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leafhopper
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  leafhopper
In this study, two biotin-labeled rice BAC clones closely linked to a rice blast resistance, green leafhopper resistance and tungro spherical virus resistance gene,Pi-5(t), Glh, RTSV, werein situ hybridized to rice chromosomes.
      
Influence of sowing times of castor varieties on their resistance to the leafhopper, Empoasca flavescens (Homoptera, Jassidae)
      
Stem borer and leafhopper-planthopper resistance in rice varieties
      
The green colour and humidity stimuli are unspecific and attract the leafhopper equally strongly to both the plants.
      
The odour of the host (cotton) including that of its constituents camphene and α-pinene attracts while the nonhost (castor) odour repels the leafhopper.
      
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In order to determine the practical value of the Bordeaux mixture as acontrol measure for the cotton leafhopper, a field experiment was designedand carried out in 1943 at Shatang, Liuchow, Kwangsi. Three known effective contact poisons, namely, a water suspension ofYam bean seed power (Gross Smith value 1%) (1:1000), a water suspension ofpyrethrum powder (1:600), and a water extract of tobacco (Nicotine content2.35%) (1:100) were applied at the same time with two types of Bordeauxmixture (4-6-50 and 2-4-50)...

In order to determine the practical value of the Bordeaux mixture as acontrol measure for the cotton leafhopper, a field experiment was designedand carried out in 1943 at Shatang, Liuchow, Kwangsi. Three known effective contact poisons, namely, a water suspension ofYam bean seed power (Gross Smith value 1%) (1:1000), a water suspension ofpyrethrum powder (1:600), and a water extract of tobacco (Nicotine content2.35%) (1:100) were applied at the same time with two types of Bordeauxmixture (4-6-50 and 2-4-50) for four applications at a fifteen-day intervalduring the early growth season of cotton from June 15 to July 30. The popula-tion of leafhopper, the degree of infestation, the number of green bolls andthe yield of lint cotton were statistically analyzed and discussed. Population observations showed that the three contact poisons greatlyreduced the leafhopper population on the first day after application. Butthey soon lost their effectiveness three days later, so that the population startedto rebuild up and was practically with no significant difference from that ofhe untreated plots at the end of the fifteen-day interval. While the Bordeaux mixture showed a maximum reduction of population on the third day afterapplication, and maintained its effectiveness for a considerable time; the pop-ulation was constantly checked to such an extent that no serious damage wouldoccur during the spray interval. The degree of infestation as indicated by the symptom of cyrtosis onleaves was 40.83, 47.21, 55.85, 57.66, 62.48, and 60.39 per cent in average for4-6-50 Bordeaux mixture, 2-4-50 Bordeaux mixture, yam bean seed powdersuspension, pyrethrum powder suspension and tobacco water extract and theuntreated check plots respectively. Moreover, the percentage of heavily in-fested plants for the treated and untreated plots in the fore-mentioned orderwas 5.61, 8.24, 21.88, 23.68, 28.88 and 25.27 respectively.It was evident thatin the long run the Bordeaux mixture was the most effective insecticide inreducing the degree of infestation. The number of bolls per plant was 15.27, 13.24, 10.17, 9.53, 8.75 and6.75 in average, and the yield of lint cotton was 19.50, 17.84, 11.69, 10.11and 6.24 catties per mou (1 catty=0.5 kilogram, 1 mou=0.164 acre) for thetwo types of Bordeaux mixture and three kinds of contact poisons and theuntreated check plots respectively. The yield of cotton was generally much lower in 1943 than in 1942 forthe same experimental field. This was apparently due to the poorer soilfertility and heavier leafhopper infestation in 1943. But the ratio of the yieldbetween the Bordeaux mixture treated plots and the check plots was quitedifferent in the two years, i.e. 55.62 to 31 catties per mou in 1942, and 19.50to 6.24 catties per mou in 1943. This revealed a fact that the Bordeauxmixture treatment will he applied more effectively and profitably where thecotton field is not fertile and when the leafhopper outbreak is severe. 4-6-50 Bordeaux mixture and 2-4-50 Bordeaux mixture were in all casesinsignificantly different in their effectiveness. Theiefore a 2-4-50 Bordeauxmixture would be a more economical and practical measure for the cottonleafhopper control.

(一)本试验应用三种防治棉浮(鹿土)子之有效接触剂,烟草、除虫菊、及豆薯种子,与两种配合式之波尔多液;4—6—50式及2—4—50式,同时在棉田内每半月施用一次,自六月半至七月底共施用四次。比较其消减虫口,减轻受害程度及增加产量诸功能,藉以证明波尔多液之特性。 (二)1000倍豆薯种子粉悬液、600倍除虫菊粉悬液、及100倍烟草水,三者不论在消减虫口,减轻受害程度,以及增加产量各方面,其功能均相若,无显著差异。 (三)4—6—50式波尔多液与2—4—50式波尔多液,对于治虫、减害及增产各功能,亦无显著差异。 (四)豆薯种子粉悬液、除虫菊粉悬液、及烟草水三种接触剂经施用后一天之治虫效力,均显较波尔多液为优,惟至第三天,差异便不显著,三天以后,波尔多液之功效反日见优越。此显示波尔多液之持久特性。 (五)棉浮(鹿土)子之虫口发生愈多,则波尔多液之功效愈著。因其效力持久,所抑制之虫口可还较接触剂为低。 (六)波尔多液减轻棉叶之受害程度,因其药效持久,附属牢固,保护力强,故亦较三种接触剂为优。 (七)施用波尔多液后,结铃数显然增加。其功效亦优于三种接触剂。 (八)施用波尔多液后,每亩皮棉产量亦显著增加。本年结果,施用4...

(一)本试验应用三种防治棉浮(鹿土)子之有效接触剂,烟草、除虫菊、及豆薯种子,与两种配合式之波尔多液;4—6—50式及2—4—50式,同时在棉田内每半月施用一次,自六月半至七月底共施用四次。比较其消减虫口,减轻受害程度及增加产量诸功能,藉以证明波尔多液之特性。 (二)1000倍豆薯种子粉悬液、600倍除虫菊粉悬液、及100倍烟草水,三者不论在消减虫口,减轻受害程度,以及增加产量各方面,其功能均相若,无显著差异。 (三)4—6—50式波尔多液与2—4—50式波尔多液,对于治虫、减害及增产各功能,亦无显著差异。 (四)豆薯种子粉悬液、除虫菊粉悬液、及烟草水三种接触剂经施用后一天之治虫效力,均显较波尔多液为优,惟至第三天,差异便不显著,三天以后,波尔多液之功效反日见优越。此显示波尔多液之持久特性。 (五)棉浮(鹿土)子之虫口发生愈多,则波尔多液之功效愈著。因其效力持久,所抑制之虫口可还较接触剂为低。 (六)波尔多液减轻棉叶之受害程度,因其药效持久,附属牢固,保护力强,故亦较三种接触剂为优。 (七)施用波尔多液后,结铃数显然增加。其功效亦优于三种接触剂。 (八)施用波尔多液后,每亩皮棉产量亦显著增加。本年结果,施用4—6—50式波尔多液者,产量较对照区增多3.12倍,2—4—50式波尔多液区较对照区增产2.85倍

DDT and BHC are two of the most commonly recommended insecticides forthe control of the rice pests.However,their effects upon the rice leafhopper,Empoasca subrufa Melichar,remain to be carefully investigated.Experimentswith adults were conducted both in the laboratory and in the field.The resultsmay be summerized as follows:1.Spraying with 25% DDT emulsion in 200-300 parts of water killed over90% of the leafhoppers,whereas in 400 parts of water,it gave an unstable kill-ing effect ranging from 75% to 90%.Dusting...

DDT and BHC are two of the most commonly recommended insecticides forthe control of the rice pests.However,their effects upon the rice leafhopper,Empoasca subrufa Melichar,remain to be carefully investigated.Experimentswith adults were conducted both in the laboratory and in the field.The resultsmay be summerized as follows:1.Spraying with 25% DDT emulsion in 200-300 parts of water killed over90% of the leafhoppers,whereas in 400 parts of water,it gave an unstable kill-ing effect ranging from 75% to 90%.Dusting with 2.5-5% DDT powder killedmore than 90% of the leafhoppers.2.The residual effect of DDT treatment lasted for 10-15 days.3.BHC gave practically no real control of this insect if used alone.4.DDT and BHC applied in mixture could increase the killing effect,andthe residual effect was the same as DDT used alone.This treatment is verypromising owing to the reduction of the amount of DDT required and the lower-ing of the cost.25% DDT emulsion mixed with wettable 6% γBHC in 1:1:400or 1:1:600 parts of water gave the same result as DDT used alone in 1:200or 1:300.Spraying with 25% DDT emulsion mixed with wettable 6% γBHCin field in concentration of 1:1:500 resulted in an effect slightly better than thatof DDT used alone in 1:1:300.A mixed dusting of 5% DDT and 0.5% γBHCin 1:1 ratio gave a mortality similar to that of DDT used alone.In short,in the control of this leafhopper,it is advisable to use:1)25%DDT emulsion mixed with wettable 6% γBHC in 1:1:500;2)a mixed powderof 570 DDT and 0.5% γBHC in 1:1 ratio;3)an emulsion of 25% DDT in1:300-400 parts of water,or 4)2.5-5% DDT dust.

DDT 是防治白翅叶蝉的良好药剂。25%DDT 乳剂1∶200和1∶300倍液的毒效均在90%以上;1∶400倍液的毒效为75—95%。2.5—5%DDT 粉剂的毒效也达90%以上。田间使用 DDT 防治白翅叶蝉的残效期约为10—12天。666单独用来防治白翅叶蝉效果甚差,但与 DDT 混合使用有增效作用,残效期与单独使用 DDT 相似;二者混用是最合理的施用方式,可以节省 DDT 用药量,减低药费,同时对多种稻虫可收综合防治之效。25%DDT 乳剂和6%可湿性666按1∶1∶400及1∶1∶600混用,其毒效相当于单用 DDT 1∶200及1∶300者;用1∶1∶500喷射效果比单用 DDT 1∶300者还略高;5% DDT 粉剂和0.5%666粉剂按1∶1混用,其毒效也和单用5% DDT 粉剂相接近。

The leafhopper, Empoasca subrufa Melichar is one of the important insect pests ofrice, wheat, sugarcane, sorghum, etc. in South China. The plants thus damaged willshow numerous white spots on the leaves. The rice seedlings, under serious attack, witherrapidly. While at the later stage of development of rice it reduces the seed weight. The present study, conducted during 1957--1959 in Foochow and Minhou of Fukienprovince, deals with the biology of the insect. Four and sometimes five generations ayear are...

The leafhopper, Empoasca subrufa Melichar is one of the important insect pests ofrice, wheat, sugarcane, sorghum, etc. in South China. The plants thus damaged willshow numerous white spots on the leaves. The rice seedlings, under serious attack, witherrapidly. While at the later stage of development of rice it reduces the seed weight. The present study, conducted during 1957--1959 in Foochow and Minhou of Fukienprovince, deals with the biology of the insect. Four and sometimes five generations ayear are usually found. At the last generation the adults occur in October and Novem-ber in rice field, and after the crop has been harvested, they move to wheat and sugar-cane fields and to other cereal weeds along the sides of streams, pool and ponds wherethey overwinter. During the winter its destructive activity is still going on when theaverage daily temperature is above 11℃. The longevity of the female adults in summeris about 33 days, and the male adults 21 days, whereas that of the last generationadults lasts about 7 months. The duration of the egg stage in different generations variesfrom 5 to 14 days. The nymphal stage in different generations varies from 18--24 days.In summer, the preoviposition stage takes about 15 days. The adult lays its eggs singly in the midrib of the leaf of rice. In the earlier stageof the growth of rice, eggs are laid in the first and second leaves from the base, whileat the later stage, eggs are found mostly in the third leaf. In day time it rests uponthe upper and the middle parts of the crop. It moves higher toward the morning andevening. At mid-day it goes downward. It begins to appear in the rice field in March and then multiplies rapidly in May orJune. The population, decreasing during July and August, rises again in September. Theraining season in spring favors its growth and multiplication. In the control of this leafhopper, it is advisable to use: 1) 25% DDT emulsionmixed with wettable 6% γ BHC in 1:1:500, 2) a mixed powder of 5% DDT and0.5% γ BHC in 1:1 concentration, 3) an emulsion of 25% DDT in 1:300--400 partsof water, and 4) a powder of 2.5--5% DDT. Besides, based upon the study of its lifehistory and habits, clearing of weeds in winter before the wheat emerges is also con-sidered effective.

白翅叶蝉是福建省水稻的重要害虫,苗期受害严重者,整片稻苗苍白,甚至枯死;早稻孕穗、抽穗期常大量发生为害,影响谷粒饱满度,造成减产。福州和闽侯地区一年发生4代,部分5代。成虫越冬。冬季日平均温度达11℃以上时仍能取食为害。春季成虫侵入稻田,4月下旬前后大量产卵,5月中旬虫数激增,5月下旬或6月初达到高峰。早稻收割时由于农事活动引致若虫大量死亡。晚稻田于8、9月虫数较多,但危害不如早稻严重。10月中旬以后成虫逐渐离开稻田,迁往越冬场所。 寄主植物幼嫩茂密和较大湿度的小生境有利于白翅叶蝉的发育繁殖。大发生的气候因子主要是春季多雨。适宜的温湿度范围为温度20—25℃,相对湿度85—90%。 DDT单独使用或DDT与666混用防治白翅叶蝉都能收到满意的效果。早稻秧田宜在播种后两周施药防治;本田于5月中旬虫口密度开始增长之际施药,亦能抑制为害。冬季小麦出土以前清除田边杂草,也是一项有效的防治措施。

 
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