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truck
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     The Truck
     卡车
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     Articulated Truck
     运输先锋──高性能铰接式卡车
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  truck
Traffic noises were presented during sleep [truck, 71 dB(A); motorbike, 67 dB(A); and car, 64 dB(A)] at a rate of nine each hour.
      


The central core of an earth dam is being placed by flood deposit red clay of weathered limestone. The original design specifies that the core material should be placed at a moisture content of 21-24%, to a dry density of 1.55g/cm~3 with 90% of good qualification, by employing 15-ton sheepsfoot rollers with 24 roller passes in 8—10 cm compacted layers. The natural water content of soils in the borrow areas is about 30%, and the borrow materials are excavated horizontally in layers by agricultural plowing method....

The central core of an earth dam is being placed by flood deposit red clay of weathered limestone. The original design specifies that the core material should be placed at a moisture content of 21-24%, to a dry density of 1.55g/cm~3 with 90% of good qualification, by employing 15-ton sheepsfoot rollers with 24 roller passes in 8—10 cm compacted layers. The natural water content of soils in the borrow areas is about 30%, and the borrow materials are excavated horizontally in layers by agricultural plowing method. The wet soils are dried by plowing and aerating and then hauled to the dam. In 1964, prior to the flood season, the rate of construction was rather slow, and dry loose layer, smooth surface, shear failure and poor bond between layers were often found, and there also occurred the splitting of soil layers after wetting by rain. As a result, the quality and speed of construction were greatly affected In order to cope with these problems, laboratory and field compaction tests have been carried out which show that by reducing the placement dry density to 1.50 or 1.51 g/cm~3, and increasing the moisture content to 24—28%, the requirement of stability and seepage can still be satisfied, but with a remarkable improvement of the plasticity and uniformity of the darn core, thereby those defects in quality control during construction can be basically prevented. Through the field compaction tests corresponding method of construction and compaction parameters are determined, and then actually applied in construction. The field compaction tests have also shown that the rubber-tired roller is superior to sheepsfoot roller, because the former permits higher construction moisture content, and excavation on vertical surface in the borrow area is also possible. The intervention between hauling the soil by trucks onto the dam and compacting the soil by sheepsfoot rollers is avoided. It has the advantage of simultaneously raising the dam core and the outer shells. A better uniformity of compaction is obtained and the bond between layers is also good enough though not so excellent as that produced by sheepsfoot-roller.

我国南方一座较高土坝的心墙采用了石灰岩风化洪积红粘土填筑,原设计填筑标准为干容重1.55克/厘米~3,合格率90%,含水量21~24%,用15吨羊足碾,压24遍,每层压实土厚度8~10厘米.料場天然含水量30%左右,用农业机耕方法逐层水平开采,翻晒碎土后上坝.1964年汛前施工中发现生产效率低,经常发生干松土层、光面、剪力破坏、结合不良等质量事故,还有雨后浸水分层现象,经常返工,对施工进度与质量都有很大影响.为了解决这些问题,曾进行了试验室及现場碾压试验,证明将填筑干容重降低互1.50或1.51克/厘米~3,含水量提高到24~28%,仍能满足稳定及防渗要求,而填土塑性、均勻性及耐水性有显著改善,基本上可解决施工中发生的一些质量事故,并通过现場碾压试验确定了相应的施工方法及压实参数,在工程上已实际采用.现場碾压实验中也表明气胎碾比羊足碾压实有显著的优点,可进一步提高施工含水量,有可能在料場使用立采工艺,解决汽车运土上坝与羊足碾碾压之间的矛盾,工效高,有利于坝壳与心墙平起,压实质量较均匀等,结合面质量也能满足要求,建议推广使用.

In this paper, testing results on the tin-alloyed cast iron cylinder-blocks for trucks are presented. The results obtained in the laboratory and in the mass production indicate that addition 0.05% Sn to melted iron HT20-40 containing 0.25-0.35% Cr can increase quantity of pearlite which occurs at the interior wall of the cylinder-blocks over 90%; its hardness is considerablly increased; undercooled layer is decreased; sensibility of the cross-section is decreased; permitted range of the chemical composition...

In this paper, testing results on the tin-alloyed cast iron cylinder-blocks for trucks are presented. The results obtained in the laboratory and in the mass production indicate that addition 0.05% Sn to melted iron HT20-40 containing 0.25-0.35% Cr can increase quantity of pearlite which occurs at the interior wall of the cylinder-blocks over 90%; its hardness is considerablly increased; undercooled layer is decreased; sensibility of the cross-section is decreased; permitted range of the chemical composition is increased; soundness and anticorrosion is inproved too; and at the same time, the technique of mechanical cutting is satisfied. Therefore, tin-alloyed cast iron for cylinder-blocks surely has long-live service. Inoculated iron by addition Sn is discussed in detail. According to the refinement of eutectic cells, improvement of sensibility of the cross-section, decreasing tendency to chilling, decreasing the amount of undercooled graphite and increasing mechanical properties, in comparision with the iron no added with Sn, it indicates that Sn can inoculate melted iron. Besides, The formation of the undercooled layer in the cylinder-blocks and the effect on the layer by the addition of Sn have been explained.

本文报导了加锡铸铁制作汽缸体的试验工作。实验室工作和生产试验表明,在原有HT20-40牌号含铬的铁水中,附加 0.05%的锡,可使汽缸体缸筒内壁的珠光体数量提高到90%以上,硬度有明显的提高,过冷层厚度减少,并且减少了汽缸体的断面敏感性,扩大了允许的化学成分范围,致密度和耐腐蚀性能也有所改善;同时也能满足机械加工的工艺要求。从而,可以显著地提高汽缸体的使用寿命。 文中指出,加锡对铸铁有孕育作用。从细化共晶团、改善断面均匀性、减少白口倾向、减少过冷石墨和提高机械性能几方面,与不加锡的铸铁进行对比,论证了锡的孕育作用。此外,还对汽缸体过冷层的形成以及加锡可使其减少的原因进行了探讨。

This Paper describes several instruments made by the writers used for the measurement of the mechanistic parameters of pavement,The instrumentation and testing technigue for static and dynamic loading tests in pavement testing tank are discussed.Test verifications for the stresses and strains in pavement under the action of single and twin circular loading plate and static and slow- moving dynamic duel tire truck loads are also performed.The results of the test are compared with the values obtained by...

This Paper describes several instruments made by the writers used for the measurement of the mechanistic parameters of pavement,The instrumentation and testing technigue for static and dynamic loading tests in pavement testing tank are discussed.Test verifications for the stresses and strains in pavement under the action of single and twin circular loading plate and static and slow- moving dynamic duel tire truck loads are also performed.The results of the test are compared with the values obtained by elastic theory of layered systems and finite element method.The fundamental law of the change of stresses in the subgrade and of strains in the pavement with the variation of leads and structural parameters of the pavement is studied.The data obtained might provide a scientific basis for the working out of a new specification for the structural design of flexible pavement.

本文介绍了自制的几种路面力学参数的量测仪具和路面试槽静动载实验装置及其测试技术。进行了单园和双园承载板及汽车双轮胎的静载和慢速动载下的路面应力应变的实验工作,并与弹性层状体系理论精确解和有限元法电子计算机计算结果作了对比分析,探讨了有关土基应力和路面应变随荷载和路面结构参数变化的基本规律,为制订我国柔性路面设计新规范提供科学依据。

 
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