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jumping mouse
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     Mouse
     鼠标
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     THE LION AND THE MOUSE
     狮子和老鼠
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     RESEARCH ON JUMPING ROBOTS
     弹跳式机器人研究
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     Jumping Jack flash
     跳动性闪光
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     When the brucine and clonidine was given in combination,it did not evoke morphine-like physical dependence with mouse jumping test.
     采用小鼠跳跃试验:结果揭示马钱子碱和可乐定两药合用不产生身体依赖性;
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  jumping mouse
Four species of small mammals were captured: the meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius), short-tailed shrew ( Blarina brevicauda), white-footed mouse ( Peromyscus leucopus), and golden mouse ( Ochrotomys nuttalli).
      
Live traps captured only one mammal species, the meadow jumping mouse.
      
Effects of Carbaryl-Treated Bait on Maternal Behavior and Sprint Performance in the Meadow Jumping Mouse, Zapus hudsonius
      
They also call for delisting because of the proposed synonymization of the Preble's meadow jumping mouse with the Bear Lodge meadow jumping mouse.
      
The Secretary of the Interior wanted to remove the Preble's meadow jumping mouse from the endangered species list.
      
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The systematic position of Eurymylidae(Anagalida)has been an important subjectin the discussion of the origin of the Rodentia since the most primitive genus of thisfamily,Heomys,was reported(Li,1977).The discovery of the new genus,Rhombomy-lus.from the Early Eocene of the Turpan basin.Xinjiang(Zhai,1978),and of the Jun-xian,Hubei(Li,1983),provides insights to factors involved into the relationshipsbetween Eurymylidae and Rodentia.After a preliminary report on the cranial morphology and dentition of the newlydiscovered...

The systematic position of Eurymylidae(Anagalida)has been an important subjectin the discussion of the origin of the Rodentia since the most primitive genus of thisfamily,Heomys,was reported(Li,1977).The discovery of the new genus,Rhombomy-lus.from the Early Eocene of the Turpan basin.Xinjiang(Zhai,1978),and of the Jun-xian,Hubei(Li,1983),provides insights to factors involved into the relationshipsbetween Eurymylidae and Rodentia.After a preliminary report on the cranial morphology and dentition of the newlydiscovered materials,including about 20 complete skulls and 150 jaws,of Rhombomylusfrom Hubei,the purpose of this paper is to describe the basic structure of the earregion and to call attention to some similarities of the ear structure between theRhombomylus and Rodentia.It is hoped that understanding more cranial charactersmight contribute to better discussing of the systematics of Eurymylidae.The ear region of Rhombomylus differs markedly from many of other mammalsin the inflation of the mastoid process.Normally,the mastoid in mammals appears onlyon the occipital or ventral surface and never goes to the dorsal surface of the skull.In Rhombomylus,it extends not only on the occipital and ventral surface,but also onthe dorsal surface(Pl.I,figs.1,2,3).It inflates in the shape of cube on the cranialwall of the skull(Pl.II,fig.1b),in front of which the tentorium of cerebellum waslocated.A number of septa fill in the mastoid process(Pl.I,fig.4).The inner ear of Rhombomylus resembles to some rodents in the shape and the struc-ture of the cochlea and the semicircular canals.The width of the cochlea is about 4 mmon the base and 1.5 mm on the apex.The height from the base to the apex is about4 mm.The cochlea may have two and half turns.The anterior,posterior and lateralsemicircular canals are 9 mm,8.5 mm and 7 mm in length respectively.The commonbony limb is about 2 mm long.The simple bony limb enters into the utricle supero-anteriorly to the posterior bony ampulla,which is different from that in some lago-morphs.The anterior and lateral bony ampullae locate at the upper side of the ves-tibular window and the posterior ampulla locates at the latero-ventral side of the co-chlea window(Pl.II,fig.3).The subarcuate fossa and internal acoustic meatus seenin V 5263 are two round foramina.The middle ear of Rhombomylus resembles to jump-mice,sand-rat etc.in someaspects.The tympanic cavum is large.The bulla is composed of the ectotympanic and mastoid,which differs from that of anagalids(as Anagale gobiensis)and is similarto that of jump-mice.The epitympanic recess is about 3.5 mm in width.The sulcusof promontorium is deep and narrow(Pl.II,fig.1a).The vestibular window is 2 mmlong,1 mm wide and situates obliquely above the sulcus of promontorium.The stape-dial artery foramen is small and superior to the vestibular window.The cochlea windowis at the posterior end of the cochlea.The auditory ossicles were preserved in somespecimens.The round-shaped head of the malleus is 1.1 mm in diameter and the handleis 3 mm long.The neck of the stapes is about 0.7 mm and the stapedial ratio is 2.The outer ear.The external acoustic meatus is about 6 mm long and openedlatero-posteriorly.The following is the topographic list of the foramina and structure around earregion:1.Carotid canal,at the anterior end of the bulla,fissureshaped.2.Canal of Huguier,a minute foramen in the lateral surface of the bulla,nearby the root of the external acoustic meatus.3.Eustachian canal,dorsal to the anteromedial portion of the tympanic bulla.4.The bulla.5.The external acoustic meatus.6.Stylomastoid foramen,between the external acoustic meatus and the mastoidprocess,near by the posterior edge of the external acoustic meatus.7a.Stapedial canal,a tiny foramen,at the anterior end of the commen aperturewith which the jugular foramen shared.7b.Stapedial foramen,a small round foremen,superior to the vestibular window.8.The mastoid process.9.Jugular foramen,a semilunar-shaped foramen.between the basioccipital andthe posterior end of the bulla.10.The paracondyloid process.11.Hypoglossal foramen,anterior to the condyle,subdivided into two small fora-mina in some specimen.12.The condyle.13.The cochlear spiral canal.14.The septae of the mastoid process.15.The cochlea.16.The epitympanic recess.17.The vestibular(oval)window.18.The cochlear(round)window.19.The squamosal.20.The parietal.21.Temporal foramina,three in the number,situated in the squamoso-parietalsuture and posterodorsal to the root of zygomatic arch.22.Squamoso-mastoid foramen,on the occipital surface between the squamosal andthe mastoid.23.The foramen for a small vein.24.The subarcuate fossa.25.The semicircular canals. 26.The basisphenoid.27.The incus.28.The malleus.29.The stapes.30.The postglenoid foramen.

本文详细描述了菱臼齿兽耳区各个部分的基本结构;并指出了耳区结构与某些啮齿类的相似性,以及中耳鼓泡组成成份与戈壁(犭亚)兽(Anagale gobiensis)的区别。

From 2003 to 2004,the mammal fauna of the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve was surveyed. Six separate surveys were conducted during this period. A summary of these collections showed that there are 78 species mammals in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve. An investigation of the biogeographic origin of this mammal fauna indicates that 50 species belong to the Oriental realm, 25 species belong to the Palaearctic realm, and 3 species are widely distributed. Ten general patterns of distribution were noted...

From 2003 to 2004,the mammal fauna of the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve was surveyed. Six separate surveys were conducted during this period. A summary of these collections showed that there are 78 species mammals in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve. An investigation of the biogeographic origin of this mammal fauna indicates that 50 species belong to the Oriental realm, 25 species belong to the Palaearctic realm, and 3 species are widely distributed. Ten general patterns of distribution were noted among the 78 species of mammal. This reserve's mammals show a very high south-north penetrability and antiquity.Twenty species in this reserve have been identified as nationally protected rare mammals; six of the species are first grade protected rare mammals. In addition, there are many rare small mammals in the reserve, such as the China jumping mouse(Eozapus setchuanus), Chinese Dormouse (Chaetocauda sichuanensis) and Bedford's vole (Proedromys bedfordi). There is a distinct trend for an increasing proportion of Palaearctic mammals and decreasing proportion of Oriental mammals as one ascends from 2 000 - 3 600 m . However, 3 200 - 3 600 m there is an abundance of both Palaearctic and Oriental species. These results show that this mammal fauna is broadly in transition in this area, including at elevations above 3 200 m.

2002年至2003年,对九寨沟自然保护区兽类进行了6次野外考察。调查确认,保护区有兽类78种,其中东洋界种类50种,古北界种类25种,广布种3种;有10种分布型。保护区兽类物种分布体现了较高的南北类群渗透性和残遗性;有20种国家I、II级保护动物,其中I级6种,珍稀性较明显;有四川林跳鼠、四川毛尾睡鼠、沟牙田鼠等稀有小型种类;随着海拔增加,兽类分布呈现古北界种类增多,东洋界种类减少的趋势,但在海拔3200~3600m,古北界和东洋界种类都仍然丰富,仍然表现出区系的过渡性特征。

Summary Although discussion on the phylogenetic classification of jumping mice, birch mice and jerboas is still ongoing, we follow the opinion that the two families Zapodidae and Dipodidae are included in the superfamily Dipodoidea and four subfamilies in the family Dipodidae ( Qiu, 1996; Daxner-Hock, 1999), i. e. Allactaginae Vinogradov, 1925, Dipodinae Fischer de Waldheim, 1817, Cardiocraniinae Vinogradov, 1925 and Euchoreutinae Lyon, 1901. The oldest record of Dipodidae is the genus Protalactaga...

Summary Although discussion on the phylogenetic classification of jumping mice, birch mice and jerboas is still ongoing, we follow the opinion that the two families Zapodidae and Dipodidae are included in the superfamily Dipodoidea and four subfamilies in the family Dipodidae ( Qiu, 1996; Daxner-Hock, 1999), i. e. Allactaginae Vinogradov, 1925, Dipodinae Fischer de Waldheim, 1817, Cardiocraniinae Vinogradov, 1925 and Euchoreutinae Lyon, 1901. The oldest record of Dipodidae is the genus Protalactaga from the middle Miocene of Quantougou, Gansu and Tunggur, Nei Mongol, which might be derived from a Plesiosminthus-like Oligocene Zapodidae ancestor (Young, 1927; Qiu, 1996, 2000). At the present, Dipodidae are restricted in the Palearctic Region. They are adapted to an arid environment and distributed in semi-desert or desert regions of northern Africa, southern Europe, central and northern Asia. In China, there are 7 genera and 13 species mainly living in the arid northwestern regions (Wang, 2003). The dipodids described below were collected by the scientists of the Sino-Finish cooperative project in vertebrate paleontology and stratigraphy from Lantian, Shaanxi, during the field seasons of 1997 -2000. Protalactaga Young, 1927 Protalactaga lantianensis sp. nov. (Fig.1) Etymology Named after the Lantian area, from where the new species was collected. Holotype A left Ml; IVPP V 14435. Type locality Loc. 12, Lantian County, Shaanxi Province (China). Stratum typicum Bahe Formation, early Baodean, early late Miocene. Paratypes Loc. 12: 44 isolated teeth (5P4, 6M1, 8M2, 4M3, 7ml, 9m2, 5m3) , IVPP V 14436. 1 -44; Loc. 19: 2 M2, V 14436.45 -46; Loc. 6: anterior part of a damaged m2, V 14436.47; Loc. Ms 14: 1m2, V 14436.48. Diagnosis Large-sized Protalactaga with bunodont-lophodont teeth. On Ml -2 protoloph posteriorly-directed and close to mesoloph; metaloph remarkably postero-situated; posteroloph short and posterolingually-directed. On ml - 2 hypolophid anteriorly-directed and close to mesolophid; M3 and m3 relatively more simplified and reduced. Remarks The specimens are referred to Protalactaga due to possession of the following characters: small size; the brachyodont and bunolophodont cheek teeth; the weak anteroloph and anterocone, and the separate protoloph from the mesoloph on Ml ~ 2; the separate mesolophid from the hypolophid on ml ~2; the strong ectomesolophid of ml. Three species of Protalactaga have so far been recognized. They are P. grabaui and P. major of middle Miocene from Gansu and Nei Mongol of China, and P. moghrebiensis (Jaeger, 1977) of middle Miocene from Jebilet of Morocco. Protalactaga lantianensis sp. nov. can be distinguished from the three known species in the protoloph and metaloph posteriorly directed on Ml ~2, the hypolophid anteriorly directed on ml ~2. In addition, the new species differs from P. grabaui in its distinctly larger size,the un-isolated main cusp on P4 and the stronger lophs, the reduction or absence of mesoloph ( id) on M3 and m3. Compared with P. major, it has more robust and rounder cusps on cheek teeth, weaker mesoloph(id) on M3 and m3 than P. major. Its cusps and lophs are stronger than those of P. moghrebiensis. In P. grabaui, the protoloph on Ml transversely connects to the endoloph, while on M2 transversely connects to the protocone; on Ml of P. major and P. moghrebiensis, it slightly posterolingually connects to the endoloph, while on M2 transversely connects to the endoloph; however, on M1 of P. lantianensis, it distinctly posterolingually connects to the endoloph or the base of mesoloph; while on M2 connects to the base or middle of the mesoloph. The metalophs on Ml ~2 of all known species transversely connect to the hypocones or slightly posterolingually connect to the hypoconules; while in P. lantianensis they distinctly posterolingually connect to the hypoconules or posterolophs. The hypolophids on ml ~2 of the three known species do not directly connect to the mesolophids, while in P. lantianensis they directly anterolabially connect to the base of the mesolophids. The directions of the protolophs and metalophs on Ml ~2 and the hypolophids on ml ~ 2 of P. lantianensis are similar to those of Paralactaga, but the protolophs and metalophs on Ml ~ 2 of Paralactaga posteriorly connect to the middle of mesolophs and posterolophs, respectively; the hypolophids on ml ~2 anteriorly connect to the middle of the mesolophids. In some teeth, the mesoloph on M3 and mesolophid on m3 are absent, consequently the number of the sinuses of these teeth decrease, which differ from those of P. grabaui and P. major, but are similar to P. moghrebiensis and Paralactaga. The features similar to Paralactaga, namely the distinctly posteriorly oriented protolophs and metalophs on Ml ~2, the anteriorly oriented hypolophids on ml ~2, the reduction of the third molars, are interpreted as derived characters in Protalactaga. It is likely that P. lantianensis represents a progressive species of Protalactaga at the intermediate stage between Protalactaga and Paralactaga. "Paralactaga minor" from Loc. 80007 of Tianzhu, Gansu (Zheng, 1982) is similar to P. lantianensis in size and morphology. A minor difference includes the direct connection of the hypolophid to the middle part of mesolophid in the m2 of "P. minor". The smaller size, lower crown and less robust cusps and lophs seem to group "P. minor" into the genus Protalactaga. Paralactaga Young, 1927 Paralactaga sp. (Fig. 3.1) Material A left M3, IVPP V 14437. Locality Loc. Ms 36, Lantian County, Shaanxi Province (China). Remarks The M3 is larger than that of all known species of Protalactaga in size (Fig.4) and lacks a mesoloph. Accordingly, we refer it to Paralactaga rather than Protalactaga. Differences of the M3 from that of other known species of Paralactaga include the narrower than length proportions, the distinctly developed anteroloph relative to the paracone, and the narrower sinus. The morphology shown in the M3 is considered primitive characters of the genus. Paralactaga. If our determination is correct, this single M3 represents the earliest appearance of Paralactaga. Salpingotus Vinogradov, 1922 Salpingotus primitivus sp. nov. (Fig.3.2,5.2) Etymology Primitivus (Latin) means original. Holotype A left ml; IVPP V 14438. Type locality Loc. 19, Lantian County, Shaanxi Province (China). Stratum typicum Bahe Formation, early Baodean, early late Miocene. Diagnosis Small-sized Salpingotus with weaker lophs related to cusps, and relatively short ectolophid on ml. Remarks This ml falls into that of Cardiocraniinae in size and structure: tiny size and Dipus-like pattern of molar. As a kind of dwarf jerboa, Cardiocraniinae includes so far only two extant genera Cardiocranius Satunin, 1903 and Salpingotus Vinogradov, 1922. Review of the extant specimens of Cardiocraniinae shows that ml of Salpingotus differs from that of Cardiocranius in its longer and narrower outline with less anteriorly situated metaconid relative to protoconid, and the remarkably elongated ectolophid ( see Fig. 5). The morphology of this ml is more similar to that of Salpingotus than Cardiocranius. Differences of the ml from that of the extant S. kozlovi are the weaker cusps and lophs and narrower posterosinusid. Fig. 6 shows that the fossil tooth is definitely smaller than that of S. kozlovi. In view of its extremely small size and highly resemblance to that of S. kozlovi, the tooth is treated as a new species of the genus Salpingotus. Cardiocranius Satunin, 1903 Cardiocranius pusillus sp. nov. (Fig.3.3,5.4) Etymology Pusillus (Latin) means tiny. Holotype A right ml; IVPP V 14439. Type locality Loc. 19, Lantian County, Shaanxi Province (China). Stratum typicum Bahe Formation, early Baodean, early late Miocene. Diagnosis Small-sized Cardiocranius with weaker lophs related to cusps, and remarkable narrower anterior portion on ml. Remarks Compared with the only two genera of Cardiocraniinae, this right ml differs from that of Salpingotus in having a distinctly anteriorly situated metaconid relative to the protoconid, and a more developed hypoconulid. In morphology, it is rather closely similar to the ml of the extant Cardiocranius paradoxus, but differs from the latter in its weaker cusps and lophs, and narrower anterior portion of the tooth. In view of its extremely small size ( Fig. 6) and resemblance to that of C. paradoxus ( Fig. 5) , it is considered to be a new species which is referred to the genus Cardiocranius. Conclusions The dipodids from the Lantian assemblage include four taxa Protalactaga lantianensis sp. nov. , Paralactaga sp. , Salpingotus primitivus sp. no. , and Cardiocranius pusillus sp. nov. The former two belong to the subfamily Allactaginae, while the latter two are attributed to the subfamily Cardiocraniinae. Salpingotus primitivus sp. nov. , and Cardiocranius pusillus sp. nov. are the first known fossil records of the subfamily. P. lantianensis is the most advanced species of the genus Protalactaga, representing an intermediate form between Protalactaga and Paralactaga. Paralactaga sp. might be a primitive species of this genus. It is difficult to assess a more precise age of Bahe Formation using the dipodids, because of the inadequate knowledge of biochronology for these animals. The presence of Protalactaga lantianensis, however, suggests that Bahe Formation is later than the later Middle Miocene, because the Lantian sample seems to be the youngest for its advanced dental characters, while the three known species of the genus Protalactaga are of Middle Miocene age. An earlier Late Miocene age is also suggested by the presence of Paralactaga sp. , which is close to P. suni from the later Late Miocene Ertemte, Nei Mongol. Allactagines and cardiocraniines are widely distributed in temperate arid area and adapted to the desert and semi-desert environments. Generally, they form a typical desert rodent fauna together with gerbils ( Ma et al.

描述了陕西蓝田晚中新世早期灞河组的4属4种跳鼠:蓝田原跳鼠(新种)(Protalacta- ga lantianensis sp.nov.)、副跳鼠(未定种)(Paralactaga sp.)、原始三趾心颅跳鼠(新种)(Sal- pingotus primitivus sp.nov.)和小五趾心颅跳鼠(新种)(Cardiocranius pusillus sp.nov.)。蓝田原跳鼠兼有原跳鼠和副跳鼠的特征,可能是原跳鼠向副跳鼠进化过程中产生的一种过渡类型。副跳鼠和原始三趾心颅跳鼠及小五趾心颅跳鼠分别代表了副跳鼠属在中国的最早记录和心颅跳鼠亚科(Cardiocraniinae)在地史上的首次出现。4种跳鼠指示了蓝田地区当时的自然环境可能比现代更加干旱。

 
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