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deer mouse
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     Mouse
     鼠标
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     CAT AND MOUSE
     猫和老鼠
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  deer mouse
Four Corner (FC) or Sin Nombre virus, a hantavirus harbored by the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), is the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS).
      
The influence of mustelid anal-gland compounds on population dynamics of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was investigated.
      
Influence of mustelid semiochemicals on population dynamics of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus)
      
A genetically determined variant of the a-subunit of lactic dehydrogenase in the deer mouse
      
Horizontal starch gel electrophoresis reveals three hemoglobin phenotypes in natural populations of the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus,from northern Arizona.
      
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This paper investigated erythrocytic antigen differences between individuals in R. C. Carp population using routine serlogical methods. This antigen system is nominated as S blood type (or group) system. Based on the results of isoagglutination and isoantibody and rabbit antiserum absorption tests, four blood phenotypes were revealed: no antigen(type Ⅰ, S~0), two antigens(type Ⅱ, S~1S~2) and single antigen(type Ⅲ, S~1 and type Ⅳ, S~2). In serum, type Ⅰ has anti-S~1 and anti-S~2, type Ⅱ has no antibodies, type...

This paper investigated erythrocytic antigen differences between individuals in R. C. Carp population using routine serlogical methods. This antigen system is nominated as S blood type (or group) system. Based on the results of isoagglutination and isoantibody and rabbit antiserum absorption tests, four blood phenotypes were revealed: no antigen(type Ⅰ, S~0), two antigens(type Ⅱ, S~1S~2) and single antigen(type Ⅲ, S~1 and type Ⅳ, S~2). In serum, type Ⅰ has anti-S~1 and anti-S~2, type Ⅱ has no antibodies, type Ⅲ has anti-S~2, and type Ⅳ has anti-S~1. This blood type system is similar to the phenotype models of "A-B-O" type in tuna and ABO type in human being, but is different from the model in deer mouse which has only 3 phenotypes, A, AB and B, possibly controlled by two alleles alabelled P~A and P~B. It has been assumed that S blood type in R. C. Carp is determined by 3 multiple alleles labelled S~1, S~2 and S~0 (here S~1 and S~2 are codominant, and S~0 is most likely to be recessive). Although the genetic background of S system is possibly similar to that of human ABO. the results of agglutination test between human "A" and "B" serum and four types of S system in R.C.Carp showed that S system is a particular blood type independent of human ABO. The primary data present a much higher S~1S~2 ratio(6/16) in R.C.Carp than in human AB type. Further investigations of crossing between genotypes for S system are in process.

运用经典血清学方法首次在红鯽中证明了一种与金枪鱼中的A-B-O血型及人类的ABO血型模式相似的红细胞抗原系统,命名为S血型系统。该系统有四种血型表型:S~1,S~2,S~2S~2和S~0,推测它由S~1、S~2和S~0三个复等位基因决定。

The maximum metabolic rates ( MMR) of mammals may influence their survival by putting the upper limit for sustained activity or thermogenesis, and affect rates of reproduction and distribution. For the small mammals which inhabit on Qinghai Tibetan Plateau, the thermogenesis may be most important to their survival. Plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) and Root voles (Microtus oeconomus) are two dominant species in alpine meadow on Qinghai Tibetan Plateau, the former is an epidemic species to the area,...

The maximum metabolic rates ( MMR) of mammals may influence their survival by putting the upper limit for sustained activity or thermogenesis, and affect rates of reproduction and distribution. For the small mammals which inhabit on Qinghai Tibetan Plateau, the thermogenesis may be most important to their survival. Plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) and Root voles (Microtus oeconomus) are two dominant species in alpine meadow on Qinghai Tibetan Plateau, the former is an epidemic species to the area, and the latter is a species with wide geographical range. We determined their cold induced MMR in summer and winter. The metabolic rates were measured as oxygen consumption in closed system Kalabukhov Skvortsov respirometer under different temperatures (15℃, 10℃, 5℃, 0℃, -5℃ and -10℃). For each animal, the experiment was first carried out in normal atmosphere that initially filled the chamber, after 30~40 minutes, the resting metabolism rate was got, then enough helium oxygen mixture (79% He and 21% O 2) was blown rapidly through the chamber replacing the air in it. The chamber was sealed at once again, and the metabolic rates were measured for not less than 15 minutes under same ambient temperature. The metabolic rates in helium oxygen mixture were much larger than that in air. We got the MMR under 5℃ and 0℃ for Root voles and Plateau pikas respectively in summer, and in winter, 0℃and -5℃ respectively (Fig.1 and Fig.2). Their maximum metabolic rates change from 5 93(118 g)and 12 70(27 8 g)ml O 2/g·h in summer to 6 33(115 8 g)and 18 29 ml O 2/g·h(17 5 g)in winter for Plateau pikas and Root voles respectively (Table 1 and Table 2). The variations were not significant. We suggested that the two mammals lived under low temperature. Even in summer, the environmental temperature may be low, and it could decrease to 0℃ around at night. This led to relatively large increase in MMR in summer. On the other hand, the mammals may use other mechanisms such as behavior for wintering, and huddling is very important for thermoregulation for them. These increased the MMR relatively in summer with comparison of that in winter. The mammals are stressed by low temperature which can increase MMR and low oxygen pressure which can decrease MMR, and this let the maximum metabolic rates similar to that of small mammals living in other habitats. The MMR of Root voles living on Qinghai Tibetan Plateau and Red backed vole (Clethrrionomys rutilus) from Alaska, both of them belonging to Microtine are higher than their sympatric species, Plateau pikas and Snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus), which belong to Lagomorphs (Table 3). This suggested that existed inter species variation in MMR for mammals. The thermogenic capacity of small mammals inhabiting on Qinghai Tibetan Plateau may have been evolved under the unique climate, just as Hayes and O'Connor suggested for high altitude Deer mice. Further studies such as genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology on the mammals living in this area are needed.

采用He O2 混合气体诱导方法测定了高原鼠兔 (Ochotonacurzoniae)和根田鼠 (Microtusoeconomus)的最大代谢率 (MMR)。高原鼠兔的最大代谢率在夏季和冬季分别为 5 93 (体重为 118g)和 6 3 3 (体重为115 8g)mlO2 / g·h ,而根田鼠在夏季和冬季分别为 12 70 (体重为 2 7 8g)和 18 2 9(体重为 17 5g)mlO2 / g·h,并且根田鼠的最大代谢率的变化幅度大于高原鼠兔 ,存在种间差异。MMR季节变化的不显著性来源于动物环境温度在夏季较低 ,而在冬季为越冬亦采用行为调节等其它机制。栖于青藏高原的高原鼠兔和根田鼠同时受到低温和低氧的胁迫 ,而两者对最大代谢率作用相反 ,导致两种动物的最大代谢率与各自期望值相比差异不大。

 
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