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later on
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  后来
     Later on Halliday proposes the notion of grammatical metaphor syndrome (GMS) and classifies GM into 13 types.
     Halliday后来又提出了语法隐喻综合征的概念,并在此基础上将语法隐喻划分为13种类型。
短句来源
     Under the guidance of this hypothesis, Friedrich and Knipping carried out X-ray diffraction experiments in April 1912, first on orthorhombic CuSO 4 and later on cubic ZnS, and soon found definite evidence of X-ray diffraction.
     在此假设的指导下 ,FriedrichW和KnippingP在 1912年 4月开始用CuSO4后来用闪锌矿 (立方ZnS)进行实验 ,很快就得到X射线衍射的证据 .
短句来源
     Later on, Criminal Law, revised in 1997, added the crime of infringing business secret, further perfecting China's legal protecting system of business secret.
     后来,1997年修订的《刑法》增加了侵犯商业秘密罪,使我国商业秘密法律保护体系更臻完备。
短句来源
     Later on,it develops into the shocking cultural movement of the black people.
     后来它发展成为一种震撼世界的黑人文化运动。
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     This text about telecommunication enterprise research, domestic to carry on the summary about telecommunication enterprise current situation studied of CRM of CRM to foreign countries at first, and has explained the marketing theory , customer's value theory , supplied the theory of the chain, theory foundation of frame establish the solid foundation later on for this text.
     本文就首先对国外关于电信企业CRM的研究、国内关于电信企业CRM的研究的现状进行了概述,并阐述了市场营销理论、客户价值理论,为本文后来理论框架的建立奠定坚实的基础。
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  “later on”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Then plantlet regeneration from the embryoids formed about 30 days later on B5 medium with 0. 3 mg·1-16BA,0. 01 mg·1-1NAA.
     将胚状体转入含6—BA0.3mg·1~(-1)+NAA0.01mg·1~(-1)的B_5培养基上,30d后萌发成苗。
短句来源
     The women in control group took mifepristone 50mg in the morning and 25mg in the evening in d1-2 (total amount was 150mg), then took misoprostal 600μg in the morning and 400μg 4 hours later on d3 (total amount was 1mg).
     对照组第1、2天上午服米非司酮50mg,12h后服25mg,总剂量150mg,第3天晨服米索前列醇600μg,4h后400μg,总量1000μg。
     20 mL/kg LPS (30 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally two hours later on the third-day perfusion.
     第3d灌胃后2h,腹腔注射脂多糖(30mg/kg,20mL/kg)。
短句来源
     RT-PCR indicated that the expression of TNF-α mRNA and its protein were coincident,the expression of IL-1β,IL-6 mRNA reached to the maximum at 12~72 h((P < 0.01)),Then decreased later on.
     RT-PCR显示:TNF-αmRNA与其蛋白表达基本一致,IL-1β和IL-6 mRNA的表达于12~72 h达高峰(P<0.01),以后有下降趋势。
短句来源
     Later on, Chigira [5] proved that a group G is p-nilpotent if p ≠ 3 and (|G : Ng(Gr )|, p) = 1 forevery ren(G).
     随后,Chigira在[5]中证明了对于任意r∈π(G),如果p≠3而且(|G:N_G(G_r)|,p)=1,则群G是p-幂零的。
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  相似匹配句对
     Later ,M.
     随后,M.
短句来源
     And the main is the later.
     研究重点主要在后者。
短句来源
     The later one is simulation.
     后一种称为仿真。
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     The later colonial times
     后殖民时代
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  later on
Later on, formation of the left-hemispheric dominance of the EEG coherence was observed (in the frontotemporal areas in the α-β ranges.
      
Later on, numerous processes and a projection towards the pupillary zone are formed, accompanied by the appearance of granular structures in the cytoplasm.
      
Later on, it becomes lanceolate, forming a single process extended towards the pupillary zone.
      
Later on, dispersion of the globules of the mitochondrial matrix containing mitochondrial cristae occurs.
      
Later on, the larvae showed their ability to adapt to such a strong desalination.
      
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Von Knorre first suggested the use of benzidine and o-tolidine for the determination of tungsten. With the latter reagent, he succeeded also in separat- ing tungstate from phosphate. Later on, o-dianisidine and vanillylidene benzidine have been proposed as precipitants for tungstate. The optimum pH ranges for the quantitative precipitation of tungstate by means of these precipitants and tetraminodiphenyl, which have not yet been found in the literature, are: benzidine pH: 2.0-5.5 o-tolidine 2.9-4.7 ...

Von Knorre first suggested the use of benzidine and o-tolidine for the determination of tungsten. With the latter reagent, he succeeded also in separat- ing tungstate from phosphate. Later on, o-dianisidine and vanillylidene benzidine have been proposed as precipitants for tungstate. The optimum pH ranges for the quantitative precipitation of tungstate by means of these precipitants and tetraminodiphenyl, which have not yet been found in the literature, are: benzidine pH: 2.0-5.5 o-tolidine 2.9-4.7 o-dianisidine 2.0-4.1 vanillylidene benzidine 1.7-3.9 tetraminodiphenyl 1.7-4.8 The effect of introducing various groups into the benzidine molecule upon the tungsten precipitating property is not profound. The relation between quantitative precipitation of tungstate with benzidine and the product of concentrations of both constituents before precipitation Was studied. It is found that quantitative precipitation of tungstate ions Can be realized only when the product of concentrations of reactants before precipitation is equal to or greater than 0.8 × 10~(-5), and the moles of benzidine added must be at least equal to that of tungstate. The gravimetlic determination of tungsten by means of o-tolidine may be applied to samples containing as low as 10 mg of rungsten trioxide in 200 ml solution, if an absolute error of 0. 5 mg can be tolelxted. For larger quantities of tungsten present in sample, the absolute errors amount to only 0.1-0.2 mg. Tetraminodiphenyl may be used as a tungsten precipitant, but no advantage over benzidine Wan found in our present studies.

1.用二胺聯苯及其數種衍生物沉澱鎢酸根時,其適宜的pH範圍如下:[4,4′]二胺聯苯 pH:2.0-5.5[3,3′]二甲基[4,4′]二胺聯苯 2.9-4.7[3,3′]二甲氧基[4,4′]二胺聯苯 2.0-4.1[4]對胺聯苯氮甲烯[2]甲苯酚 1.7-3.9[3,4,3′,4′]四胺聯苯 1.7-4.8 2.用[4,4′]二胺聯苯作沉澱劑時,二胺聯苯和鎢酸根在沉澱前的濃度之乘積與後者沉澱完全與否的關係,曾加研究。 3.用[3,3′]二甲基[4,4′]二胺聯苯作沉澱劑時,能测定低至10毫克的三氧化鎢。

(Consisting of two articles, the first one was published in 1938 in the Singchow Semi-monthly Singapore, the second is a much more detailed one written in 1957. Followingis a general sketch of both the two articles.) Ⅰ. What is the Malayan Stock? In common sense, Malayan stock means the Malayan race or Brown race, which isone of the five human races of the world. The classic method of the classification ofhuman races according to their skin colour gave the Malayans the pseudo-scientific name"Brown race" which...

(Consisting of two articles, the first one was published in 1938 in the Singchow Semi-monthly Singapore, the second is a much more detailed one written in 1957. Followingis a general sketch of both the two articles.) Ⅰ. What is the Malayan Stock? In common sense, Malayan stock means the Malayan race or Brown race, which isone of the five human races of the world. The classic method of the classification ofhuman races according to their skin colour gave the Malayans the pseudo-scientific name"Brown race" which has made the ethnic position of the Malayans as well as the ethnicrelationship between the Malayans and the other related peoples unclear scientifically. Therecent anthropological studies revealed the close ethnic relation between the brown raceand the yellow race, hence the Malayan stock is regarded as one branch of the Mongo-loids and given a new term "Oceanic Mongoloid". The Malayan stock now stands closelywith its two brothers the Northern Mongoloid and the Southern Mongoloid. The term "Malayans" is used here in its broader meaning which includes all thepeoples in Malaysia with a physical characteristics mostly of yellowish-brown colour.brachycephalie (broad) head form, black and straight hair, scanty beard, Malayan eye.medium stature and speaking branches of Malayo-Polynesian language which is agglutina-tive in its nature. Scientifically, both the "proto-Malays" and the "deutero-Malays", orboth the "true Malays" (Orang Malayu) and the other Malayans outside of it are to beconsidered here as the Malayan stock. Generally speaking, largest part of the peoplesliving in Malaya, Indonesia, Philippines and other islands bear this common name inscientific sense. Within the country of Indonesia the term Indonesians is most usuallyused, but in this article, the Indonesians is also included in the term Malayan stockbecause the latter is larger in its scope and more generally used in science. The Malayan stock is not a pure, single race but one of many elements intermixedtogether. The first element is the Oceanic Mongoloid which came from the north, pro-bable Chinese continent, its physical characteristics survived are the black, straight hair,broad head, yellowish-brown colour, medium stature and certain degree of Mongolian eye(narrow eye with Mongolian fold which covers the upper eye-lid). The second elementis the Indonesian stock, (This is used in scientific, narrower meaning instead of thatused in common sense) and early branch of the Caucasian race, originated in westernAsia and migrated eastward to Malaysia through Indo-China; it gives the present people the physical characteristics of Malayan eye, (broad eye without Mongolian fold hence theeye-lashes and a concave line on the eye-lid can be seen clearly) a certain degree of doli-chocephalie (long) head together with the agglutinative Malayo-Polynesian language. Thethird element is the Oceanic Negroid whose part contributed to the Malayans is not solarge that it still has pure descendants in present day viz. the Negritoes and the Papuans;while the fourth element is the Veddas came from India. The third and fourth one arri-ved earliest in probably Palaeolithic age, but played no important role in ethnic composi-tion of the Malayan stock because of their small number in population. The second onereached Malaysia after the above two probably in early period of Neolithic age, while thefirst one arrived latest in later period of Neolithic age. Though later in time, the OceanicMongoloids and Indonesians came in large numbers hence they formed the two principalelements of the Malayan stock. As the outcome of the intermixing of blood there appea-red a great mixed racial stock which looks different from its original elements, conseq-uently the original names are no longer suitable to be used. The term Indonesian is usedhere in its original meaning which is different from that of the so-called "Indonesians"in present day use. The mixed stock is no more called Indonesian but Malayan stock inthis article. Ⅱ. Is there Any Connection Between the Malayan Stock and the Ancient Peoples in Southern China? The cradle of the mix-blooded Malayan stock may be in the meeting point of the twoprincipal elements. Indo-China, a necessary meeting point on their ways, was naturally thecradle of the Malayan stock. From Indo-China floods of racial migration appeared fromtime to time and peopled the islands of Malaysia from west to east. As the Oceanic Mongoloid might be originated in the east Asia continent and mig-rated southward to Indo-China, naturally there must be a time in which they lived insouthern China as well as in Indo-China. Furthermore, the ancient peoples in SouthernChina consisted of various aboriginal tribes different from the Chinese Proper, it seemsnot very unreasonable to suggest that besides the Mongoloids there might existed too acertain primitive branch of Caucasian race or even Negroid race in southern China eventhough in small number before the Chinese Proper migrated southward. Possessing theability of migrating southward by the difficult way of water, why the Indonesians couldor would not proceed further eastward from Indo-China by an easier way of land tosouthern China During or preceding Chow dynasty (before 250 B. C.) in the coastal regions of sout-hern China (Chekiang, Fukien, Kwangtung, Kiangsi, Kwangsi provinces) there existedan ancient aboriginal stock with the name of "Yueh" which was looked by the Chineseproper as a different race because they lived in different way, followed their own queerhabits and customs and spoke in a different tongue. This stock was indeed more strangethan the other aboriginal stocks in southem China. The formation of such a stock mightbe the outcome of blending of the Mongoloids arrived from the north with some other peoples came from the southwest. As there really existed a different people-the In-donesians-migrated from the west and the blending of the two races-the Indonesiansand the Mongoloids-was actually taking place in Indo-China, it is far from impossiblethat such a phenomenon might extend and appear also in southem China. Being theproduct of mixing blood of the two principal races-the Mongoloids and the Indonesians-the Yueh stock might be in the same condition as the Malayan. If the intermixing of the Mongoloids with the Indonesians really took place in sout-hern China, the ancient people Yueh then was the brother of the Malayan stock. At thebeginning they might resemble to each other, but in later days both of them lived indifferent places and mixed with more other peoples, hence appeared also different fromeach other. Since the Chin dynasty (220 B. C.) the Yueh stock began to be assimilatedby the Chinese Proper from the north; the process of assimilation of culture and theblending of blood reached its conclusion in about 6th century. Later on no survivor ofYueh stock with pure blood or tribal name ever appeared in China. Their mix-bloodedoffspring, however, have existed up to present time as the population of the southeastcoastal region viz. Chekiang, Fukien, Kwangtung Provinces. Ⅲ. Three Evidences From the historical and geographical point of view, we get the above hypothesis ofthe ethnical Connection between the Malayan and the Yueh stock in southern China. Ifthis is true there must be, between them, physical and cultural resemblances which aresound enough as the evidence. Three sorts of facts, as I seek, may do this service: (1) Resemblances in Physical Characteristics--Though there is still no enoughamount of prehistoric skeletons of both the Indonesians and the Oceanic Mongoloidsunearthed in Malaysia and southern China for scientific research, the Iiving offsprings ofboth the two ancient races may give us some hints about this question,. It is often observedthat the physical characteristics of the southern Chinese of present day are different insome respects from the northern ones although basically they are of the same type viz.the Chinese type. Among them, the peoples of Kwangtung and Fukien have espicially adifferent appearence: Firstly, the eyes of them are broader and less in degree of Mongolian fold on theupper eye-lid. The eye of this type is the medium form between the Mongolian and theMalayan eye, and may be called Half-Malayan eye. Generally most of the Mongol Properand the northern Chinese have the Mongoian eye, while the Malayans have the Malayaneye. The intermediate eye suggests that the human group possessing it must be the mixedblood of the two kinds of peoples with these two sorts of eyes. Wherefrom did the sout-hern Chinese get the half-Malayan eye? Unless they had as one part of their compositeelement a sort of people with Malayan eyes, it is quite impossible to explain the derivationof this eye form. this eye form, therefore, tells us that the southern Chinese, especiallythat of Kwangtung, Fukien and perhaps Chekiang provinces had as one part of theirancestors a people with Malayan eyes. The Malayans may get their malayan eye from the Indoncsians, because the Indonesians belong to the Caucasian race whose eye is calledEuropean eye which is the same as the Malayan one. In fact, the European eye formappeared on the Malayan face is called Malayan eye. The eyes of the southern Chinesetherefore might he derived from the same way as the Malayans. Secondly, the stature of the southern Chinese especially those of Kwangtung andFukien is generally lower than that of the northern Chinese; while compared with theMalayans, they are nearly the same with each other. Thirdly, some of the faces of the southern Chinese looks different from the northernones but appears resembling the Malayans. The Southerns have a shorter face while thenortherners have a longer one. As the physical characteristics of both the southem Chinese and the Malayans resem-bling each other, it is hardly possible to distinguish some Chinese in Malayan costumesand vice versa. The Chinese new comers in Malaysia are often astonished to find thatthe so-called strangers or foreigners viz. the Malayans, look quite like themselves in theirphysical respect. Sometimes it is not easy too for the Europeans to distinguish betweenthe Chinese and the Malayans, because most of the Chinese immigrated to Malaysiancountries were from the southeastern coastal regions which was the home country of theancient Yueh people. (2) Resemblances in Early Cultural Respects--Of course the cultural life ofthe southern Chinese and the Malayans in present day are different to each other, butthe historical records about the ancient Yueh people reveal that the Yueh stock had intheir material life, social customs and languages some points suggesting the connectionwith the Malayans. These may be enumerated as the following: 1, Hair cutting: The ancient northern Chinese never cut their hair, the Miao stockbound their hair too, only the Yueh people was noted for their hair cutting. The primitivebranches of the present Malayan also cut their hair, the early Malayans probably had thiscustom in ancient times too. 2, Tattooing: The Yueh was also well-known for their tattooing which made themlook quite wonderful to the other Chinese, The Malayans of today still have kept thiscustom in Borneo, Philippines etc. 3, Snake worship: The Yueh worshipped the snakes and those in Fukien even tookthe snake as their totem. The aborigines in Taiwan province, which belong to Malayanstock too, still preserve the remnant of such belief, Snake worship is not unknown tothe Malayans in Malaysia too. 4, Pile-house: At present the pile-houses of the Malayans is quite well-known forits specialty; such form of building, however, was also adopted by the ancient southernChinese because it is recorded that the Yueh lived in nest, and the later southern peopleslived actually in the pile-houses which was called "kan-lan". 5, Naked foot: The Yueh's naked foot custom was also noted in ancient times.while the Malayans in history also kept their feet naked even though they were officersin the kings courts. 6, Agglutinative language: The Yueh spoke in a different and queer tongue fromthe Chinese Proper and even the other peoples in ancient times, the translation of Yuehwords gave the Chinese Proper a hard question; to denote the sound of a Yueh word,one Chinese word is not enough, while two or three words sound too much. Thiscondition suggests that though the Chinese language was isolating in its nature, that ofthe Yueh might belong to agglutinative one, because one agglutinative word usually pro-nounces just like two or more isolating words connected. Heine-Geldern and other scholarealso suggested that the Malayo-Polynesian or Austro-Asiatic language was originated inthe continent. The present south-eastern Chinese still speak in different dialects whichproves that the ancient Yueh language was quite strange to the northern Chinese. Thedifficulty to compare the ancient Yueh language with the Malayan one lies in the factthat both the present tongues used by the modern Malayans and the southern Chinesehave been changed by nearly two thousand years' assimilation with other languages. (3) Resemblances of Prehistoric Remains--Before the prehistoric archaeologicaldiscoveries took place in southern China, the question of the derivation or origin of someprehistoric objects in malaysia and even Polynesia had been very hard to be solved. Poly-nesia is famous for one special type of stone implements viz. the tanged adze or steppedadze, the origin of it was traced to that unearthed in Philippines; the derivation of thestepped adze of Philippines, however, was also very hard to be traced. Since about 1930the prehistoric findings began to take place in southern Chinese continent. the newmaterials enable the old questions easier to be solved. The prehistoric remains are difte-rent to those found in northern China, the latter consists of the painted pottery, blackpottery, thick stone axe, holed stone axe etc., whilc the former consists of the pressedgeometric-designed pettery, the stepped adze, the shouldered axe etc.. Strange to say thatthe southern prehistoric objects of China really resemble those of Malaysia and evenPolynesia. These objects may be pointed as the following: 1, Stepped stone adze: Stepped adze is found in large numbers in the south-easternregions viz. Fukien, Kwangtung, Chekiang, Kiangsi, Kiangsu etc., but appears veryrare in the eastern part of northern China and is entirely unknown in the western partof it. The shape suggests that it was developed in three stages just like that of Phi-lippines and Polynesia. Furthermore, the stepped adze of primary and intermediate stagesappeared more in number in south-eastern China, while that of the higher stage appearedmore in Philippines and Polynesia; such a condition reveals that the stepped adze of Phi-lippines and Polynesia was derived from south-eastern China. The way of transmigrationof the stepped adze is probably through Taiwan, Philippines and other islands. 2, Shouldered stone axe: The shouldered axe appeared in Indo-China. Malay pe-ninsula, Philippines etc., but was not found in the intermediate islands viz Sumatra,Java etc.. It was unearthed in Taiwan and Hainan islands too. In the southern part ofthe Chinese continent it appeared less in number but more will be found in future. Inthe north-eastern China very rare was obtaine(?) too. The shouldered axe might be ori-ginated in Indo-China and then spreaded eastward to the south-eastern coastal region of Chinese continent, therefrom it crossed the sea and arrived in Philippines through Tai-wan island, On the way a northward route led it to the north-eastern region. Anotherroute led it southward to Malay Peninsula. Shouldered axe is also an object of evidenceshowing the relation of the Malayans and the southern Chinese, because the prehistoricpeoples in Indo-China was the Malayans instead of the Annamese etc.. 3, Pressed geometric-designed pottery: In southern, especially south-eastern China,the prehistoric pottery was that with geometric designs pressed with pottery prints, thisis quite different to the painted pottery of north-western China and the black pottery ofnorth-eastern China. In Malaysia and Indo-China the prehistoric potteries found resembleto that of south China, some of the shape of the potteries as well as the pressed designsare quite like each other. Some potteries of this type were actuaily found in Indo-China,Java and Sulawesi, which are comparable with that of south China. This kind of potteryalso suggests the prehistoric connection between Malayans and the southern Chinese. Ⅳ. Conclusions (1) The Malayan stock is a mixed blood of chiefly the Oceanic Mongoloid raceand the Indonesians which is an early branch of the Caucasian race. These two raceshave been blended to such a degree that a new stock appeared which is called the Ma-Jayan stock, and the two elements have no more pure offsprings survived. The presentMalayans show more Mongolian physical features than the Indonesian ones, hencs it istaken as a branch of Mongoloids. (2) The Oceanic Mongoloid came from southern China, hence these should beethnic connection. between the Malayans and the ancient southern Chinese. Moreover,the other two elements of the Malayans, the Indonesians and the Negritoes probablyalso arrived and lived in southern China earlier than the Mongoloids and became partof the ethnical elements of the southern Chinese in later days, therefore the Malayansand the southern Chinese may have the same ethnical element. (3) The present southern Chinese, especially the south-eastern ones have some phy-sical characteristics like the Malayans, their ancestor Yueh stock had some customs andlanguage showing some resemblances to the Malayans, finally, the prehistoric discoveriesalso show the relationship between these two races. (4) The processes of the formation of the Malayan stock might proceeded in Indo-China and southern China. Since Neolithic age the Malayans migrated step by step toMalaysian islands, while those remained in Indo-China and southern China were assimi-lated by the Chinese Proper, Annamese, Siamese and Burmese. The ancient Yueh stockin southern China might have nearly the same ethnic composition as the Malayans, butwas assimilated by the Chinese Proper since two thousand years ago. (5) There might be two routes of southward migration of the Malayans. The firstand principal one was the west route which started from Indo-China, penetrated Suma-tra, Java and Borneo, and finally reached Philippines; the evidences are the pressedgeometric designed pottery and the shouldered axe. The second was the east route whichstarted from the south-eastern coast of Chinese continent, passed Taiwan and other islets,finally reached Philippines, Sulawesi and eastern Borneo. The stepped adze, the shoul-dered axe, and the pressed geometric-designed pott

林惠祥同志三十多年来除了对人类学(包括古学、民族学)进行系统的研究,并获得很大的成就和贡献外,他一生对南洋问题的研究,也曾下过工夫,做过不少工作和贡献。“南洋马来族与华南古民族的关系”这篇论文是林惠祥同志关于南洲问题最后的遗著。前篇于一九三八年以“马来人与中国东南方人同源说”为题曾在南洋发表过,后篇是他二十年后对这问题进一步深入研究的成果,提出更丰富、更可靠的有关人类学(包括考古学、民族学)的材料和证据,把我国和南洋民族的历史关系以及将东南亚这一大片地方过去被遗忘的历史补充起来,这是他三十年多年来对南洋研究的重要贡献,也是他一生对南洋问题研究总结的一部份。

Two series of experiments were carried out on 109 young female albinorats.In the first series the spinal cord was hemisected at the mid-thoraciclevel and examined from 1 hour to 240 days after operation for degenerationand regeneration.In the second series the spinal cord was transected at themid-thoracic level.In order to influence the condition of scar tissue,segmentsof degenerated sciatic nerve were used as grafts for auto- and homo-trans-plantations.In the latter case some of the grafts were stored in ice-box...

Two series of experiments were carried out on 109 young female albinorats.In the first series the spinal cord was hemisected at the mid-thoraciclevel and examined from 1 hour to 240 days after operation for degenerationand regeneration.In the second series the spinal cord was transected at themid-thoracic level.In order to influence the condition of scar tissue,segmentsof degenerated sciatic nerve were used as grafts for auto- and homo-trans-plantations.In the latter case some of the grafts were stored in ice-box (2℃)for 2 days before grafting.After 7 to 120 days the effects of different trans-plantations on regeneration were studied.Sections of the specimens were pre-pared by a modified Glees' silver impregnation method,and some were coun-terstained with Mallory's triple stain.One hour after injury,some of the cut ends of the nerve fibers swelledand showed increased argyrophilia.Six hours later typical Cajal's retractionballs were found at the cut ends of some fibers.Later on they detached them-selves from the axons and broke into fragments and disappeared gradually.Twenty-four hours after injury some ascending fibers showed Walleriandegeneration.On the third day a great number of them had degenerated andthe maximum degeneration was observed on the fifth day.The fragments ofWallerian degeneration persisted for a long time.Twenty-four hours after the operation a few regenerating fibers withgrowth cones at their tips were observed.It was found that as the regenera-tion proceeded some of the regenerating fibers degenerated and disappeared.Transplantation of segments of degenerated nerves resulted in alteration of the structure of scar tissue and enabled regenerating fibers grow along thelong axis of the cord.Most regenerating fibers that grew into the transplantscame from the dorsal root,only a small portion came from the cord proper.The number of regenerating fibers in the transplants varied with their posi-tion,the occurrence of necrosis within them and density of the surroundingscar.It was found that auto-transplantation had the best effect,homo-trans-plantation after cold storage came next and homo-transplantation without coldstorage produced the least effect.It was found that the regenerative capacity of the spinal cord was com-paratively slight and that the nerve fibers did not regenerate uniformly.Mostregenerating fibers in the scar tissue came from dorsal funiculus,some origi-nated from the ventral horn cells,only few of them came from the graymatter and the fasciculus proprius.Other fibers regenerated only occasionally.Transection of spinal cord resulted in paralysis of the hindlimbs but reflexactivity remained intact.In animals whose spinal cord had been hemisected,the coordination of locomotion was recovered in a few days.It is evident,that the central nervous system of albino rat possesses remarkable compensatorypower.The factors causing the failure of regeneration in the central nervoussystem are discussed.

1.本报告系采用体重70—100克较幼的雌性大白鼠,在第6—8胸椎平面半切断脊髓,手术后1小时至240天分期取出脊髓,用改良的Marsland,Glees及Erikson的石蜡镀银法染色,也有部分用Mallory三色法复染,系统观察脊髓内轴突的溃变和再生。另外用已溃变的坐骨神经进行自体、同种和冷藏后再行同种移植的方法来填补脊髓的缺损,观察不同的移植方法和移植块对脊髓再生的影响。2.脊髓内少数纤维的断端,在损伤后1小时初显改变,6小时已形成Cajal式典型的缩回球,24小时已有少数缩回球和轴突分离,经破裂成碎片而逐渐消失。从15天以后,各期都看到少数再生纤维的尖端形成嗜银性很强的类似缩回球的肿大,此现象在240天仍继续发出。3.切断纤维的两端都能形成缩回球,其形状、部位和纤维的直径有密切的关系。棒状缩回球主要由粗纤维形成,离切口较远;球状缩回球大部分紧靠切口的边缘,由细纤维的断端所形成。4.损伤后24小时,少数上行纤维开始华氏溃变,第3天有显著的增加,第5天已达最高峰。华氏溃变产生的碎片的消失极为缓慢,在240天仍有部分碎片散布在结节状肿大的纤维之间。5.带有生长锥的分枝再生纤维,在手术后24小时开始形成,但数...

1.本报告系采用体重70—100克较幼的雌性大白鼠,在第6—8胸椎平面半切断脊髓,手术后1小时至240天分期取出脊髓,用改良的Marsland,Glees及Erikson的石蜡镀银法染色,也有部分用Mallory三色法复染,系统观察脊髓内轴突的溃变和再生。另外用已溃变的坐骨神经进行自体、同种和冷藏后再行同种移植的方法来填补脊髓的缺损,观察不同的移植方法和移植块对脊髓再生的影响。2.脊髓内少数纤维的断端,在损伤后1小时初显改变,6小时已形成Cajal式典型的缩回球,24小时已有少数缩回球和轴突分离,经破裂成碎片而逐渐消失。从15天以后,各期都看到少数再生纤维的尖端形成嗜银性很强的类似缩回球的肿大,此现象在240天仍继续发出。3.切断纤维的两端都能形成缩回球,其形状、部位和纤维的直径有密切的关系。棒状缩回球主要由粗纤维形成,离切口较远;球状缩回球大部分紧靠切口的边缘,由细纤维的断端所形成。4.损伤后24小时,少数上行纤维开始华氏溃变,第3天有显著的增加,第5天已达最高峰。华氏溃变产生的碎片的消失极为缓慢,在240天仍有部分碎片散布在结节状肿大的纤维之间。5.带有生长锥的分枝再生纤维,在手术后24小时开始形成,但数量极少。有一些分枝的再生纤维继续生存150天或更长。在再生过程中经常有少数再生纤维发生溃变而消失。6.移植已溃变的神经能够部分改变脊髓内瘢痕的结构,使再生纤维沿着脊髓纵轴生长,有利于纤维的再生;但是移植块常引起较严重的炎性反应,被致密的结缔组织所包绕,阻碍再生纤维长入移植块。7.长入移植块的再生纤维,极大部分来自后根,少数东自后索,也有一些可能来自灰质。移植块内再生纤维的数量是随着移植块所在的部位、放置的方向、周围瘢痕的致密程度及是否发生局部坏死而转移。8.自体移植的效果最好,淋巴细胞的浸润比较轻,再生纤维最丰富。冷藏后同种移植的次之。同种移植由于在移植块中心常发生局部坏死而引起较严重的炎性反应,影响了再生纤维的长入。9.脊髓内神经纤维的再生能力较微弱而且是不一致的,瘢痕内的再生纤维以后索的上行纤维来的较多,前角细胞次之,极少的来自灰质和固有束,其他纤维的再生更为少见。脊神经的后根常有大量的再生纤维长入瘢痕。10.脊髓侧索在损伤后15天初显收缩,随后更为显著。其收缩的程度在近侧段和远侧段相似,在90天受伤侧的侧索的厚度只有正常侧的一半左右。11.所有全切断脊髓和移植动物,除呈现反射活动外,都没有发现后肢的协调运动;但是全部脊髓半切断动物在手术后3—7天都已经恢复正常的协调步态。可见大白鼠的中枢神经系是具有高度的代偿机能。12.中枢神经系再生失败的原因曾加以讨论。

 
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