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weathering rates
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  风化速率
     The soil depths of plant roots significantly intensifying minerals weathering rates were 0~45 cm for wood and 0~30 cm for grasses. The effective root density of woodland and grassland on minerals weathering rates of soil were 17 roots per 100 cm~2 and 60 roots per 100 cm~2 in soil profile.
     油松林群落和白草群落根系显著提高矿物风化速率的稳定土层深度范围分别为0~45cm和0~30cm,有效根密度分别在17根/100cm2和60根/100cm2以上。
短句来源
     For the same vegetation type, minerals weathering rates and differences of the dominant weathering minerals type in soil profiles were mainly depended on the distribution and winding characteristic of plant roots of ≤1 mm in diameters.
     不同植被类型土壤风化速率及主导风化矿物组合类型的剖面差异主要受制于直径≤1mm的须根在剖面中的缠绕分布特征。
短句来源
     The weathering rates of soils in China were estimated through the mass balance approach, simulated leaching experiments, PROFILE model, MAGIC model, and two empirical methods.
     利用模拟淋溶实验、质量平衡法、PROFILE模型、MAGIC模型以及两种经验方法对中国十几种主要土壤类型的风化速率进行了研究 .
短句来源
     Through simulated leaching experiment, weathering rates of several soils (including latosol, lateritic red earth, red earth, yellow brown soil and purplish soil) in China, as well as the effects of soil pH value and precipitation rate on soils weathering, were studied.
     利用模拟淋溶实验测定了中国几种土壤 (砖红壤、赤红壤、红壤、黄棕壤和紫色土 )的风化速率 ,并研究了土壤pH值和降水量对土壤风化速率的影响 .
短句来源
     Results show that the weathering rates of soils are very low (usually lower than 1.0? keq·ha -1 ·a -1 ) in the allite areas (including latosol, lateritic red earth, red earth, yellow earth, and yellow brown earth) in south China, and the silalsol areas (consisting of dark brown forest soil, black soil, and podzolic soil) in northeast China. These soils are therefore sensitive to acid deposition.
     研究表明 ,中国南方富铝土区域 (包括砖红壤带、赤红壤带、红壤黄壤带和黄棕壤带 )以及东北的硅铝土区域 (包括暗棕壤黑土带和漂灰土带 )的风化速率普遍较低 (通常低于 1.0keq·ha-1·a-1) ,土壤缓冲酸沉降的能力较弱 .
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  风化率
     Constraints on Silicate Weathering Rates in Different Settings:Climatic or Tectonic?
     不同构造带硅酸盐化学风化率的制约:气候还是构造?
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     The dissolved and particulate loads of the river are used to estimate the physical erosion and chemical weathering rates over the world drainage basins, respectively.
     讨论了运用河流的颗粒相和溶解相载荷分别去估算机械剥蚀率和化学风化率的科学性及各种计算方法。
短句来源
     Based on the compilation of chemical weathering rates of silicate minerals and physical erosion rates in different settings, this study shows that weathering rates and tectonic and climatic changes on different spatial and temporal scales have coupling or even conflicting relationships.
     综合不同构造区内岩石物理剥蚀率和硅酸盐化学风化率的数据表明,不同时间、空间尺度硅酸盐风化率与构造和气候之间既存在相互耦合也存在矛盾的关系,仅仅归因于单一要素是不能得到圆满解释的。
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  “weathering rates”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Due to the ignorance of CA as an activator in weathering, previous studies of weathering undoubtedly underestimated weathering rates, and hence the contribution of weathering to the atmospheric CO 2 precipitation was also underestimated.
     毫无疑问 ,已往的研究由于未认识到CA在风化中的催化作用 ,因此低估了风化作用的速率 ,同样也低估了风化作用对大气CO2沉降的贡献。
短句来源
     to the present. This implies a general rise in mechanical erosion rates might couple with a general decline in chemical weathering rates over the past 2.5 Ma.
     自2.5MaB.P.
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  weathering rates
An increase in sedimentary Mn and Fe concentrations is related to elevated continental weathering rates and to widespread dys- or anoxia that favored metal deposition in Valanginian sediments.
      
The parameters contributing most to the uncertainty in critical loads were weathering rates, base cation uptake rates, and choice of critical chemical value, indicating possible research priorities.
      
This result could be attributed to increased weathering rates due to climate warming.
      
In three non-acidified watersheds in Japan, arealchemical weathering rates of primary minerals are much largerthan those observed in U.S.A.
      
Weathering rates at the present pH values in forested loess and clay soilsranged from 135 to 6000 molc ha-1 a-1 in loesssoils and from 100 to 1750 molc ha-1 a-1 in claysoils.
      
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The thickness of weathering rind on sandstone gravels from river terrace and alluvial fan deposits in Guangdong area increases with time. The growth curve of weathering thickness has been determined by using age control from radio carbon, thermolumi-nesecence and ESR techniques, showing the exponential decay of weathering rate. Weathering-rind thickness thus provives a measure of the age of deposits or geomorphic surfaces:T = 1485D4.13Where T=age in years, and D = weighted mean thickness...

The thickness of weathering rind on sandstone gravels from river terrace and alluvial fan deposits in Guangdong area increases with time. The growth curve of weathering thickness has been determined by using age control from radio carbon, thermolumi-nesecence and ESR techniques, showing the exponential decay of weathering rate. Weathering-rind thickness thus provives a measure of the age of deposits or geomorphic surfaces:T = 1485D4.13Where T=age in years, and D = weighted mean thickness in mm of about 50 gravels from the surficial part of deposit.Using this method, the authors have determined the ages of two types of geomorphic surfaces in Guangdong area. The ages of the first and second river terraces are determined as 1 000-13300 yrs, and 8600-26500 yrs., respectively; while those of the first-and second-order alluvial fans along the northern front of Zhaoqing basin as 51500 and 24400 yrs., respectively. Based on these data and geomorphic analysis of tectonic deformation, the rates of vertical faulting for three major NE-trending fault zones in the area can be estimated as 0.6-1.6mm/yr. for the period before mid-Holocene, and much less value for Latest Pleistocene.

广东地区河流阶地和冲积扇沉积物中砂岩砾石风化晕随时间增厚。风化晕生长速度呈指数衰减,并拟合于下列公式:T 1485D~(4.13)这里T=时间,以年表示,D=沉积物表部约50块砾石风化晕厚度的加权平均值,以毫米表示。利用风化晕厚度确定出广东地区河流第一和第二级阶地分别为1000—13300年和8600—26500年,肇庆盆地北部山前地带第Ⅰ和第Ⅱ级冲积扇分别为51500年和24400年。同时,在构造地貌变形分析的基础上,估算出本区三条主要北东向断裂带在晚更新世—中全新世的垂直断层作用速度为0.6—1.6毫米/年,中全新世甚或晚更新世晚期以来的活动速度极小。

The chemical composition of natural surface water not only reflects the characteristics of natural environment in the area of standing water, but also deter -mines the main chemical properties of the water body. The basic hydrochemical composition is dependent on the dissolved matters in meteoric water and on the dissolvable matters in soils and rocks during weathering and erosion. The investigation on hydrochemical compositions of several plateau lakes and reservoirs (say, Dianchi Lake in Kunming, Erhai...

The chemical composition of natural surface water not only reflects the characteristics of natural environment in the area of standing water, but also deter -mines the main chemical properties of the water body. The basic hydrochemical composition is dependent on the dissolved matters in meteoric water and on the dissolvable matters in soils and rocks during weathering and erosion. The investigation on hydrochemical compositions of several plateau lakes and reservoirs (say, Dianchi Lake in Kunming, Erhai Lake in Dali, Changqiaohai Lake and Datun Lake in Mengzi, as well as swarms of reservoirs in Central Guizhou Province) indicates that: 1 ) Only a little influence on the basic composition of surface water is imposed by the meteoric water; 2 ) The chemical weathering rate in Central Guizhou is more affected by acid rain than the areas of Erhai, Dianchi and Mengzi; 3) Within a same standing water basin, the chemical. weathering rate in teaching-dissolving area is higher than that in accumulation area;4)For water bodies associated with a same river valley, the chemical weat hering rate increases with increasing area of standing water; 5 ) The intensity of human activities plays an extremely considerable influence on the chemical weathering rate, resulting in a direct change of the concentrations of the 3 basic components,namely, Cl-, Na+ and K+, in water bodies; 6) The total concentration of so-called "three sorts of nitrogen" (i. e. , nitrogen of nitrate, nitrite and ammonia) in the swarms of reservoirs in Central Guizhou is 10 tiroes higher than in Erhai Lake, Dianchi Lake, Changqiaohai Lake and Datun Lake in Yunnan province. The ratio of N3+ over the total "three sorts of nitrogen" can be used as an indicator of pollution degree of water bo dies, because N3+ is an intermittent product during the processes of nitrification and denitri-fication; 7)Phosphorus content in water bodies in Central Guizhou is one magnitude higher than that in lakes in Yunnan Province; 8 ) The oxidation indices (Fe3+//Fe2+) and (DO/COD) show a certain correlation with the degree of pollution.

天然地表水的基本化学组分不仅反映了积水区域内的自然环境特征、而且决定了水体的主要化学性质。水化学基本组分取决于积水区内大气降水中的溶解物质和土壤岩石的风化侵蚀可溶性产物。对昆明的滇池、大理的洱海、蒙自的长桥海和大屯海、以及黔中地区的水库群等若干高原湖泊水库水化学组分的研究表明:大气降水来源对各地区地表水基本组分影响不大;黔中地区化学风化速率受酸性降水的影响比洱海、滇池、蒙自地区略高;在同一积水盆地,淋溶区化学风化速率较聚积区高;同一流域水体,随积水区域面积的增大,化学风化速率不断增大;人为活动的强度对化学风化速率有极为显著的影响,直接改变了水体中Cl~-、Na~+、和K~+三种基本组分的含量;黔中水库群的三氮总量比洱海、滇池、长桥海和大屯海高出近十倍;N~(3+)作为硝化和反硝化过程的中间产物,在三氮总量中所占比例可以作为判断水体污染程度的指标;黔中水体中磷含量较云南湖水高一个数量级;水体氧化性指标〔Fe~(3+)/Fe~(2+)〕和〔DO/COD〕与污染程度有一定关系。

The comparative study of purple lithomorphic soils, their parent materials and rocks showed that the indicator characters of genesis of purple lithomorphic soils were high physical weathering rate, enrichment or weak loss of elements, lower free iron content and clayization coefficient, higher silt clay ratio and the similarity of silica-alumina ratios between soils, parent materials and bed rocks. Great group of purple lithomorphic soils can be divided by comparison of free iron content, silsca-alumina...

The comparative study of purple lithomorphic soils, their parent materials and rocks showed that the indicator characters of genesis of purple lithomorphic soils were high physical weathering rate, enrichment or weak loss of elements, lower free iron content and clayization coefficient, higher silt clay ratio and the similarity of silica-alumina ratios between soils, parent materials and bed rocks. Great group of purple lithomorphic soils can be divided by comparison of free iron content, silsca-alumina ratio (<1μ) between soil and bed rock or parent material; subgroup by weathering degree; family by the combined type of partical composition, chemical composition and mineral composition; and sepcies by the soil depth, gravel content, soil erosion degree and soil water condition.

用土壤、母质、岩石分析对比进行研究,结果表明,高速的物理风化,微弱的元素损失或富集,偏低的铁游离度、粘化系数,较高的粉粘比以及土体、母质、母岩间硅铝率相似性等,标志着紫色岩性土的发生过程。紫色岩性土的土类,应以土壤、岩石(或母质)的游离铁、粘粒硅铝率比值近于1划分;以风化度大小划分亚类;以母质的机械组成、化学组成和矿物组成组合类型划分土属;以土层厚度、夹砾量、土壤侵蚀程度和水分状况差异划分土种。

 
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