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masticatory organ
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  咀嚼器官
     Conclusion:Both the congenital absent rate and the impact rate of the third molar in neolithic era adults are lower than those in modern,the impact and congenital absence of the third molar are part of degradation of masticatory organ with whole humanity progressing.
     结论:现代人第三磨牙阻生率与先天缺失率均较新石器时代成人高,人类第三磨牙阻生与先天缺失是伴随整个人类进化而发生的咀嚼器官退化现象的一部分。
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  相似匹配句对
     artificial organ
     人工器官
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     Progress in the Organ Transplantation
     器官移植的发展概况
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     Effects of unilateral masticatory on temporomadibular joint
     偏侧咀嚼对颞下颌关节的影响
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  masticatory organ
Therefore, occlusion of the masticatory organ contributes significantly to an individual's ability to manage stress.
      
The clenching and bruxing function of the masticatory organ is an emergency exit during periods of psychic overloading.
      
Bruxism - a function of the masticatory organ to cope with stress
      
The dentist must have a broader perspective in treating occlusion and consider the masticatory organ in terms of dynamic function and not in a static manner.
      


The masticatory organ of 71 adult tree shrews(Tupaia Belanggeri Chinensis)have been investigated. The results are as follows:The masseter muscles and tcmporal musclesare large in size and thick in density.The size and density of the masseter muscles and temporalmuscles are large and thick.There is no articular disc in the tempolomandibular articulation andno articular tubercle in front of the mandibular fossar.The tree shrews have narrow and longdental arch,with negative curved line of the tranversal occlusstion...

The masticatory organ of 71 adult tree shrews(Tupaia Belanggeri Chinensis)have been investigated. The results are as follows:The masseter muscles and tcmporal musclesare large in size and thick in density.The size and density of the masseter muscles and temporalmuscles are large and thick.There is no articular disc in the tempolomandibular articulation andno articular tubercle in front of the mandibular fossar.The tree shrews have narrow and longdental arch,with negative curved line of the tranversal occlusstion and S-shaped curved line ofthe longitudinal occlussion.The dental formula is The tree shrews have cone-shapedI1-2,combshaped I1-3,and incisor-liked canine.The number of the cusps and the shape of theupper and lower premolars varies.M1-3 have three cusps with an obvious lingual cingulum.M1-3 have five cusps, of which three are situated on the trigonid, and two on the talonid.Thecharacters of the masticatory organs of the tree threws are alss comparied with those of themacaque and human being.

观察研究树的的咀嚼器官的主要结果是:咀嚼肌群中咬肌、颞肌肥厚发达,下颌关节内无关节盘,下颌窝前方无关节结节,牙弓为狭长形,横曲线为反曲线,纵曲线为S形。其牙式为I ̄(1-2)为锥状,齿隙宽,1_(1-3)呈梳状排列,C的形态与其前方的门牙相似,齿隙也宽,上下前臼齿各自的齿尖数不同,形态各异,M ̄(1-3)有3尖,扣带明显,M_(1-3)有5尖,3尖在三角座上,2尖在跟座上。文中还将树的的咀嚼器官形态与猕猴、人类的咀嚼器官作了比较分析。

The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence and mostly happened area of the congenitally missing teeth and supernumerary teeth in Beijing adolescent in order to approach the relation between the anomaly of tooth number and human evolution. Subjects and methods:429 panoramic radiographs were observed and analyzed,163 males and 266 females, aged 12—23 years. None of permanent teeth have been extracted or hurted. Result: The incidence of congenitally missing permanent teeth (including third molar)...

The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence and mostly happened area of the congenitally missing teeth and supernumerary teeth in Beijing adolescent in order to approach the relation between the anomaly of tooth number and human evolution. Subjects and methods:429 panoramic radiographs were observed and analyzed,163 males and 266 females, aged 12—23 years. None of permanent teeth have been extracted or hurted. Result: The incidence of congenitally missing permanent teeth (including third molar) is 42 19%.The incidence of missing third molar is 35.43%.The mostly happenedmissing teeth are maxillary third molar, mandibular third molar , mandibular second premolar, mandibular median incisor, maxillary second premolar etc. the incidence of supernumerary teeth is 3.50%, supernumerary teeth mostly happened are maxillary incisors. Conclusion: The incidence of missing teeth is higher than that of supernumerary teeth.Missing teeth mostly were found are the ones which have weaker function. The anomaly of tooth number is mostly due to hereditary factors. Congenitally tooth missing reflexes one of the evolutionary tendencies of the masticatory organ. The occurence of supernumerary teeth is a phenomenon of recapitalation.

本文调查了北京地区青少年先天缺失牙和多生牙的发生率、好发部位 ,探讨先天牙齿数目异常与人类进化之间的关系。观察和分析了 4 2 9名全颌曲面体层X线片 ,年龄为 12— 2 3岁 ,均无恒牙拔牙史或牙齿损伤史。结果表明先天缺失牙 (包括第三磨牙 )的发生率为 4 2 19% ,第三磨牙的缺失发生率为 35 4 3% ,缺失牙的好发部位依次为 :上颌第三磨牙、下颌第三磨牙、下颌第二双尖牙、下颌中切牙、上颌第二双尖牙等 ;多生牙发生率为 3 5 0 % ,好发部位是上颌切牙区。牙齿先天缺失在人群中的发生率明显高于多生牙 ,缺失牙主要发生在功能相对弱的牙位上 ;遗传因素对牙齿数目异常起主导作用。在人类进化过程中 ,缺失某些牙齿是咀嚼器官退化的趋势 ,而多生牙可能是一种返祖遗传现象

The tooth wears and some other features related to health status were observed and compared on the remains unearthed from the archaeological sites in Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia at the Bronze-Iron ages,and from Henan and Shanxi of Neolithic period.Our results indicate that the average tooth wears are close between the residents of Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia,and the residents of Henan and Shanxi.Besides,some special patterns of tooth wears appear on the Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia inhabitants.Obvious differences...

The tooth wears and some other features related to health status were observed and compared on the remains unearthed from the archaeological sites in Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia at the Bronze-Iron ages,and from Henan and Shanxi of Neolithic period.Our results indicate that the average tooth wears are close between the residents of Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia,and the residents of Henan and Shanxi.Besides,some special patterns of tooth wears appear on the Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia inhabitants.Obvious differences of the caries and antemortem tooth loss were found for the people living in the Chinas frontier areas and central areas along the Yellow Rivers with higher frequencies of carries occurring in the Henan and Shanxi groups,and more antemortem tooth loss in the Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia.We also found highly developed exostosis on mandible and maxilla in Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia inhabitants.The authors believe that the diets eaten by the people living in Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia are different from those consumed by the people about 2000 years later in Henan and Shanxi with more tough food eaten by the former groups.The high occurrence of more heavily wear in frontal teeth and some other special patterns of wear,antemorm tooth loss and exotosis on jaw bones in Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia suggest that the people in Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia lived in the relatively tough environments,frequently gnawing hard objects,or using teeth as some kind of tools.All these activities made the masticatory organs bear strong loadings.The differences of caries occurred in the frontier and central areas indicate that the food rich in carbohydrate compositions were consumed by the prople living in central areas.The authors propose that in many areas of Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia about 3500—2000 years BP,the people mainly relied on the hunter-gatherer economy type with lower proportions of agriculture in their life.

对从新疆、内蒙古和内地7处考古遗址出土的古代居民牙齿磨耗、牙齿疾病、牙齿生前脱落及咀嚼肌发育情况进行的观察和对比发现生活在青铜—铁器时代的新疆和内蒙古居民牙齿平均磨耗与内地新石器时代居民大体接近。在磨耗方式上,新疆和内蒙古居民呈现出一些可能反映其生活或行为方式的特殊磨耗。龋齿病和牙齿生前脱落的出现率在边疆和内地居民具有明显的差别,表现为内地居民龋齿发病率高,而边疆居民牙齿生前脱落更普遍。另外,新疆和内蒙古居民上下颌骨出现有发育显著的骨质隆起。作者认为生活在青铜—铁器时代的新疆和内蒙古居民与同时期,甚至时代更早的内地居民相比,食物更为粗糙坚硬、含颗粒成分高;出现在新疆和内蒙古居民牙齿的局部或特殊磨耗、牙齿生前脱落、颌骨骨质隆起等现象说明边疆地区的居民生活环境比较恶劣,经常需要用牙齿啃咬坚硬的物品,或将牙齿作为工具使用。此外,龋齿病出现率的明显差别说明边疆居民谷物类富含碳水化合物的食物的摄入比例较内地居民为低。本文的发现进一步提示青铜—铁器时代的新疆和内蒙古地区,居民的社会经济生活中狩猎—采集仍占有较为重要的地位,农业经济的比重相对较低。

 
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