According to the determined interference displacement, the value of the interference energy of each point in the slope and the equivalent surface of interference energy are determined. Then, the curved surface with the minimum interference energy is taken as potential slide boundary.

METHODS:The cube in the obtained 3D CT image data matrix of pelvis and acetabulum was moved, hexahedron unit was used in the internal bone and Marching Cube arithmetic was used on the surface bone, tetrahedron was established to instead equivalent surface and the 3D finite element models of pelvis and acetabulum were constructed.

To meet the needs of creating the prescription surface map in variable fertilization of precision agriculture, the generative algorithm of equivalent line and equivalent surface realized the function of generating equivalent line and equivalent surface through variable interpolation methods using Visual C++6.0 as development environment and the MapObject2.0 controls of ESRI as tool. This algorithm realized the function of generating fertilization prescription chart with equivalent surface form finally.

In addition,the proposed algorithm is shown to be able to reconstruct more accurate deformable surface models of edge surface in comparison with the equivalent surface extraction algorithm.

An improved discrete method of boarder equivalent surface current model is presented in this thesis; which is suitable to arbitrarily complex shapes, and can conveniently solve different magnetizing direction problem, such as parallel, radial and circumferential direction.

The equivalent surface current distributions used in the calculation are obtained from the physical optics and Fock's theory. To take account of the contribution of the edge, a line distribution of charge along it is introduced.

A mathematic model using equivalent surface shear force method for simultaneously simulating excavation and soil nail reinforcing process is proposed in the paper.

Point-Based Rendering uses discrete and crowded point cloud to represent the surface of model, and it's goal is to reconstruct a continuous and equivalent surface from the point cloud.

The scattering properties at 17 wavelengths from visible to near IR spectral region for the 14 kinds of different crystal size distributions of ice cloud which is composed of hexagonal ice crystals are calculated using Mie theory for equivalent surface ice spheres and ray optics,respectively.

The key to the problem is to determine the surface impedance, when the 'period of the structure is not too long and the notch wall sufficiently thin, we can define equivalent surface reactance by reference to the reflection of the plane wave, and the problem of periodic notched structure can be approximately solved according to the condition of the uniform surface reactance.

In this article the discontinuity of the eigenfunction expansion of the Green's function in the electromagnetic field theory of static electricity is discussed with the help of the concept——an equivalent surface polarized charge layer.

Analytical estimates, assuming the assembly to be a solid sphere of equivalent surface area, predicted drag forces about two orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding experimental values.

Consideration of the pulsations of the beam boundaries in the "hydrodynamic" analysis by introducing equivalent surface currents leads to the relativistic dispersion equation derived by Gaponov [1] in the case of a small thickness of the beam walls.

Surface influence is further checked by etching-off equivalent surface layers after a given annealing, and comparing the resulting loop changes: these are found to depend markedly on the initial thickness of the sample.

Surface influence is further checked by etching-off equivalent surface layers after a given annealing, and comparing the resulting loop changes: these are found to depend markedly on the initial thickness of the sample.

Based on the concept of equivalent surface properties we introduce models using one or two mean parameters (Hamaker constant, mean partial charge) as well as a model which takes partial charge distributions into account.

The system of spins in a finite ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic chain, coupled by exchange interaction, is investigated. The spin-wave spectrum and the intensities of its excitation are calculated. On the basis of the results obtained, the spin-wave resonance of a ferromagnetic film with a surface of antiferromagnetic oxide is discussed. The validity of the general phenomenological boundary condition is elucidated. The value estimated for the equivalent surface anisotropy energy according to our theory...

The system of spins in a finite ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic chain, coupled by exchange interaction, is investigated. The spin-wave spectrum and the intensities of its excitation are calculated. On the basis of the results obtained, the spin-wave resonance of a ferromagnetic film with a surface of antiferromagnetic oxide is discussed. The validity of the general phenomenological boundary condition is elucidated. The value estimated for the equivalent surface anisotropy energy according to our theory is found to be in fairly good agreement with experimental data.

This paper describes the computation of the magnetic field for rare earth permanentmagnet electrical machines using the finite element method.A mathematical modelfor rare earth permanent magnets and its application to the finite element methodare discussed.The analytic formulae are given for equivalent surface current densityof several types of conventional p.m.structures in p.m.electrical machinescomputation of the magnetic field and experimental results from several p.m.electrical machines indicate that...

This paper describes the computation of the magnetic field for rare earth permanentmagnet electrical machines using the finite element method.A mathematical modelfor rare earth permanent magnets and its application to the finite element methodare discussed.The analytic formulae are given for equivalent surface current densityof several types of conventional p.m.structures in p.m.electrical machinescomputation of the magnetic field and experimental results from several p.m.electrical machines indicate that the given permanent magnet model and itscorresponding approach in the finite element method are accurate enough andconvenient in engineering practice.This method can be generalised to numericalfield solutions for other electromagnetic devices containing rare earth permanentmagnets.

In this paper, the basic property of the electro-magnetic wave propagation on a periodic notched planar structure is analysed and is pointed out that it is often necessary to simplify this kind of problems into boundary value problems in the boundary impedance condition. The key to the problem is to determine the surface impedance, when the 'period of the structure is not too long and the notch wall sufficiently thin, we can define equivalent surface reactance by reference to the reflection of the plane...

In this paper, the basic property of the electro-magnetic wave propagation on a periodic notched planar structure is analysed and is pointed out that it is often necessary to simplify this kind of problems into boundary value problems in the boundary impedance condition. The key to the problem is to determine the surface impedance, when the 'period of the structure is not too long and the notch wall sufficiently thin, we can define equivalent surface reactance by reference to the reflection of the plane wave, and the problem of periodic notched structure can be approximately solved according to the condition of the uniform surface reactance.The approach of normal component of the electrical field on the periodic notched structure being expanded into the Fourier integral has been used and the functional equations are set up according to the boundary condition. Using the Wiener-Hopf method, expressions of the secondary field and reflection coefficients are obtained, and Finally the expression of the surface reactance is found. The measured results are in good agreement with those found by theoretical methods. Thus, it is of practical value to simplify analytic and calculating methods of electromagnetic propagation and scattering on the periodic notched planar structure.