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quelling reaction
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  “quelling reaction”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Serotyping of S.pneumoniae was performed by using quelling reaction. RESULTS Among 152 strains of S.pneumoniae,65(42.76%) strains were resistant to penicillin(MIC≥0.12mg/L).
     结果152株肺炎链球菌中,耐青霉素肺炎链球菌(PRSP,MIC≥0.12 mg/L)的发生率为42.76%;
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     Serotyping of the Streptococcus Pneumoniae strains was performed by using Quelling Reaction.
     肺炎链球菌分型使用Quellung反应方法。
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  相似匹配句对
     The reaction was simple.
     该合成工艺条件温和 ,反应过程简单 .
短句来源
     Serotyping of the Streptococcus Pneumoniae strains was performed by using Quelling Reaction.
     肺炎链球菌分型使用Quellung反应方法。
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     On the Extent of Reaction
     化学反应进度
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Objective Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) has long been one of the most important bacterial pathogen causing pneumonia, meningitis, otitis media, sinusitis, and septicemia. During the recent 2 decades, the resistance of Sp to penicillin has been rapidly increasing in many parts of the world. The authors designed the present study to determine the prevalence of drug resistance among streptococcus pneumoniae carried by children in China, to determine the prevalence of vaccine serotypes among carriage strains and...

Objective Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) has long been one of the most important bacterial pathogen causing pneumonia, meningitis, otitis media, sinusitis, and septicemia. During the recent 2 decades, the resistance of Sp to penicillin has been rapidly increasing in many parts of the world. The authors designed the present study to determine the prevalence of drug resistance among streptococcus pneumoniae carried by children in China, to determine the prevalence of vaccine serotypes among carriage strains and to look for carriage of both susceptible and resistant Sp clones in individual patients. Methods The subjects enrolled 502 patients with upper respiratory infections who were 3 months to 5 years of age attending a general outpatient clinic at Beijing Children′s Hospital from Nov. to Dec.1997. A standardized questionnaire addressing age, symptoms of upper respiratory infections, recent antimicrobial use, breastfeeding, day care attendance, household size, smoke exposure, and parental education was completed for all the cases. Nasopharyngeal specimens and urine were collected for culture and antimicrobial activity, respectively. Sp was identified by optochin sensitivity and bile solubility. Sp serotyping was performed by using quelling reaction. Sensitivity to penicillin, cefuroxime, co trimoxazole, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol was determined using broth microdilution according to NCCLS methods. Urine sensitivity for antimicrobial activity was tested by pan susceptible Micrococcus luteus method. Forty two swabs were checked for “hidden clones” by selective plates containing penicillin or erythromycin compared to isolates found on gentamycin using antimicrobial susceptibility, serotype, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results Nasopharyngeal carriage of Sp among less than 5 years old children was 37.8% of the 502 subjects with upper respiratory infections. Beta lactam non susceptible strains remain uncommon (only 8%~9%) in this population. Resistance to erythromycin and co trimoxazole was very common (more than 70%). Only 33.9% of the isolates were those included in proposed pneumococcal conjugate vaccine formulations. Forty two samples containing Sp susceptible to both penicillin and erythromycin were tested for “hidden resistant clones” and 6 (14%) resistant clones were found. Conclusions Beta lactam resistance remains uncommon among the subjects studied in spite of widespread beta lactam use. However, it is necessary to monitor beta lactam resistance every year. Erythromycin and co trimoxazole resistance was very common. Erythromycin resistant strains were more common in children who recently took a macrolide. A small number of antibiotics resistant Sp strains were present in patients carrying susceptible Sp strains. Therefore, use of antimicrobial agents could lead to prominence of these resistant strains. Use of antibiotics might eradicate susceptible strains, but would leave the resistant strains alive in mucous membrane, which could be more dangerous for invasive disease. This study showed that the proposed conjugate vaccine serotypes did not cover majority of strains isolated; however, the distribution for invasive Sp strains may differ. Therefore, more studies should be done in this field in China.

目的 了解儿童肺炎链球菌携带者耐药菌株的流行情况 ,比较携带者菌株血清型与肺炎链球菌结合疫苗血清型的符合率 ,寻找单个患儿同时携带敏感和耐药菌株的可能性。方法  (1)对1997年 11月~ 12月在北京儿童医院普通门诊登记的 3个月~ 5岁儿童进行问卷调查 ;(2 )采集鼻咽拭子和尿标本 ,培养、分离和鉴定肺炎链球菌 ,并测定尿标本中的抗生素活性 ;(3)根据NCCLS方法使用微量稀释法测定肺炎链球菌对青霉素、头孢呋新、头孢噻肟、复方新诺明、红霉素和氯霉素的敏感性 ;(4 )从最初发现的青霉素、红霉素敏感株中寻找“隐匿性耐药克隆株”。结果  (1) 5 0 2例受试儿童中 ,分离出 190株肺炎链球菌 ,携带率为 37.8% (190 / 5 0 2 ) ,对青霉素的敏感率为 91.1% ;(2 )只有33 .9%的菌株血清型与建议使用的肺炎链球菌结合疫苗血清型相符 ;(3) 4 2例含青霉素和红霉素敏感菌株鼻咽拭子中发现 6株 (14% )“隐匿性耐药克隆株”。结论 在携带者中 ,肺炎链球菌对 β 内酰胺类耐药还不常见 ,但对红霉素和复方新诺明耐药却非常严重 ;建议使用的结合疫苗血清型不能覆盖大部分携带菌...

目的 了解儿童肺炎链球菌携带者耐药菌株的流行情况 ,比较携带者菌株血清型与肺炎链球菌结合疫苗血清型的符合率 ,寻找单个患儿同时携带敏感和耐药菌株的可能性。方法  (1)对1997年 11月~ 12月在北京儿童医院普通门诊登记的 3个月~ 5岁儿童进行问卷调查 ;(2 )采集鼻咽拭子和尿标本 ,培养、分离和鉴定肺炎链球菌 ,并测定尿标本中的抗生素活性 ;(3)根据NCCLS方法使用微量稀释法测定肺炎链球菌对青霉素、头孢呋新、头孢噻肟、复方新诺明、红霉素和氯霉素的敏感性 ;(4 )从最初发现的青霉素、红霉素敏感株中寻找“隐匿性耐药克隆株”。结果  (1) 5 0 2例受试儿童中 ,分离出 190株肺炎链球菌 ,携带率为 37.8% (190 / 5 0 2 ) ,对青霉素的敏感率为 91.1% ;(2 )只有33 .9%的菌株血清型与建议使用的肺炎链球菌结合疫苗血清型相符 ;(3) 4 2例含青霉素和红霉素敏感菌株鼻咽拭子中发现 6株 (14% )“隐匿性耐药克隆株”。结论 在携带者中 ,肺炎链球菌对 β 内酰胺类耐药还不常见 ,但对红霉素和复方新诺明耐药却非常严重 ;建议使用的结合疫苗血清型不能覆盖大部分携带菌株 ;耐药菌株的小部分隐匿在敏感菌株中 ,抗生素使用可能导致耐药菌株暴露出来

Objective This study designed to determine the antimicrobial resistance of streptococcus pneumoniae(S. pneumoniae) among children, and investigate the prevalence of molecular serotypes of penicillin-resistant strains. The aim is to offer adequate clinical antimicrobial therapy to upper respiratory infection. Methods Antimicrobial resistance of 84 S. pneumoniae stains isolated from the Nasopharyneal specimens of children patients with upper respiratory infection from 1999 to 2001 were studied by E-test and...

Objective This study designed to determine the antimicrobial resistance of streptococcus pneumoniae(S. pneumoniae) among children, and investigate the prevalence of molecular serotypes of penicillin-resistant strains. The aim is to offer adequate clinical antimicrobial therapy to upper respiratory infection. Methods Antimicrobial resistance of 84 S. pneumoniae stains isolated from the Nasopharyneal specimens of children patients with upper respiratory infection from 1999 to 2001 were studied by E-test and agar dilution method according to NCCLS, and S. pneumoniae strain was identified by optochin sensitivity and bile solubility. Serotyping of the S.pneumoniae strains was performed by using Quelling Reaction, and DNA of the S.pneumoniae strains resistant to penicillin was detected by BOX fingerprint PCR technique and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Results Among 84 S. pneumoniae strains,78.6% of them were susceptible to penicillin and also to other tested beta-lactams. Only 21.4% of them were resistant to penicillin with 16 strains were low-level resistant to penicillin and 2 strains was high-level resistant to penicillin. Almost all of them were susceptible to vancomycin and rifampin. Serotype of most of S. pneumoniae were multiresistant to tetracyline, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole?erythromycin. Serotype 6A(14.3%)?23F(13.1%)?19F(11.9%)?15B(7.1%)?14(7.1%),NT(7.1%) were most common, and also most of penicillin non-susceptible strain were serotype 23F and had similar multiresistance and BOX patterns. Conclusions Penicillin-resistant pneumococci remains uncommon but higher incidence in our area than others. Widespread resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole?erythromycin was found. Almost all of the strains were susceptible to vancomycin and rifampin. The epidemic multiresistant 23F clones, a majority of serotypes, have similar BOX fingerprint. It is important to monitor Betalactam resistance every year.

目的 了解小儿肺炎链球菌的耐药性及其血清型分布情况 ,为小儿上呼吸道感染的临床抗生素合理治疗提供依据。 方法 肺炎链球菌自小儿上呼吸感染者的鼻咽拭子标本分离取得 ,并用标准 E- test法和琼脂稀释法测定其耐药性 ;采用 Quellung反应方法对其血清分型 ;采用 BOX- PCR和琼脂糖电泳技术对其进行基因特征分析。 结果 研究了 1999年至 2 0 0 1年期间从患儿鼻咽拭子标本中分离出来的 84株肺炎链球菌。 78.6% ( 66株 )的菌株对青霉素敏感 ,也同时对其他的 β-内酰胺类抗生素敏感。仅有 2 1.4 % ( 18株 )的菌株对青霉素耐药 ,其中 ,88.9% ( 16株 )的是低度耐药 ,11.1% ( 2株 )是高度耐药。几乎所有的菌株对利福平和万古霉素是敏感的。但大多数菌株对四环素、氯霉素、复方新诺明、红霉素表现出多重耐药性。占 60 .6%的肺炎链球菌其血清型是 6A( 14 .3 % )、2 3 F( 13 .1% )、19F( 11.9% )、15 B( 7.1% )、14( 7.1% ) ,不能分型 ( 7.1% ) ,而 18株青霉素耐药菌株的血清型是 2 3 F、19...

目的 了解小儿肺炎链球菌的耐药性及其血清型分布情况 ,为小儿上呼吸道感染的临床抗生素合理治疗提供依据。 方法 肺炎链球菌自小儿上呼吸感染者的鼻咽拭子标本分离取得 ,并用标准 E- test法和琼脂稀释法测定其耐药性 ;采用 Quellung反应方法对其血清分型 ;采用 BOX- PCR和琼脂糖电泳技术对其进行基因特征分析。 结果 研究了 1999年至 2 0 0 1年期间从患儿鼻咽拭子标本中分离出来的 84株肺炎链球菌。 78.6% ( 66株 )的菌株对青霉素敏感 ,也同时对其他的 β-内酰胺类抗生素敏感。仅有 2 1.4 % ( 18株 )的菌株对青霉素耐药 ,其中 ,88.9% ( 16株 )的是低度耐药 ,11.1% ( 2株 )是高度耐药。几乎所有的菌株对利福平和万古霉素是敏感的。但大多数菌株对四环素、氯霉素、复方新诺明、红霉素表现出多重耐药性。占 60 .6%的肺炎链球菌其血清型是 6A( 14 .3 % )、2 3 F( 13 .1% )、19F( 11.9% )、15 B( 7.1% )、14( 7.1% ) ,不能分型 ( 7.1% ) ,而 18株青霉素耐药菌株的血清型是 2 3 F、19F、6B、14不能分型 ,以 2 3 F为主 ,它们有相似的BOX基因指纹图谱和耐药谱。 结论 本研究小儿肺炎链球菌对青霉素的耐药率较其他地区高 ,耐药模式以四环素、氯霉素、复方新诺明、红霉素、氯林可霉素为主。 2 3 F血清型是

Objective This study is designed to investigate bacterial resistance and the prevalence of serotype of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Methods Sensitivity to penicillin, cefotaxime, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, ofloxacin, Rifampin, vancomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamiethoxazole was determined by K-B and E-test methods according to NCCLS. Serotyping of the Streptococcus Pneumoniae strains was performed by using Quelling Reaction. Result Resistance of 266 species Streptococcus...

Objective This study is designed to investigate bacterial resistance and the prevalence of serotype of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Methods Sensitivity to penicillin, cefotaxime, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, ofloxacin, Rifampin, vancomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamiethoxazole was determined by K-B and E-test methods according to NCCLS. Serotyping of the Streptococcus Pneumoniae strains was performed by using Quelling Reaction. Result Resistance of 266 species Streptococcus Pneumoniae were as follows: Penicillin, 26.7 %(22.9% intermediate; 3.8% resistant); erythromycin, 65.4%; tetracycline, 51.7%; chloramphenicol, 45.8%; clindamycin, 53.0%; cefotaxime, 5.0%; Rifampin, 36.5%; ofloxacin, 1.5%; vancomycin, 0% and trimethoprim-sulfamiethoxazole, 66.5%. Serotype 23 F ( 13.2% ),6 A (12.4%),19 F (10.9%),6 B (7.1%),14 (6.4%),15 B (5.3%),NT(5.3%),19 A (3.0%),22 F (2.3%) were most common. Conclusion These data show that carriage of antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal is high in Zhongshan city. Erythromycin, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol, Clindamycin and Trimethoprim-sulfamiethoxazole resistance was very common. All strains were susceptible to Vancomycin. This study showed that Pneumococcal Vaccine Polyvalent did cover the majority of strains isolated.

目的 了解中山市肺炎链球菌的耐药性及其血清型分布情况 ,比较正常人群肺炎链球携带株与临床分离株的耐药性与血清型分布关系 ,探讨肺炎链球菌的耐药性和血清型分布特点。 方法 肺炎链球菌的培养、分离和鉴定按《全国临床检验操作规程》进行 ;药敏试验根据美国临床实验室标准委员会 (NCCLS)有关抗生素敏感性试验法规进行试验并对结果进行判定 ;肺炎链球菌分型使用Quellung反应方法。  结果  2 66株肺炎链球菌中耐青霉素肺炎链球菌占2 6.7% ;耐青霉素肺炎链球菌对红霉素、四环素、氯霉素、克林霉素、利福平和复方新诺明的耐药率高达 97.1%、10 0 %、5 6.3 %、84.5 %、42 .5 %、78.9% ;在所有菌株中排在前 9位 (占所有血清型的 65 .9% )的常见血清型是 2 3F (13 .2 % )、6A(12 .4% )、19F(10 .9% )、6B(7.1% )、14 (6.4% )、15B(5 .3 % )、NT(5 .3 % )、19A(3 .0 % )、2 2F(2 .3 % )。而 71株对青霉素不敏感的菌株中排在前 9位的常见血清型分别为 19F、2 3F、14型、不能分型...

目的 了解中山市肺炎链球菌的耐药性及其血清型分布情况 ,比较正常人群肺炎链球携带株与临床分离株的耐药性与血清型分布关系 ,探讨肺炎链球菌的耐药性和血清型分布特点。 方法 肺炎链球菌的培养、分离和鉴定按《全国临床检验操作规程》进行 ;药敏试验根据美国临床实验室标准委员会 (NCCLS)有关抗生素敏感性试验法规进行试验并对结果进行判定 ;肺炎链球菌分型使用Quellung反应方法。  结果  2 66株肺炎链球菌中耐青霉素肺炎链球菌占2 6.7% ;耐青霉素肺炎链球菌对红霉素、四环素、氯霉素、克林霉素、利福平和复方新诺明的耐药率高达 97.1%、10 0 %、5 6.3 %、84.5 %、42 .5 %、78.9% ;在所有菌株中排在前 9位 (占所有血清型的 65 .9% )的常见血清型是 2 3F (13 .2 % )、6A(12 .4% )、19F(10 .9% )、6B(7.1% )、14 (6.4% )、15B(5 .3 % )、NT(5 .3 % )、19A(3 .0 % )、2 2F(2 .3 % )。而 71株对青霉素不敏感的菌株中排在前 9位的常见血清型分别为 19F、2 3F、14型、不能分型、6B、2 2F、9V、19B和 3 3F。目前推荐使用的 2 3价肺炎球菌多糖疫苗 (1,2 ,3 ,4,5 ,6B ,7F ,8,9N ,9V ,10A ,11A ,12F ,14 ,15B ,17F ,18C ,19A ,19F ,2 0 ,2 2F ,2 3F ,3 3F)能覆盖所有分离菌株血清型 71.9%。 结论 在携带?

 
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