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  提取物
    In this paper we reported the bioactivities of ethanol extracts from 20 medicinal plants against Rhizopertha dominica (Fab.)
    采用药膜法和滤纸药膜选择法,分别研究了20种药用植物乙醇提取物对谷蠹Rhizopertha dominica(Fab.)
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    The antibacterial activities of ethyl acetate extracts with different concentration on Verticillium dahliae V43-1 was the best and the MIC was about 5 g/L.
    不同浓度乙酸乙酯提取物对4种菌的抑菌效果表明,对棉花黄萎病菌V43-1的抑菌效果最好,最低抑菌浓度约为5 g/L.
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    gloeosporioides. The results indicated that at 10 mg/ml the inhibition rate of extracts of J. regia,Salix magnifica and Glycyrrhiza uralensis against P.litchi was 100%,87.72% and 87.20%,respectively.
    结果表明,以10 mg(干粉)/ml溶剂处理后5 d对荔枝霜疫霉菌抑菌活性较高的是巴核桃、大杨柳和甘草提取物,抑菌率分别为100%、87.72%、87.20%;
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    With the prolongation of time,the survival index rice aphid decreased and the lethal effects of plant extracts was weakened.
    48h后,仅有假提取物对稻蚜的存活指数低于0.5(接近0.5)。 随着时间延长,稻蚜的生存指数有所降低,异源植物提取物的致死作用减弱。
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    The Contact Effect of Extracts from Walnut Leaves on Aphid
    核桃叶提取物对蚜虫的触杀作用
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    THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACTS ON TOMATO MOSAIC DISEASE CAUSED BY TMV-T
    一些植物抽提液对番茄花叶病毒(TMV-T)病的治疗作用
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    The inhibition activities of methanol extracts from fifteen species of mangrove plants against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Niveum,Pestalotia calabae Westond,Thielaviopsis paradoxa(de Seynes) V.Hohnel,Glorosprium musarum Cookeet Mass,Alternaria kikuchiana(Fr) Keissl,Mycosphaerella sentina (Fr.)
    Niveum、芒果叶枯病菌Pestalotia calabae Westond、甘蔗凤梨病菌Thielaviopsis paradoxa(de Seynes)V.Hohnel、香蕉炭疽病菌Glorosprium musarum Cookeet Mass、梨黑斑病菌Alternaria kikuchiana(Fr)Keissl、梨褐斑病菌Mycosphae-rella sentina(Fr.)
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    These two plant extracts had an inhibiting action on the germination of zoospores of downy mildew of melon and their inhibiting efficiencies were respectively 48.2% and 25.3%.
    上述2种植物提取液对甜瓜霜霉病菌游动孢子萌发的抑制率分别为48.2%和25.3%。
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    Indoor pot tests of controlling the downy mildew showed that the control efficiencies at 7 days after spraying the two extracts were 51.4% and 31.3%,respectively. The field tests showed that their control efficiencies at 7 days were 48.8% and 22.6%,respectively.
    对甜瓜霜霉病的室内盆栽试验结果表明,喷雾7d后的预防效果分别为51.4%和34.3%,田间试验的防效则分别为48.8%和22.6%。
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    The results showed that the minimum inhibitive concentration(MIC) was 0.156 25 mg/mL; with the increase of garlic bulb crude extracts concentration,the inhibited circle and the inhibitive rates to mycelia growth and spore germination of the pathogen increased.
    结果表明,随大蒜鳞茎粗提物质量浓度的增加,对西瓜枯萎病菌的抑制作用增强,大蒜鳞茎粗提物的最低抑菌质量浓度(MIC)为0.156 25 mg/mL;
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  extracts
The aqueous and solvent extracts when tested against 11 gram-negative and 2 gram-positive bacteria and 3 fungi expressed activity to most of the organisms.
      
Methanol extract showed more activity amongst all the solvent extracts, particularly remarkable activity recorded against gram-positive bacteria.
      
Aqueous and organic solvent extracts tested by agar-well diffusion method against 12 human pathogenic bacteria and 3 fungal strains showed activity to most of the organisms.
      
Fermentation broth and cell extracts were tested against typed test organisms.
      
The activity profiles of the intracellular and extracellular crude extracts showed that the antibiotic producing culture produces two or more compounds, one being intracellular (antifungal), other being extracellular (antibacterial).
      
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In order to determine the practical value of the Bordeaux mixture as acontrol measure for the cotton leafhopper, a field experiment was designedand carried out in 1943 at Shatang, Liuchow, Kwangsi. Three known effective contact poisons, namely, a water suspension ofYam bean seed power (Gross Smith value 1%) (1:1000), a water suspension ofpyrethrum powder (1:600), and a water extract of tobacco (Nicotine content2.35%) (1:100) were applied at the same time with two types of Bordeauxmixture (4-6-50 and 2-4-50)...

In order to determine the practical value of the Bordeaux mixture as acontrol measure for the cotton leafhopper, a field experiment was designedand carried out in 1943 at Shatang, Liuchow, Kwangsi. Three known effective contact poisons, namely, a water suspension ofYam bean seed power (Gross Smith value 1%) (1:1000), a water suspension ofpyrethrum powder (1:600), and a water extract of tobacco (Nicotine content2.35%) (1:100) were applied at the same time with two types of Bordeauxmixture (4-6-50 and 2-4-50) for four applications at a fifteen-day intervalduring the early growth season of cotton from June 15 to July 30. The popula-tion of leafhopper, the degree of infestation, the number of green bolls andthe yield of lint cotton were statistically analyzed and discussed. Population observations showed that the three contact poisons greatlyreduced the leafhopper population on the first day after application. Butthey soon lost their effectiveness three days later, so that the population startedto rebuild up and was practically with no significant difference from that ofhe untreated plots at the end of the fifteen-day interval. While the Bordeaux mixture showed a maximum reduction of population on the third day afterapplication, and maintained its effectiveness for a considerable time; the pop-ulation was constantly checked to such an extent that no serious damage wouldoccur during the spray interval. The degree of infestation as indicated by the symptom of cyrtosis onleaves was 40.83, 47.21, 55.85, 57.66, 62.48, and 60.39 per cent in average for4-6-50 Bordeaux mixture, 2-4-50 Bordeaux mixture, yam bean seed powdersuspension, pyrethrum powder suspension and tobacco water extract and theuntreated check plots respectively. Moreover, the percentage of heavily in-fested plants for the treated and untreated plots in the fore-mentioned orderwas 5.61, 8.24, 21.88, 23.68, 28.88 and 25.27 respectively.It was evident thatin the long run the Bordeaux mixture was the most effective insecticide inreducing the degree of infestation. The number of bolls per plant was 15.27, 13.24, 10.17, 9.53, 8.75 and6.75 in average, and the yield of lint cotton was 19.50, 17.84, 11.69, 10.11and 6.24 catties per mou (1 catty=0.5 kilogram, 1 mou=0.164 acre) for thetwo types of Bordeaux mixture and three kinds of contact poisons and theuntreated check plots respectively. The yield of cotton was generally much lower in 1943 than in 1942 forthe same experimental field. This was apparently due to the poorer soilfertility and heavier leafhopper infestation in 1943. But the ratio of the yieldbetween the Bordeaux mixture treated plots and the check plots was quitedifferent in the two years, i.e. 55.62 to 31 catties per mou in 1942, and 19.50to 6.24 catties per mou in 1943. This revealed a fact that the Bordeauxmixture treatment will he applied more effectively and profitably where thecotton field is not fertile and when the leafhopper outbreak is severe. 4-6-50 Bordeaux mixture and 2-4-50 Bordeaux mixture were in all casesinsignificantly different in their effectiveness. Theiefore a 2-4-50 Bordeauxmixture would be a more economical and practical measure for the cottonleafhopper control.

(一)本试验应用三种防治棉浮(鹿土)子之有效接触剂,烟草、除虫菊、及豆薯种子,与两种配合式之波尔多液;4—6—50式及2—4—50式,同时在棉田内每半月施用一次,自六月半至七月底共施用四次。比较其消减虫口,减轻受害程度及增加产量诸功能,藉以证明波尔多液之特性。 (二)1000倍豆薯种子粉悬液、600倍除虫菊粉悬液、及100倍烟草水,三者不论在消减虫口,减轻受害程度,以及增加产量各方面,其功能均相若,无显著差异。 (三)4—6—50式波尔多液与2—4—50式波尔多液,对于治虫、减害及增产各功能,亦无显著差异。 (四)豆薯种子粉悬液、除虫菊粉悬液、及烟草水三种接触剂经施用后一天之治虫效力,均显较波尔多液为优,惟至第三天,差异便不显著,三天以后,波尔多液之功效反日见优越。此显示波尔多液之持久特性。 (五)棉浮(鹿土)子之虫口发生愈多,则波尔多液之功效愈著。因其效力持久,所抑制之虫口可还较接触剂为低。 (六)波尔多液减轻棉叶之受害程度,因其药效持久,附属牢固,保护力强,故亦较三种接触剂为优。 (七)施用波尔多液后,结铃数显然增加。其功效亦优于三种接触剂。 (八)施用波尔多液后,每亩皮棉产量亦显著增加。本年结果,施用4...

(一)本试验应用三种防治棉浮(鹿土)子之有效接触剂,烟草、除虫菊、及豆薯种子,与两种配合式之波尔多液;4—6—50式及2—4—50式,同时在棉田内每半月施用一次,自六月半至七月底共施用四次。比较其消减虫口,减轻受害程度及增加产量诸功能,藉以证明波尔多液之特性。 (二)1000倍豆薯种子粉悬液、600倍除虫菊粉悬液、及100倍烟草水,三者不论在消减虫口,减轻受害程度,以及增加产量各方面,其功能均相若,无显著差异。 (三)4—6—50式波尔多液与2—4—50式波尔多液,对于治虫、减害及增产各功能,亦无显著差异。 (四)豆薯种子粉悬液、除虫菊粉悬液、及烟草水三种接触剂经施用后一天之治虫效力,均显较波尔多液为优,惟至第三天,差异便不显著,三天以后,波尔多液之功效反日见优越。此显示波尔多液之持久特性。 (五)棉浮(鹿土)子之虫口发生愈多,则波尔多液之功效愈著。因其效力持久,所抑制之虫口可还较接触剂为低。 (六)波尔多液减轻棉叶之受害程度,因其药效持久,附属牢固,保护力强,故亦较三种接触剂为优。 (七)施用波尔多液后,结铃数显然增加。其功效亦优于三种接触剂。 (八)施用波尔多液后,每亩皮棉产量亦显著增加。本年结果,施用4—6—50式波尔多液者,产量较对照区增多3.12倍,2—4—50式波尔多液区较对照区增产2.85倍

Anthracnose of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) caused by Colletotrichumhibisci Pollacci has been a limiting factor of kenaf production in China.Thedisease was found to be seed-borne,both externally and internally.The efficacyof conventional methods of hot-water treatment against internal mycelium wasfound to vary with lots of seeds tested,and with the moisture content of seedsduring the time of and after presoaking.Complete control of the disease wasobtained by treating the seed at 50℃ for 15-20 minutes after...

Anthracnose of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) caused by Colletotrichumhibisci Pollacci has been a limiting factor of kenaf production in China.Thedisease was found to be seed-borne,both externally and internally.The efficacyof conventional methods of hot-water treatment against internal mycelium wasfound to vary with lots of seeds tested,and with the moisture content of seedsduring the time of and after presoaking.Complete control of the disease wasobtained by treating the seed at 50℃ for 15-20 minutes after presoaking at20℃ for 24 hours.The percentage of seed germination after treatment wasreduced to 70 as compared with 90 in the controls. In addition to hot-water treatment,steeping of seeds in an aqueous solutionof 0.5% Uspulum at 24-26℃ for 24 hours gave very promising results.Theseedlings developed from treated seeds were found to be more vigorous thanthose from the untreated ones,apparently due to the stimulating effect of thefungicide. Aqueous extracts of garlic (Allium satiuwn L.) were tried as seed disinfectant.Steeping naturally infected seeds in a 1-2% aqueous solution of dried garlicpowder at 24-26℃ for 24 hours checked the disease significantly,but the percen-tage of germination of treated seed was also reduced.The addition of glycerol,ethanol to the extract by 2% gave batter results. The fungus in the host debris in the field in Peking and other localities inNorth China were found in most cases to be unviable after 2 winters.Culturalpractices such as field sanitation,deep ploughing and irrigation after harvestwere found to be effective in disease control if clean seeds were used. During growing season,a mixture of.1 part oi phenyl mercury acetate to19 parts of hydrated lime applied as dust after rain gave much better controlof the disease than bordeaux mixture. Many malvaceous species,except Hibiscus sabdariffa L.,were found to beimmune from the disease.Considerable difference in susceptibility was notedamong different varieties of kenaf from various parts of China.The southernvarieties were as a rule more resistant than the northern ones as observed infield tests in Peking.

1.洋麻炭疽病种子消毒处理,由于洋麻的开花特性和內在菌的问題,一般不易达到徹底的目的。2.預浸的温度和时間,对于烫种的影响,实际上是預浸后种子的含水量問題。在一定温度下,延長預浸时間,不仅可以增加种子的含水量,并且可以减少种子间含水量差异的幅度,从而提高烫种的效果。种子在20℃预浸24小时、在50℃烫15—20分钟,效果比其他处理为好。3.有机汞剂浸种和植物杀生素浸种,同样获得了良好的结果。0.5%乌斯普隆水溶液、大蒜干粉1:50倍浸出液在24—26℃浸种24小时,防病效果在90%左右;惟大蒜浸液对于种子的發芽率有一定程度的抑制作用。4.遺留田问洋麻受病組織中的洋麻炭疽病菌,二个冬季后基本上丧失了生活力。秋耕冬灌可以加速病株殘余的腐爛,促进病菌生活力的消失。5.洋麻生長期中撒布赛力散:消石灭(1:19)粉剂,防病的效果优于波尔多液。6.洋麻品种中对于炭疽病表現不同的抗病性。南方型品种较北方型品种抗病。选育适于华北栽培的南方型洋麻品种是解决目前华北和东北洋麻生产问題的一个主要途徑。

An electronmicroscopic study of the dilute preparations from the crude extracts of dis-eased soybean leaves revealed that the virus particles were threadlike and measured 650-700 × 13-15 mμ in dimensions.According to an estimation of the degree of the dilution,itwas found that the concentration of the virus in the diseased leaves seemed to be very low.The writer was of the opinion that such direct electronmicroscopy of the crude extract of dis-eased leaves was feasible for a rapid diagnosis of this...

An electronmicroscopic study of the dilute preparations from the crude extracts of dis-eased soybean leaves revealed that the virus particles were threadlike and measured 650-700 × 13-15 mμ in dimensions.According to an estimation of the degree of the dilution,itwas found that the concentration of the virus in the diseased leaves seemed to be very low.The writer was of the opinion that such direct electronmicroscopy of the crude extract of dis-eased leaves was feasible for a rapid diagnosis of this virus for experimental purpose.The nucleic acids of healthy and diseased leaves were prepared by hydrolyzing thedechlorophylled leaf discs of approximately the same size and weight.Measurements weremade with spectrophotometric analysis.The results indicated that there was no significantdifference between the absorption curves of the preparations of healthy and diseased leaves.

用电子显微镜直接观察大豆花叶病叶片压出液的稀释液图片,看出这一病毒是600—700×13—15mμ的线杆状粒子。根据稀释度估计病毒粒子在病叶组织中的浓度很低。这种方法在试验工作中用于直接诊断这一病害是有可能的。移去叶片的叶绿素,水解核酸后用光谱分析法测定大豆花叶病毒样品的光谱吸收曲线。健叶与病叶之间在吸收曲线的峯形上无特殊区别,在核酸含量的差别上也无明显的规律性。

 
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