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direct energy
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  直接能量
     L&N Company is developing CCS based on direct energy balance concept, and then nowadays it is the fourth unit control strategy.
     美国利诺(L&N)公司提供的基于直接能量平衡(DIRECT ENERGY BALANCE或D-E-B)概念的协调控制系统(CCS),现今已是第四代的DEB控制策略。
短句来源
     Analysis of Coordinated Control System with Direct Energy Balance(DEB) Approach
     直接能量平衡法(DEB)协调控制系统分析
短句来源
     Different from the traditional coordinated control, the direct energy balance coordinated control uses the amount of heat released from the combustion of fuel instead of the amount of fuel to control the combustion, and it is therefore not affected by the composition and dampness of coals.
     直接能量平衡 (DEB)协调控制系统与传统的协调控制系统不同 ,它不直接把燃料量作为锅炉燃烧的被调量 ,而是把锅炉燃烧释放的热量作为燃烧被调量 ,因此可不受煤质的成分和湿度的影响。 DEB协调控制系统投入简单 ,能长期稳定运行。
短句来源
     STUDY ON DIRECT ENERGY CONTROL METHOD OF FRICTION WELDING
     摩擦焊直接能量控制法的研究
短句来源
     The Simulation Research on Direct Energy Balance System
     直接能量平衡系统的仿真研究
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  直接能源
     ATP is the acronyms of Adenosine Triphosphate. It is a commoncomponent containing in every vital cell,is the direct energy source of allbiological activities and is a sign of life activities.
     ATP 即三磷酸腺苷(Adenosine Triphosphate),它是活细胞普遍具有的组分,是所有生物活动的直接能源,是生命活力的标志。
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  “direct energy”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Most stable BC2N-I and BC2N-II demonstrate direct energy gap.
     最稳定的BC2N-I和BC2N-II的带隙为直接带隙。
短句来源
     A UNIQUE DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION DEVICE——ALKALI METAL THERMOELECTRIC CONVERTER
     一种独特的热电能量直接转换器件——碱金属热电转换器(AMTEC)
短句来源
     As we all know, ATP is the most primary and direct energy supply of living activities.
     众所周知,ATP是生命活动最主要和最直接的供能者。
短句来源
     From these measurements, it is found that the direct energy gap Eo is 2.43 eV for Ga0.3Al0.7As at room temperature.
     测量结果得出室温时Gao. 3Alo,7As的直接带隙E_0为2.43eV。
短句来源
     Particularly the microwave weapon effect ability of the AESA will provide a useful adjunct to other Direct Energy weapons research.
     特别是AESA的微波武器效应能力,将为定向能武器研究提供了另一种有用的选择。
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  direct energy
In such situations there will exist a direct energy interchange among points of the body boundary that do not belong to a given "small neighborhood".
      
An important parameter in the implementation of this method of direct energy conversion is the emissivity of the converter emitter and collector materials.
      
An analysis of the absorption coefficient data suggests that MnSi1.7 has a minimum direct energy gap of 0.68 eV.
      
For alloys (0.23≤ x≤ 0.32) investigated with the direct energy band gap, the band structure has been inverted with the application of the hydrostatic pressure to make the X states considerably lower in energy than the next higher energy minima.
      
An analysis of published data has shown that refractory compounds can be regarded as potentially useful materials for direct energy conversion devices.
      
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With the intention of energy conservation, engineers and managers should know not only the direct energy consumption for products but also the overall energy consumption and energy-bearer so as to seek out the directions and measures of industrial energy conservation. An attempt has been made to provide some basic concepts of energy conservation to help the energy-saving workers to acquire an all-round energy conservation outlook, based on which their work can be done...

With the intention of energy conservation, engineers and managers should know not only the direct energy consumption for products but also the overall energy consumption and energy-bearer so as to seek out the directions and measures of industrial energy conservation. An attempt has been made to provide some basic concepts of energy conservation to help the energy-saving workers to acquire an all-round energy conservation outlook, based on which their work can be done more effectively.Summary. Defining such concepts as energy consumption for products and eneray-bearer, two methods for calcuating energy value are recommended, ie. the accumulative and the reverse matrix. Directions and measures of energy conservation to be considered in production process are offered in detail on the basis of the concept of energy-bearer. It is exhibited that the application of optimization is of great importance to the research work of energy conservation.Energy study for technological process is necessary not only for existing processes, but also for the development of new processes. Different standpoints for the study are pointed out. The influence of flowsheet on the energy consumption per tonne crude steel is elucidated by exemplifying the results of IISI research work.

解释了产品能耗和载能体等基本概念,介绍了产品能值的两种计算方法:累加法和逆矩阵法。以载能体概念为基础,指出了生产过程中节约能源的方向和途径。说明了在节能工作中应用优化方法的重要性。强调了工艺流程能耗评价的必要性和进行这类评价对的基本立足点。引用国际钢铁协会的研究结果,说明了生产流程对吨钢能耗的影响。

Effect of deep level on luminous efficiency of Ga1-xAlxAs is studied by DLTS method. The concentration, the depth and the capture cross-section of deep levels are measured for three LEDs with different efficiencies, and then the life time r, of majority carrier in n region are calculated. The emission spectra and the luminous flux of these LEDs are also measured.The relation between the inner quantum efficiency ηi, of LEDs and life time τP of the minority carrier is expressed as follows:where τR-1 and τN-1 are...

Effect of deep level on luminous efficiency of Ga1-xAlxAs is studied by DLTS method. The concentration, the depth and the capture cross-section of deep levels are measured for three LEDs with different efficiencies, and then the life time r, of majority carrier in n region are calculated. The emission spectra and the luminous flux of these LEDs are also measured.The relation between the inner quantum efficiency ηi, of LEDs and life time τP of the minority carrier is expressed as follows:where τR-1 and τN-1 are the transition probabilities responsible for radiative and nonradiative transitions respectively. Since the quantum efficiency of LEDs is generally less then 7 %, soThis means that the efficiency of LEDs is proportional to τP,τR should not be closely related with the shallow dopping concentration for the LEDs with direct energy gap, so it can be assumed as a constant for the LEDs discussed at the same operating current.The nonradiative transition probability τN-1 has a close relation with the property of deep levels , according to Shcckley-Read-Hall statistics , the τof minority carrier equals:For the p-side of pn junction, p0>>p1>>n0>>n1, hence we haveOwing to the fact that the same preparation technology for both p- and n sides would introduce the same deep levels, we can assume that the same deep levels which exist in the p-side are located in the n-side. Therefore the lift time τp of minority carrier determined by the deep level in p-region is equal to τn of majorty carrier in n-region, the latter is easily obtained using the parameters measuree by DLTS.The experimental results show that the ratio R1 of efficiency betweet 1# and 2# LEDs is approximately equal to that of their life time, Rτ. However, it is not completely true for 2# and 3# LEDs. The different between Rl and Rτ is rather remarkble. Considering the difference of their emission spectra, the contradiction is partly explained. The life time for the three kinds of LEDs, furthermore the efficiency of them, are mainly influerced by the deep levels with △Eη=0.28, 0.33 and 0,32eV respectively, It is possible that the infrared peak of 8800 A is caused by the recombination of the interband of GaAs or through the impurity levels which occur near the interface between Ga1-xAlxAs and GaAs. The appearance of this peak is closely correlated with the worse interface. Our result indicates that the LED with the highest efficiency: has only a deep level of △Eη=0.28eV and has a very weak infrared emission peak.

本文用DLTS法测量了发光效率不同的三只Ga)(1-x)Al_xAs LED的深能级浓度.深度和俘获截面,并计算出电子和空穴的寿命,同时测量了它们的发光光谱和光通.从发光效率正比于载流子寿命的观点出发,分析了实验结果.表明1~*与3~*LED发光效率比R_1大致等于它们的寿命比R_τ,但2~*与3~*却差别很大,文中从光谱角度作了一些分析,差值有所改进.从载流子寿命分析,找出了△E_m=0.28、0.33与0.32eV三个能级是分别影响三个LED效率的主要能级。指出了8800A的红外峰是使发光效率降低的另一个原因,它可能起因于外延层与村底界面处GaAs的带间复合和通过杂质的复合,要得到高效的LED必须制备出好的Ga_(1-x)Al_xAs与GaAs界面,应尽可能使红外峰减少.实验表明,效率高的LED仅有一个深能级(0.28eV),在室温下视察不到明显的红外峰。

The resonant Raman scattering of LO, 2LO and LO1+LO2 phonons in Ga1-xAlxAs has been investigated. In order to chose the possibility of tuning the gaps with respect to a fixed gas laser line, the measurements were performed by means of the variation of the energy gap with the composition x and the temperature in Ga1-xA1xAs Forbidden LO scattering is explained by the Frohlich coupling mechanism. Both two-phonoa resonant Raman scattering of 2LO(Г) and that of LO1+LO2 are attributed to an iterated electron-one-phonon...

The resonant Raman scattering of LO, 2LO and LO1+LO2 phonons in Ga1-xAlxAs has been investigated. In order to chose the possibility of tuning the gaps with respect to a fixed gas laser line, the measurements were performed by means of the variation of the energy gap with the composition x and the temperature in Ga1-xA1xAs Forbidden LO scattering is explained by the Frohlich coupling mechanism. Both two-phonoa resonant Raman scattering of 2LO(Г) and that of LO1+LO2 are attributed to an iterated electron-one-phonon scattering process caused also by Frohlich interaction. From these measurements, it is found that the direct energy gap Eo is 2.43 eV for Ga0.3Al0.7As at room temperature.

本文研究了Ga_1~xAlxAs晶体的LO、2LO和LO_1+LO_2声子的共振喇曼散射。为了选择带隙对固定激光线调谐的可能性,借助于禁带宽度随Ga_(1-x)AlxAs的组分x而变化以及半导体能带的温度效应来完成本测试工作。用Frohlich耦合机理解释了选择定则禁止的LO声子散射。2LO(Г)和LO_1+LO_2双声子共振喇曼散射都解释为Frohlich相互作用引起的重迭电子一单声子散射过程。测量结果得出室温时Gao.3Alo,7As的直接带隙E_0为2.43eV。

 
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