Methods: Random sampling 540 medical undergraduates were assigned to the group with hopelessness and the control group according to the score of Bech-Hopeless scale. The analysis between two groups were done in grade, sex, professional satisfaction, personality characteristic, life incident, society support, and coping styles.
Other measures used were the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hopelessness Scale of Beck et al.,and the Rotter Internal External Locus of Control Scale.
We evaluated the Cognitions Checklist (Depression and Anxiety subscales), the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, and the Hopelessness Scale in a sample of 162 outpatients with depressive or anxiety disorders.
The psychometric properties of the Hopelessness Scale for Children (HSC) were evaluated with a sample of 834 normal adolescents and 93 adolescent suicide attempters.
The Hopelessness Scale for Children: Psychometric properties with normal and emotionally disturbed adolescents
Samples of 91 psychiatric patients (Study 1) and 160 college students (Study 2) completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Hopelessness Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Scale For Suicide Ideation.