on the surface of the seeds plated on PDA in 1955, yet isolations of the organism failed due to the interference of several contaminants. Seeds were delinted in order to diminish the possibility of interference from lint-born contaminants. The materials were plated on different...

Cotton seeds collected from plants infected by Verticillium ablo-atrum were used for the purpose of studying seed transmission of the pathogen. Although verticilliate conidiophores had been observed occasionally under low-power microscope on the surface of the seeds plated on PDA in 1955, yet isolations of the organism failed due to the interference of several contaminants. Seeds were delinted in order to diminish the possibility of interference from lint-born contaminants. The materials were plated on different culture media such as PDA, acidified PDA, cotton meal agar and rice agar. All these plates failed to show verticillium colonies. Among the fungi obtained in these plates, Fusarium, Alternaria and Colletotrichum were the most frequent. Since both Verticillium albo-atrum and other fungi were harbored within the same seed, the difference of growth rates might be considered as an important factor involved in the difficulty of the isolations: Cultures of V. albo-atrum and Fusarium sp. were transferred simutaneously to PDA plates to test their growth rates. The diameter of their colonies were measured after incubation for 12 days under 22±1℃. Those of V. albo-atrum measured 2.8 cm., while the average of the latter was 9,3 cm. Interference of the fast-growers might render a slow-grower such as V. albo-atrum to be masked in the observations and to be depressed in the isolations. A method was developed to avoid the interference. The fundamental procedures of the method are outlined as follows. 1. Plating and observation. (1) Cotton seeds being delinted with commercial surphuric acid in order to avoid the interference from lint-born contaminants. (2) Delinted seeds being washed in a flask covered with wire gauze for 24 hours under running tap water in order to get rid of bacteria. Absorption of sufficient water during washing activates the hibernating mycelium. (3) Seeds being plated on 1.7% water agar instead of nutrient agar in order to diminish the growth of the fast-growers such as Fusaria and Alternaria. The plates being incubated under 22±1℃. for 15 days. (4) The plates being uncovered and observed directly under low-power microscope in order to observe the fungi undisturbed. 2. Isolation and preservation of the Verticillium cultures. (1) Verticilliate conidiophores being located under low-power microscope. (2) The tip of a flamed needle moistened with sterile agar being introduced within the microscopic field in order to fish the spores under focus. (3) Spore suspension being made by washing the needle in a 5 cc sterile water blank. (4) Dilution plates being made by placing 1 cc of the spore suspension in a petri dish and diluting with 10 cc of cotton stem agar. (5) The plates being observed under low-power microscope after incubation for 5—7 days at 22±1℃. (6) Verticillium colonies being locatad and a bit of the margin of a colony being transferred to PDA slant. (7) The slant cultures being flooded with sterile liquid paraffin after incubation for 7—15 days at 22±1℃. The cultures preserved with liquid paraffin were able to keep alived for 2 years. Seeds collected from the infected plants in 1955, 1956 and 1957 were studied. The percentages of seeds carrying Verticillium observed in these years were 39.8, 5.92 and 9.5% respectively. One of the representative single spore colonies obtained was identified as V. albo—atrum. Inoculation and reisolation tests showed positive results. Inspection of cotton seed samples collected from eight co-op farms in Shensi Province in 1958 showing that the percentages of seeds infected by verticillium ranged 3 to 23% with an average of 12.3%.

(1) 在陝西关中所采的黄萎病病株棉籽內部,常带有一些真菌和細菌,虽經用浓硫酸脫絨,这些菌类仍能从棉籽本身的組織內向培养基伸展惺庇玫捅剁R直接检查虽亦能見到輪枝菌从棉籽內露出,但由于其他菌类的生长速度較快,以致輪枝菌常被干扰,无从在洋菜上发展,故用一般方法很难分离和检查到棉籽所带的輪枝菌。(2) 用不含养分的水洋菜作为培养基时,杂菌的生长減弱,轮枝菌才能在基物上发展为菌落。又用流水冲洗法代替表面消毒,使棉籽吸收水分,同时也促使潛伏菌絲继續发展,并可冲去細菌。經試驗用上述两个步驟可以使棉籽所带的輪枝菌在水洋菜上形成菌落。結合低倍鏡直接检查法,可以較为方便地检查种籽带菌率。(3) 經初步拟定了一套检查方法和单孢子菌种分离法。惟应用时尚觉不够簡便,尚有待于进一步提高,特提出以供交流經驗。(4) 在1955—1957年的多次检查中,查得黄萎病病株棉籽带輪枝菌率为39.8%、5.9%及23.7%。在1958年初对大田种子进行检查,查得华阴等四县8个样品中带菌率为3%至23%,平均为12.3%。(5) 根据棉籽解剖培养結果,轮枝菌不仅存在于棉籽外部的短絨內,并且也存在于籽壳及籽仁上。(6) 从棉籽上分离到的轮枝菌特8号...

(1) 在陝西关中所采的黄萎病病株棉籽內部,常带有一些真菌和細菌,虽經用浓硫酸脫絨,这些菌类仍能从棉籽本身的組織內向培养基伸展惺庇玫捅剁R直接检查虽亦能見到輪枝菌从棉籽內露出,但由于其他菌类的生长速度較快,以致輪枝菌常被干扰,无从在洋菜上发展,故用一般方法很难分离和检查到棉籽所带的輪枝菌。(2) 用不含养分的水洋菜作为培养基时,杂菌的生长減弱,轮枝菌才能在基物上发展为菌落。又用流水冲洗法代替表面消毒,使棉籽吸收水分,同时也促使潛伏菌絲继續发展,并可冲去細菌。經試驗用上述两个步驟可以使棉籽所带的輪枝菌在水洋菜上形成菌落。結合低倍鏡直接检查法,可以較为方便地检查种籽带菌率。(3) 經初步拟定了一套检查方法和单孢子菌种分离法。惟应用时尚觉不够簡便,尚有待于进一步提高,特提出以供交流經驗。(4) 在1955—1957年的多次检查中,查得黄萎病病株棉籽带輪枝菌率为39.8%、5.9%及23.7%。在1958年初对大田种子进行检查,查得华阴等四县8个样品中带菌率为3%至23%,平均为12.3%。(5) 根据棉籽解剖培养結果,轮枝菌不仅存在于棉籽外部的短絨內,并且也存在于籽壳及籽仁上。(6) 从棉籽上分离到的轮枝菌特8号經初步鉴定系Verticillium albo-atrum Reinkeet Berth。(7) 特8号菌种經过接种試驗,确定其具有一定的致病力,并从再分离中获得該菌。(8) 棉籽是否能够传播黄萎病,似系一个检查方法問題。还希各方面进行测定,通过多次的检查和接种試驗始能充分确定。(9) 在分离的菌种中,除特8号菌种具有較深的菌落色泽外,还有一些菌种的顏色較淡,未須鑑定。棉籽所带的轮枝菌类型不一,还有进一步研究的必要。此外,棉籽內的輪枝菌和其他一些菌类究竟如何进入籽內,也有研究的价值。

This paper deals with the results of studies on a collection of biting midges in Hai-kow,Hing-lung, Feng-mu, Hainan Island, during 1953--1954. The collection contains four speciesof the genus Culicoides. Morphological descriptions and brief ecological notes are given. Of the fourspecies in this collection one species is recorded for the first time in China. 1. Culicoides anophelis Edwards, 1922 (Pl. I:1, 5,6) More than one hundred females collected from Hai-kow, Hing-lung and Feng-mu inNovember, December,...

This paper deals with the results of studies on a collection of biting midges in Hai-kow,Hing-lung, Feng-mu, Hainan Island, during 1953--1954. The collection contains four speciesof the genus Culicoides. Morphological descriptions and brief ecological notes are given. Of the fourspecies in this collection one species is recorded for the first time in China. 1. Culicoides anophelis Edwards, 1922 (Pl. I:1, 5,6) More than one hundred females collected from Hai-kow, Hing-lung and Feng-mu inNovember, December, 1953 and January, February, June, August, October, 1954. It was one ofthe most common species, usually found parasitic on the abdomen of mosquitoes. The eight speciesof mosquitoes have been found attached to the Culicoides. They are: Anopheles vagus, A. hyrcanussinensis, Armigeres obturbans, Aedes vaxans, Culex bitaeniorhynchus, C. tritaeniorhynchus, C. fati-gans, C. whitmorei. 2. Culicoides sumatrae Macfie, 1934 (Figs. 1--6; Pl. I: 2) 6 males, 11 females collected from Hing-lung in March, 1954. Recorded by Macfie fromMalaya and Sumatra in 1934, this being the first record in China. 3. Culicoides oxystoma Kieffer, 1910 (Pl. I: 3) 2 males, 4 females were collected from Hing-lung in 1953--1954. It was one of the mostcommon blood-sucking midges found in the adjacent to the cowsheds. 4. Culicoides peregrinus Kieffer, 1910 (Pl. I: 4) 1 male, 4 females collected from Hai-kow and Hing-lung in November, December, 1953 andAugust, 1954.

(1)本文记录了作者于1953—1954年在海南岛进行蚊类调查时所采获的蠓类标本,共获有嗜蚊库蠓(Culicoides anophelis Edw., 1922)、苏门答腊库蠓(Culicoides sumatraeMacfie,1934)、尖喙库蠓(Culicoides oxystoma Kieffer,1910)及异域库蠓(Culicoidesperegrinus Kieffer,1910)等四种库蠓,均为海南岛的新记录,其中苏门答腊库蠓(Culicoidessumatrae Macfie,1934)并为我国初次记载。 (2)本文记录了四种库蠓的采集地点、采集季节、采集场所等资料,并对苏门答腊库蠓(Culicoides sumatrae Macfie,1934)的形态作了描述。

In China, Cufex uitattriorhynchus has a wide distribution. It has been found that this mosquito serves as n vector of Japanese B encephalitis inside as well as outside of the country. Virus of Japanese B encephalitis has been isolated repeatedly from this mosquito. It has been demonstrated, furthermore, that this mosquito might be infected by being fed an emulsion of infected mouse brain. Young mice bitten by this mosquito infected with the virus developed symptoms typical of encephalitis.Ecological studies...

In China, Cufex uitattriorhynchus has a wide distribution. It has been found that this mosquito serves as n vector of Japanese B encephalitis inside as well as outside of the country. Virus of Japanese B encephalitis has been isolated repeatedly from this mosquito. It has been demonstrated, furthermore, that this mosquito might be infected by being fed an emulsion of infected mouse brain. Young mice bitten by this mosquito infected with the virus developed symptoms typical of encephalitis.Ecological studies were carried out on this mosquito in Changsha, Hunan from May to October, 1957, with observations upon: (1) the duration from the moment of feeding to emergence of adults of next generation under laboratory conditions, (2) the (.cology of the larva in its natural habitats, and (3) the seasonal distribution of the mosquito.I. The laboratory temperature was maintained from 23?to 28癈 throughout the whole course of observation. Both day and night men were assigned to watch at the working spot to take notes. The results obtained are as follows: 1. In order to ascertain the exact time of feeding, fifty-nine mosquitoes were carefully observed to determine the time necessary for blood sucking on a cow. The shortest time from the outset of inserting the proboscis irito the skin of the cow to the moment of pulling off the pro-boscis was 2 minutes and 26 stconds, while the longest time was 7 minutes and 15 seconds with an average of 3 minutes and 19.2±19.8 seconds.2. Forty-three well-fed mosquitoes were chosen for oviposition, They were kept separately in glass chimneys (5.7 × 9.0 cm.), each of which was slightly immersed in a glass plate. Only 21 mosquitoes (48.84%) laid eggs. They performed their laying quietly on the surface of water. The average time for egg to mature within the ovary was 73.76± 2.06 hours. The lowest number of eggs laid was 15, while the highest number was 238, with an average of 124.43± 13.04 eggs per mosquito.3. The egg raft containing 238 eggs was used for rearing in the laboratory. All the eggs hatched simultaneously after 35 hours of incubation.4. Larvae of the same instar were bred in an enamelled green pan containing hay infusion which was changed daily. On the surface of hay infusion a film of bread powder mixed with yeast was sprinkled. Right arter each moulting, larvae were removed to another enamelled pan. Dead larvae were discarded as soon as discovered. The time needed from the first instar to the end of fourth instar averaged 144.09 hours, i.e., 6 day's and 0.09 hours (Table 1).5. It took. 38.83 hours in average to complete the pupal stage (Table 1).6. It took 291.92 hours or 12 days and 3.92 hours on an average from the time of feeding to the end of metamorphosis, and about 9 days from the time of egg deposition.7. The ratio 'between emergent males and females was 75 to 70, or 51.7% to 48.3% respectively.8. In rearing, the highest mortality occurred in the second stadium,, in which 70 larvae died, 29,4% of total number of larvae.9. Points in connection with biting, behavior and discrepancy in the time of oviposition, ecdysis among different instars, pupation and emergence were discussed.Ⅱ. For field observation on the ecology of larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus, eleven types of natural breeding places with a total of fifty localities situated in the suburbs of Changsha were selected. They included rice-fields, tare-fields, lettuce-fields, ipomoea-fields, lotus-roots-fields, trapa ponds, wells for drinking and pits for washing purposes, ponds, ditches and mountain caves with water. The first six types of habitats were definitely devoted to agricultural cultivation, while the latter five were not. Collecting in each of fifty localities was made once a week. In each habitat the collector made five dips by a conical dipper (9.7 cm) at random, took notes on the water temperature, height of the water column where larvae were found, brought back the plants.which grew in association with the larvae and a sufficient amount of water for the determination of hydrogen-ion concentration and dissol

1.本文报告了1957年春,实验室中三带喙库蚊血液消化、产卵、孵化、幼虫的各龄、蛹化、羽化等的初步观察结果。 2.同年5—10月,又初步观察了三带喙库蚊幼虫11型孳生地的十项自然环境因素。 3.自然界的十项环境因素,对此蚊幼虫孳生的影响,亦略加分析讨论。 4.通过11型幼虫孳生地的调查,得知此蚊幼虫多孳生在茭瓜田、蕹菜田、芋头田、稻田及藕田等5型中。 5.1957年三带喙库蚊幼虫全期最高峰的出现日期,与流行性乙型脑炎流行的最高峰恰相吻合。

 
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