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cotton
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  棉花
    A Whole-mount Method for Embryo Development Process of Cotton
    棉花胚胎发育过程的整体制片法
短句来源
    A Preliminary Report on the Separation of Cotton Mesophyll Protoplasts
    棉花叶肉原生质体的分离初报
短句来源
    A MOLECULAR DEMONSTRATION OF THE INTRODUCTION INTO COTTON EMBRYOS OF EXOGENOUS DNA
    外源DNA导入棉花的分子验证
短句来源
    The Complete Sequence of the 5S rRNA from the Cotton Seed
    棉花种子5S rRNA的全核苷酸顺序
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    ANAIYSIS OF THE MICROSPORE'S DEVELOPMENT IN F_5 OF“STRILE STRAIN OF HAIDOCNG”COTTON WHICH WAS CROSSED WITH PUMPKIN
    棉花“海洞不育系”与南瓜杂交 F_5代小孢子发育的分析
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    Economic and Farmers' Health Impacts of Bt Cotton in China
    我国采用Bt抗虫的经济和健康影响
短句来源
    ISOLATION OF COTTON (GOSSYPIUM BARBADENSE) DNA
    海岛(Gossypium barbadense)DNA的提纯
短句来源
    EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY ON TRANSLOCATION OF ~(14)C-LABELLED ASSIMILATES ON COTTON PLANT
    光线对叶~(14)C同化产物运输的影响
短句来源
    Ovule Culture of Interspecific Hybrids from Diploid Wild Cotton X Tetraploid Cultivars and the Embryo and Seedling Development
    属二倍体野生与四倍体栽培种间杂交的胚珠培养
短句来源
    MAPPING OF TRANSLOCATION BREAKPOINTS ON CHROMOSOME 12 OF UPLAND COTTON,COSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L.
    陆地第12染色体易位断点的图谱定位
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  “cotton”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Fumigation Action of E605 and 666 against Cotton Aphids
    E605和666对于棉蚜的熏蒸作用
短句来源
    SIMULATIONS AND ANALYSIS ON THE POPULATIONDYNAMICS OF THE COTTON BOLLWORM HELIOTHISARMIGERA HUBNER) AT THE DIFFERENTTEMPERATURE CONDITIONS
    定温条件下棉铃虫种群动态的数学模拟与分析
短句来源
    Relationship Between Animal Community Dynamics and Pest Population in Cotton Field
    棉田动物群落动态及天敌与害虫种群之间的关系
短句来源
    Effect of Temperature on Hatching Rate of Overwintering Eggs and Survival Rate of Fundatrix of Cotton Aphid
    温度对越冬棉蚜卵孵化率和干母存活率的影响
短句来源
    The result showed that the amino acid sequence is highly homologous to the Na+/H+ antiporter genes from rice,barley,wheat,cotton,Iris lacteal and other plants.
    结果显示,该氨基酸序列与芦苇、水稻、小麦、大麦、玉米、拟南芥和滨藜等植物的Na+/H+泵基因对应的氨基酸序列有较高的相似性,其中与禾本科植物的相似性程度更高.
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  cotton
Enzymatic hydrolysis of neutral fat of cotton oil soap stock with a nonspecific lipase produced byOospora lactis F-500 was designed.
      
Utilization of cotton oil soap stock as the only source of carbon during cultivation of the fungus was studied.
      
The rate of hydrolysis of soap stock fat strongly depended on the way of biological conversion of cotton oil soap stock.
      
The resulting mixed cultures utilized cellulose, cellobiose, glucose, maize residue, cotton, and flax boon producing ethanol (up to 0.9 g/l) and acetic acid (up to 0.8 g/l).
      
Use of the Fungus Panus tigrinus in the Manufacture of Pressed Materials from Cotton Plant Waste
      
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In order to test the tactic response of the cotton bollworm, Heliothis ammigera(Hubner), to the odors of its preferred host plant, certain volatile substances known tobe present in the cotton plant such as methanol, trimethylamine and vanillic acid werechosen as olfactory stimulants. It was found that the larvae in the early three instarswere attracted by the vapors of vanillic acid and trimethylamine in various degrees, butmethanol vapor had a repellent effect. These vapors were emitted from aqueous...

In order to test the tactic response of the cotton bollworm, Heliothis ammigera(Hubner), to the odors of its preferred host plant, certain volatile substances known tobe present in the cotton plant such as methanol, trimethylamine and vanillic acid werechosen as olfactory stimulants. It was found that the larvae in the early three instarswere attracted by the vapors of vanillic acid and trimethylamine in various degrees, butmethanol vapor had a repellent effect. These vapors were emitted from aqueous solu-tions at the concentrations of 0.006 M 0.02 M and 0.03 M respectively. By using thesugars, free amino acids and vitamins which were shown to be present in the cotton plantas gustatory stimulants and incorporating them separately in the agar-based media, it wasfound that at the concentration of 0.02 M sucrose and fructose had a definite phago-stimulating effect, glucose was less effective, and xylose was indifferent. At low concen-trations, only DL-alanine among the five amino acids tested had some phago-stimulatingeffect, and ascorbic acid at 0.01 M was phago-inhibitive. These results show that thecotton bollworm as a polyphagous species responds differently to the individual com-ponents of the host plant which may act either as attractants or repellents, phago-stimulants or phago-inhibitors. Different species and varieties of cotton plants and some descendants from thehybridization between cotton and some other malvaceous plants such as Hibiscus palus-tris,H. mutabilis, Malva sylvestris and Althaea rosea were used to test the tactic andfeeding responses of the cotton bollworm. It was found that when the larvae had thechance to choose their food, they were more readily attracted to the leaves of Gossypiumhirsutum and certain variety of G. barbadense, but not so readily to some of the hybriddescendants, some of which may even show repulsive properties in the test. In thisrespect different varieties of H. barbadense also had different effects. When there wasno chance to choose their food, the larvae were observed to consume different quantitiesof foliage from different plants in a definite period of time and to become conditionedto the host plants with which they were brought up. Simultaneous chemical analysis showed that the water content as well as the total andprotein nitrogen contents of the cotton leaves gradually decreased as growth proceeded.The total nitrogen content also dropped when the squares developed into flowers, andthe protein content was found to reach the maximum when the squares had attained alength about 2.5 cm. The total and protein nitrogen contents of the bolls dropped asthe latter grew and aged. The total and protein nitrogen contents of the leaves seemedto be the highest as compared with those of the squares and bolls. The quantities ofsoluble and reducing sugars of the young leaves exceeded those of the tender and oldleaves, but the sugar contents of the bolls were found to be much higher than those ofthe leaves. The sugar contents of the squares were relatively low. In spite of these disparities, it was possible to grow the larvae after hatching into maturity separately andsolely on the leaves, squares and bolls of the cotton plants. In these rearing experi-ments, the cumulative quantities of food consumed, the rates of development and mor-tality, and the weights of pupae thus obtained were found to be conspicuously different.It is interesting to note that the larvae during the whole course of development wouldconsume the old leaves to an amount which may double the total quantity of the foodconsumed when the young leaves were offered. When the bolls were used as food thecumulative quantity consumed exceeded several times that when the leaves were used.This difference is presumably attributed to the differences in the water and sugar con-tents of the different organs of the cotton plant, as already shown that sugars usuallywould evoke a strong phago-stimulating effect. The general impression is that the plantorgans which have the higher sugar and water contents usually have a better nutritiveeff

本工作选用棉花不同器官所含有的几种化学成分作为嗅觉和味觉刺激剂,测验棉铃虫对它们的反应;结果表明一至三龄的幼虫对甲醇三甲基胺、香草酸等的趋性不同,四龄幼虫对不同的糖类、氨基酸等的取食反应也各不一。这说明幼虫对食料植物中的个别化学成分有感觉辨识的能力。用不同品种的海岛棉、陆地棉、以及棉花和其它锦葵科植物杂交所产生的后代的叶片来试验棉铃虫对它们的趋性和取食反应,结果表明当有选择的机会时幼虫对陆地棉和一定品种海岛棉有较强的趋性,对某些杂交后代的趋性很弱。在不能选择的条件下棉铃虫在一定时间内对不同种类或品种的棉叶的取食量也不相同,并对原来的食料植物可形成条件化。 曾对棉花不同器官的含水量、含氮物质和糖类进行了测定,同时分别用叶、蕾和铃将新孵化的幼虫饲养到老熟。幼虫取食不同器官时的累积食量、发育速度、死亡率,和变成的蛹的重量均有明显的差别。当以大叶为食时幼虫的总食量超过以嫩叶为食时的一倍以上;以铃为食时总食量可为以嫩叶为食时的数倍。这种差异可能是因铃中水分和含糖量较高,对幼虫的取食发生强烈的助长作用所造成的。因此,同株植物上含糖和含水缺多的器官对棉铃虫似乎有较好的营养效应,而这种效应可能是通过糖类等的味觉刺激来增加取食...

本工作选用棉花不同器官所含有的几种化学成分作为嗅觉和味觉刺激剂,测验棉铃虫对它们的反应;结果表明一至三龄的幼虫对甲醇三甲基胺、香草酸等的趋性不同,四龄幼虫对不同的糖类、氨基酸等的取食反应也各不一。这说明幼虫对食料植物中的个别化学成分有感觉辨识的能力。用不同品种的海岛棉、陆地棉、以及棉花和其它锦葵科植物杂交所产生的后代的叶片来试验棉铃虫对它们的趋性和取食反应,结果表明当有选择的机会时幼虫对陆地棉和一定品种海岛棉有较强的趋性,对某些杂交后代的趋性很弱。在不能选择的条件下棉铃虫在一定时间内对不同种类或品种的棉叶的取食量也不相同,并对原来的食料植物可形成条件化。 曾对棉花不同器官的含水量、含氮物质和糖类进行了测定,同时分别用叶、蕾和铃将新孵化的幼虫饲养到老熟。幼虫取食不同器官时的累积食量、发育速度、死亡率,和变成的蛹的重量均有明显的差别。当以大叶为食时幼虫的总食量超过以嫩叶为食时的一倍以上;以铃为食时总食量可为以嫩叶为食时的数倍。这种差异可能是因铃中水分和含糖量较高,对幼虫的取食发生强烈的助长作用所造成的。因此,同株植物上含糖和含水缺多的器官对棉铃虫似乎有较好的营养效应,而这种效应可能是通过糖类等的味觉刺激来增加取食量所造成。

It is known that treatment with boron may to a certain extent reduce the percentage of boll shedding in cotton plant. It is also known that boron plays a special role in carbohydrate metabolism of the plants in general. The present work attempted to elucidate the effect of boron treatment on the translocation and metabolism of carbohydrates in cotton plant. The first internode of the fourth to the sixth fruiting branch of field grown cotton plant was chosen as experimental material. Only one...

It is known that treatment with boron may to a certain extent reduce the percentage of boll shedding in cotton plant. It is also known that boron plays a special role in carbohydrate metabolism of the plants in general. The present work attempted to elucidate the effect of boron treatment on the translocation and metabolism of carbohydrates in cotton plant. The first internode of the fourth to the sixth fruiting branch of field grown cotton plant was chosen as experimental material. Only one leaf and one newly-opened flower were left on the branch. Ringing was performed 3 cm below the flower in order to localize the treatment effect. Boron treatment was either applied to the leaf or to the flower. Treatments were either done in the light, or when plants were kept in darkness. At various intervals (24 and 48 hours) after treatment, samples were taken, each sample being constituted of 15 branches. Reducing sugars, sucrose and starch were determined respectively. Experiments showed that starch made up 10—13% of the dry weight of cotton leaf, it made up 5—6% of the dry weight of the young boll. Boron treatment of the leaf did not only increase the content of starch and reducing sugars of the treated organ, but also increased the content of reducing sugars of the boll opposite to the treated leaf. When plants were kept in darkness, boron treatment of the leaf increased the content of reducing sugars of the treated leaf at the expense of the content of starch. This. treatment caused an increase of both starch and reducing sugars in the boll. It is considered that the beneficial effect of boron on boll shedding is rclated to its improved carbohydrate supply to the boll.

五、摘要棉花叶子内碳水化合物的主要存在形式是淀粉,占干重的10—13%,绿色幼鈴内也含有较多的淀粉,大约是干重的5—6%。幼鈴内还原糖比叶子多一些。开花后第一天到第二天叶内及幼鈴内淀粉含量下降,而其还原糖则增加,这和幼鈴开始合成纤维素需要糖类作原料有关。幼鈴内合成纤维素的原料主要来自叶内淀粉。根据实验可以认为,硼不仅促进淀粉的合成,还能加强淀粉的水解,所以硼能加速碳水化合物的代谢。硼处理叶子时,不仅引起叶内淀粉及还原糖的增加,同时引起鈴内还原糖含量的增加,这说明了硼有促进糖类运输的功能。硼的这些生理功能在处理后24小时就已充分地表现出来。根据实验可以认为硼能减少棉鈴脱落是有生理依据的。根外施硼的适宜浓度为200—400ppm。

Dibrachys cavus (Walker) is an ectoparasite of the cotton pink bollworm. It pro-duces 11--12 generations annually at Hangchow, Chekiang Province. It overwintersmainly in the larval stage within the cocoon of the parasitized overwintering cotton pinkbollworm. A maximun of 21, a minimun of 1, and an average of 10.67 hosts is parasi-tized by a single female. The average number of the offspring is 100.47, but when theparasite could not find sufficient hosts for oviposition, the number of the offspringrapidly...

Dibrachys cavus (Walker) is an ectoparasite of the cotton pink bollworm. It pro-duces 11--12 generations annually at Hangchow, Chekiang Province. It overwintersmainly in the larval stage within the cocoon of the parasitized overwintering cotton pinkbollworm. A maximun of 21, a minimun of 1, and an average of 10.67 hosts is parasi-tized by a single female. The average number of the offspring is 100.47, but when theparasite could not find sufficient hosts for oviposition, the number of the offspringrapidly decreased. The sex ratio of D. cavus is usually 80--90%. This species can re-produce parthenogenically, and individuals developed from the unfertilized eggs are allmales. The longevity of an adult varies according to sex and temperature. Under labo-ratory conditions, it was found that those adult parasites supplied with honey or hosts sur-vived longer than those without such. The egg stage lasts 2--5 days, the larval stagegenerally lasts 5--14 days, while the overwintering larval stage lasts 141--145 days, andthe pupal stage generally 5--35 days. A list of 148 host species (including subspecies) in 36 families, representing 6 orders,reported by other authors is given. In the laboratory D. cavus also attacked and com-pleted its development on Anchonoma xeraula Meyrick, Pristomerus chinensis Ashm. andan undetermined species of Apanteles, the last two being primary parasites of the cottonpink bollworm. It is easy to rear the parasite. A simple and inexpensive method of large-scaleproduction is reported. In April of 1961, over 1.16 million parasites were released tomore than 200 cotton warehouses in the villages of Siaoshan district. The average per-centage of parasitism in the colonized warehouses was more than two times that of theuntreated warehouses (check). In the check warehouses the average percentage of livingcotton pink bollworm was 19.32%, while that in the colonized warehouses was 0.86%. The overwintering cotton pink bollworm may be induced to spin its cocoon in thesandy loam and cocoons so formed are also suitable for rearing the parasite. It may bea desirable method for overcoming the difficulty of collecting the host in large numbers.The writer has kept the larvae of the parasite in a refrigerator at 0--10℃ for a periodof 64 days, and found them pupating and emerging normally after removal from the re-frigerator. These adults were normal with respect to longevity, capacity of parasitismand reproduction. But when the larvae of the parasite were kept too long in the re-frigerator (e.g., 300 days), they were severely impaired in longevity, capacity of parasi-tism and reproduction of adults. The succeeding generation from such larvae appearedto be nearly normal in vitality. The result of a preliminary comparison test showedthat the race of the parasite collected from Kiukiang, Hangchow or Yungtzi is better thanthat from Yuncheng. It was found possible to increase vitality of this parasite bybybridization with different races from distant localities. D. cavus may be a beneficialparasite or undesirable one depending on whether the hosts present are harmful or useful,a fact to be kept in view before starting to make use of this parasite. In the writer'sopinion, this parasite seems to be harmless when used for combating the overwinteringcotton pink bollworm.

黑青小蜂系棉红铃虫的外寄生蜂。在杭州,年发生11代,少数12代。主要以幼虫在越冬红铃虫的茧内越冬。每雌平均寄生红铃虫10.67头,产子蜂100.47头。若寄主供应不充分,则子蜂数量显著减少。性比高,通常为80-90%。成虫寿命与温度关系密切,雌蜂一般长于雄蜂。喂以蜂蜜或给以寄主供其寄生,寿命均能显著延长。卵期2—5天;非越冬幼虫历期5—14天,越冬幼虫历期141—145天;非越冬蛹历期5—35天。 综合文献记载,已知寄主6目36科148种(包括亚种)。经室内试验,能顺利地寄生并育出子蜂的,尚有米淡墨虫、中国齿腿瘦姬蜂以及一种绒茧蜂。后二者均为红铃虫的寄生蜂。 此蜂易于饲养,采取一系列简易的办法,能顺利地进行大量繁殖。在二百余棉仓放蜂116万余头的结果,对活红铃虫的寄生率自33.61%提高至95.93%,增高1.85倍,红铃虫活虫率则自19.32%降至0.86%,抑低95.55%。 越冬红铃虫能在沙土中作茧;所结之茧,此蜂同样寄生、发育并羽化,可望通过这一途径,改进繁殖用寄主的采集方法,以节约劳力。幼虫于5℃上下、0—10℃范围内冷藏64天后表现仍正常,但长期冷藏则生活力大受影响,而繁殖一代后又显然有所恢复。各...

黑青小蜂系棉红铃虫的外寄生蜂。在杭州,年发生11代,少数12代。主要以幼虫在越冬红铃虫的茧内越冬。每雌平均寄生红铃虫10.67头,产子蜂100.47头。若寄主供应不充分,则子蜂数量显著减少。性比高,通常为80-90%。成虫寿命与温度关系密切,雌蜂一般长于雄蜂。喂以蜂蜜或给以寄主供其寄生,寿命均能显著延长。卵期2—5天;非越冬幼虫历期5—14天,越冬幼虫历期141—145天;非越冬蛹历期5—35天。 综合文献记载,已知寄主6目36科148种(包括亚种)。经室内试验,能顺利地寄生并育出子蜂的,尚有米淡墨虫、中国齿腿瘦姬蜂以及一种绒茧蜂。后二者均为红铃虫的寄生蜂。 此蜂易于饲养,采取一系列简易的办法,能顺利地进行大量繁殖。在二百余棉仓放蜂116万余头的结果,对活红铃虫的寄生率自33.61%提高至95.93%,增高1.85倍,红铃虫活虫率则自19.32%降至0.86%,抑低95.55%。 越冬红铃虫能在沙土中作茧;所结之茧,此蜂同样寄生、发育并羽化,可望通过这一途径,改进繁殖用寄主的采集方法,以节约劳力。幼虫于5℃上下、0—10℃范围内冷藏64天后表现仍正常,但长期冷藏则生活力大受影响,而繁殖一代后又显然有所恢复。各地蜂种比较结果,以运城的为最差,九江、杭州、永济表现良好,三者之间差异尚不显著。种内杂交有可能提高生活力,“杭?

 
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