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longevity
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  寿命
    The average longevity of newly infected virgin female and F_1-F_5 females was 4.33, 5.50, 5.60, 6.68, 7.32 and 7.50 days, respectively, shorter than that of the longevity of uninfected and mated T. confusum (7.59 days).
    处女蜂及F1~F5代雌蜂的平均寿命分别为4.33、5.50、5.60、6.68、7.32和7.50天,而未感染交配雌蜂寿命为7.59天;
短句来源
    In this paper, the bionomics such as eclosion, longevity, and fecundity of Trichogramma ostrinia, Trichogramma embryophagum and Trichogramma cacoeciae were detected under different temperature and relative humidity combinations (20,25 and 30℃ combi-nate with RH 45% , 78% , 92% respectively).
    在温度20、25、30℃,相对湿度45%、78%、92%范围内的共9个温湿度组合条件下,测定了玉米螟赤眼蜂、食胚赤眼蜂和卷蛾赤眼蜂的羽化、寿命、繁殖力等一些生物学特性。
    Influence of different rearing densities on longevity and fecundity of Helicoverpa armigera moths
    不同饲养密度对棉铃虫蛾寿命和生殖力的影响
短句来源
    Effects of transgenic cry1Ab rice pollen on the oviposition and adult longevity of Chrysoperla sinica Tjeder
    转Bt cry1Ab基因水稻花粉对中华草蛉成虫产卵和寿命的影响
短句来源
    Effect of Wolbachia infection on longevity, fecundity and olfactory response of Trichogramma confusum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)
    Wolbachia感染对拟澳洲赤眼蜂寿命、生殖力和嗅觉反应的影响
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  “longevity”译为未确定词的双语例句
    STUDIES ON THE LONGEVITY OF ERWINIA AROIDEAE (TOWNS.) HOLLAND UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL CONDITIONS
    白菜軟腐細菌(Erwinia aroideae)在不同土壤条件下的存活时期
短句来源
    Mean egg productions at 26# and 29# were 604.7 and 611.4 respectively. Adult longevity, preoviposition and ovipositon periods declined at high temperature.
    在26℃和29℃时,甜菜夜蛾的平均产卵量最高,分别为604.7和611.4粒/雌,26℃是甜菜夜蛾最适宜交配的温度,交配率为84.9%,平均精包数为2.46个/雌;
短句来源
    Both the longevity of adult and generation period decreased with the temperature rising, the relationship between generation period (y1), longevity of adult (y2) and temperature (x) weredescribed as the following formula: y1=-1.7716x+62.9181 (r2=-0.9713), y2=-0.7592x+30.06 (r2=0.9752).
    成虫的平均总产卵量y与温度x呈抛物线相关,其关系式为:y=-1.11x~2+47.45x-415.65(r=0.9825)。 在恒温实验条件下,黄色潜蝇茧蜂实验种群在21℃时,种群增长最快,种群净增长率为52.15,周限增长率为1.1935。
短句来源
    In Chenopodium amaranticolor, their dilution end-point (DEP) ranged from 10-4 to 10-5, thermal inactivation point (TIP) was between 60℃ and 65℃ and longevity in vitro was 20-23d at 20-22℃.
    苋色藜Chenopodium amaranticolor和千日红Gomphrena globosa表现局部褪绿斑。 该分离物汁液钝化温度60~65℃,稀释限点为10-4~10-5,寄主体外存活期为20~23d。
短句来源
    The thermal inactivation point(TIP) of the isolate was between 55℃ and 60℃ , the dilution end-point ranged from 10-4 to 10-5, and the longevity in vitro was 2~3d.
    该分离物汁液钝化温度 55℃~60℃,稀释限点为 10-4~10-5,寄主体外存活期为2~3d。
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  longevity
More recently, studies on root survivals found that longevity was remarkably different in the same branching level due to diameter variations.
      
Studying seasonal changes of fine root biomass, RLD, and SRL associated with soil resource availability will help us understand the mechanistic controls of carbon to fine root longevity and turnover.
      
Mathematical modeling of man's life-cycle and longevity
      
The mollusk-fish system made it possible to demonstrate that the parasite can inhibit senescence of the host and stimulate nonspecific resistance to stress, i.e., can control longevity.
      
A new approach to the development of natural cancer drugs from hydrobionts selected for longevity and stress resistance is analyzed.
      
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The present report deals with the results of some studies on the longevity of the soft-rot organism, Erwinia aroideae (Towns.) Holland in soil. It is found that when the bacteria are added into a mass of non-sterile field soil in a test-tube and incubated at 28℃, they can not live longer than 14 days. This result is somewhat contradictory to those of Patel, but agrees with those of Gorlenko and Voronkeviz. A study of the number of microorganisms which, are able to be plated out in beef bouillon peptone...

The present report deals with the results of some studies on the longevity of the soft-rot organism, Erwinia aroideae (Towns.) Holland in soil. It is found that when the bacteria are added into a mass of non-sterile field soil in a test-tube and incubated at 28℃, they can not live longer than 14 days. This result is somewhat contradictory to those of Patel, but agrees with those of Gorlenko and Voronkeviz. A study of the number of microorganisms which, are able to be plated out in beef bouillon peptone agar reveals that when a known number of soft-rot bacteria is added into a soil sample, the total number of the indigenous microorganisms is increased, while the number of the introduced bacteria is rapidly decreased. After 72 hours, the total number of the indigenous microorganisms in the soil sample begins to decrease and finally reaches its original level. It is inferred that following the addition of the soft-rot organism into a soil sample, a biological equilibrium is broken and the indigenous microorganisms are stimulated to multiply rapidly. After a brief period of such an unusual multiplication of the indigenous microorganisms, the invaders are suppressed and a new equilibrium is finally established. Henceforth the number level of the indigenous microorganisms in the soil sample returns to the orginal. When the soft-rot bacteria are introduced into the soil in soil tanks regulated at different soil temperatures (and in each tank two plants of the Chinese cabbage are planted), the introduced bacteria live 11 days at 35℃, 21 days at 10℃ and 7 days at 20℃. Possibly a soil temperature at 20℃ might be close to the optimal for the activities of some antagonists of the soft-rot bacteria. When a soil sample is fertilized with the "de-oiled soybean-seed-cake" or with the "dried night soil", the elimination of the intruding bacteria is accelerated. In the plot where the de-oiled soybeanseed-cake" is applied, the soft-rot organism disappears within 24 hours, whereas in the plot of the "dried night soil", the intruding bacteria disappear within 5 days. The soft-rot bacteria in an autoclaved field soil sample live 96 days. When a quantity of manure or compost is added to the soil sample and chert autoclaved', the soft-rot bacteria introduced at such a condition live longer than 180 days. Evidently the added manure or compost in sterile condition serves as food material for the soft-rot organism.

白菜軟腐細菌(Erwinia aroideae)在不灭菌的土壤中可以存活11天至14天。土壤中的微生物总数(指可以在牛肉汁(月柬)培养基上发育的微生物)因軟腐細菌的加入而起剧烈的波动。当軟腐細菌进入土壤中后24小时,軟腐細菌的数量銳减而土壤中的其他微生物数量上昇,以后亦逐漸递減。当軟腐細菌在土壤中消失时,土壤微生物的数量又趋于平稳。軟腐細菌在栽有白菜的土壤中,土壤温度影响其存活期:土温在35℃时可以存活11天,在10℃可以存活21天,在20℃时可以活7天。豆餅及大粪干施入土壤中时可以促进軟腐細菌的消灭。施豆餅区(豆餅微粒与土壤拌匀)在24小时中软腐細菌即已消灭,而在施大粪干区軟腐細菌可以存活5天。軟腐細菌在灭菌的土壤中可以活96天,如果施以灭菌的堆肥或厩肥时,可以延长至180天以上。

Chinese rape, varieties of Brassica campestris and B. chinensis and many cruciferous crops including radishes, but except varieties of B. oleracea, are generally affected by a mosaic disease, causing serious losses amounting occasionally to a death rate of over 90%, while an infection rate of over 30% is not uncommon. The symptoms involved were vein-clearing, yellow or green veinbanding, typical mosaic, rugosity of leaf lamina, dwarfing and rosetting. They may appear in different combinations. Flower stalks...

Chinese rape, varieties of Brassica campestris and B. chinensis and many cruciferous crops including radishes, but except varieties of B. oleracea, are generally affected by a mosaic disease, causing serious losses amounting occasionally to a death rate of over 90%, while an infection rate of over 30% is not uncommon. The symptoms involved were vein-clearing, yellow or green veinbanding, typical mosaic, rugosity of leaf lamina, dwarfing and rosetting. They may appear in different combinations. Flower stalks may not come out or are shortened, deformed and twisted. Flowers appeared pale yellow and become abortive, or forming only small and twisted seed pod, which are sometimes spotted with black necrosis, and bearing small and deformed seeds. When the winter temperature is low, diseased plants may succumb first, forming missing hills. Late infections may result only in vein-banding of the upper leaves and partial abortion of the seeds. On several varieties of radish, mostly of the green type, which apparently are more resistant, only fine mottling appears on the leaves while infected. On varieties of B. napella, another oil-bearing group, the symptoms are entirely different (plate 1, fig. 5), appearing as systemic bright yellow spots on the leaves. Necrotic flecking can eventually be found at the center of these spots. Necrotic streaks and spots develop on the flower stalks and seed pods. Dwarfing and distortion occur on leaves, stalks and pods, and death may even be resulted from severe infections. However, this species showed certain degree of resistance to the disease in the form of late infection and the lower incidence of the disease. The viruses from different host plants are cross-inoculable, although some strains do not infect B. napella. None of them can infect the cabbage group by sap inoculation. 3 viruses were identified: differentiated by their physical properties and the host reactions they induced (Tables 1 and 2 for the viruses 1 and 2): 1. Thermal inactivation below 70℃. 2. Producing necrotic local lesions only on N. tabacum var, "Nungling 400" …… virus 1 2. Producing necrotic local lesions and systemic mottling on the same host……virus 2 1. Thermal inactivation above 90℃., necrotic local lesions on N. glutinosa…… virus 3 The first two viruses can be subdivided into 2 strains each by their ability to infect B. napella. Virus 1 is considered to be a strain of Brassica virus 2 or the Turnip mosaic virus; from the type, it differs in not infecting the cabbage group. Virus 2 is identified as a strain of Cucumis virus 1 or the Cucumber mosaic; virus; from the type, it differs in having lower thermal inactivation point (55℃.), lower dilution end point (1: 1,000—3,000); and shorter longevity invitro (2 days), in producing local lesions on tobacco, and in that the typical strain of Cacumis virus 1 gives only a partial protection to this strain on tobacco. The 3rd virus was less studied. It shows affinity to Nicotiana virus 1 or the tobacco mosaic virus. A limited test showed that the first virus was the only virus found present in the field in 1957. An analysis of 17 isolates of virus from the Chinese rape, exhibiting various syndromes of symptoms in the field, gave an Unanimous result in host reactions, indicating that these isolates belong to a single virus. Virus 1 was found to be easily transmitted by sap, by aphids, including peach aphid (Myzus pcrsicae), false cabbage aphid (Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicae), and cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii). In insect relationship, the virus belongs to the nonpersistent group, a single feeding will enable an active transmission of about 20 minutes. Peach aphid seems to be an effective vector that 2 or more viruliferous aphids per plant are capable of 100% transmission. The virus is not seed-transmitted. Fresh residue of diseased plant in the soil may cause occasional infection of the replanted plants. The virus can infect several cruciferous weeds, but, among them, only Rorippa montana (wall.) Small grows all the year round and possesses a perennial crown. It is also foundto be commonly infected in the nature. Rubbing with infected sap or using aphid as vector, the virus from this weed can easily be transmitted to the Chinese rape, producing the typical mosaic symptoms. This weed, therefore, seems to be capable of beoming a source of inoculum for the primary infection of the Chinese rape.

南京及华东地区的油菜与十字花科蔬菜普遍发生花叶病。病原病毒經抗性(失毒温度、稀释終点、体外保毒期)測定和寄主反应測定,认为可以分作三大类型:分别为芸苔病毒2号,黄瓜病毒1号与烟病毒1号的株系。前两种病毒都能为害油菜、大白菜、白菜、芥菜、蘿卜等,但不为害甘蓝型的蔬菜,并都能引起菠菜和茼蒿的花叶,和在烟上引起局部枯斑。第一型在烟农特400号和心叶烟上不引起花叶,而第二型在烟和心叶烟上都能引起系統性花叶。第一型不为害心叶烟,而第三型可在心叶烟上引起小枯斑。第一型与凌立、楊演的油菜花叶病毒相近似,而和范怀忠、柯冲从十字花科蔬菜中所分离出的分离物1号最为相象。与裘維蕃、王祁楷在白菜上所发現的孤丁病毒的差别,在于不能侵害甘蓝类的蔬菜。第二型病毒与范怀忠、柯冲的分离物3号相近似,但与典型的黃瓜花叶病毒仍具有一定的差异。这些病毒在油菜上所引起的症状却沒有明显的差別。1、2两个类型的病毒都有一部分能为害早生朝鮮型的油菜,引起系統性黄斑及枮斑,病重的也能早期死亡。大田中的油菜病株的病毒,大多属于第一型病毒。病毒主要由桃蚜和蘿卜蚜传染,病毒系非持續性的,蚜虫一次吸毒后,传病期不超过20分钟。两个以上的桃蚜传病率就可达100%。种子...

南京及华东地区的油菜与十字花科蔬菜普遍发生花叶病。病原病毒經抗性(失毒温度、稀释終点、体外保毒期)測定和寄主反应測定,认为可以分作三大类型:分别为芸苔病毒2号,黄瓜病毒1号与烟病毒1号的株系。前两种病毒都能为害油菜、大白菜、白菜、芥菜、蘿卜等,但不为害甘蓝型的蔬菜,并都能引起菠菜和茼蒿的花叶,和在烟上引起局部枯斑。第一型在烟农特400号和心叶烟上不引起花叶,而第二型在烟和心叶烟上都能引起系統性花叶。第一型不为害心叶烟,而第三型可在心叶烟上引起小枯斑。第一型与凌立、楊演的油菜花叶病毒相近似,而和范怀忠、柯冲从十字花科蔬菜中所分离出的分离物1号最为相象。与裘維蕃、王祁楷在白菜上所发現的孤丁病毒的差别,在于不能侵害甘蓝类的蔬菜。第二型病毒与范怀忠、柯冲的分离物3号相近似,但与典型的黃瓜花叶病毒仍具有一定的差异。这些病毒在油菜上所引起的症状却沒有明显的差別。1、2两个类型的病毒都有一部分能为害早生朝鮮型的油菜,引起系統性黄斑及枮斑,病重的也能早期死亡。大田中的油菜病株的病毒,大多属于第一型病毒。病毒主要由桃蚜和蘿卜蚜传染,病毒系非持續性的,蚜虫一次吸毒后,传病期不超过20分钟。两个以上的桃蚜传病率就可达100%。种子不传病。殘留在土壤內的新鮮病根,可以传病。蔊菜在自然情况下可以感染病害。病株上病毒可由蚜虫传至油菜而誘发典型的花叶病,且具有終年生长及終年发病的特性,可能成为初期发病的病毒来源。

The codling moth is widely distributed throughout Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region, andis considered to be the most destructive fruit pest to the apple and the pear. In order to combatthis fruit borer effectively, investigations on the biology and chemical control of this insect pesthave been conducted in this region since 1956. The present paper gives only the resultsobtained in Ili, the major apple growing district in this region, in 1957 and 1958. 1. The moths have two full, and a partial third generations...

The codling moth is widely distributed throughout Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region, andis considered to be the most destructive fruit pest to the apple and the pear. In order to combatthis fruit borer effectively, investigations on the biology and chemical control of this insect pesthave been conducted in this region since 1956. The present paper gives only the resultsobtained in Ili, the major apple growing district in this region, in 1957 and 1958. 1. The moths have two full, and a partial third generations a year. However, about 51.5%of the first brood larvae do not pupate but remain in their cocoons until the following spring.The seasonal lifecycle records together with the spraying schedule are presented in this paper. 2. The emergence climaxes of the overwintering and the first generation of the year 1957were in agreement with that of 1958, and were separated by 48 & 54 days for these years respec-tively. The oviposition climaxes of the first and the second generations in the year 1957 and1958 closely resembled each other, and separated by 46 & 49 days. Again, the hatching climaxesof the first and the second broods occurred almost at the same date in the two successive years,with intervals of 45 & 46 days. All these indicated that in completing one full generation, about45--54 days were required. 3. The preoviposition period of the overwintering generation and that of the first generationwere 3.6 & 4.5 days, and 3.4 & 6.1 days for the two years respectively. The maximum numberof the eggs deposited by a single female of different generations in 1957 and 1958 were 84-125-141,while the average number was 32.6-43 eggs. The longevity of the adult of the overwintering andthe first generation averaged 6.8--10.6 days and 7.6-9.1 days respectively. It is found that thelongevity of the adult could be lengthened by a nectar supply. The longevity of the female isalways longer than that of the male. The sex ratio is 1:1. 4. The first appearance of the egg and the total number of eggs deposited on different varietiesare different. Among the 564 eggs of the first generation found in 1957, 21.9% was found on theearly variety, 25.9% on the median variety, and 52.1% on the late variety. By examining thenumber of infested fruits on different varieties. It is also found that the accumulative percentageof the bored fruit differed with different varieties. In 1957, the first brood larvae infesting theearly, median, and the late varieties were 35%, 41.5% and 55% respectively. These facts reveal thatfor forecasting the first appearance of the egg and the number of infested fruits, proper selecting ofdifferent varieties are of importance. 5. The incubation period of the eggs averaged from 8--9 days in general, and from 5--6days in the hot weather. In the year 1957, the overwintering generations began to lay their eggs at the.begining of May, and these eggs hatched in from 10--21 days, with an average of 15 days;whereas in the year 1958, they started to deposit their eggs in late April, and hatched in from 13--24days, with an average of 19.2 days. So, the first brood larvae of both years hatched in late May.It is extremely important to bear this in mind when arranging the schedule of DDT spray. 6. It has been found that the threshold temperature for the development of the codling mothis 9℃ or 10℃, according to different authors and that approximately 230 day-degrees of effectivetemperature are required to bring about the hatching of the earlist larvae of the first generation.According to our observation and calculation, 9℃ is more suitable as a basists to start with 237.3day-degrees were reached on May 25th, 1957, and 232.9 day-degrees were reached on May 22nd,1958, the calculated dates for these two years coincided nicely with what are actually observed inorchards. This indicates that the method of "Thermal Sums" holds fairly well in forecasting thefirst appearance of the first hatching. 7. According to the date the newly hatched larvae bore into, and the mature larvae come outof the infested fruits, the larval period lasted 25.5--30.2

1.苹果蠹蛾普遍分布于新疆维吾尔自治区各地,历年来受害最重的为苹果、沙果及香梨等。伊犁则为自治区内苹果的主要产地,为此特于1957—1958年在该地作了较全面的观察,该虫一年可发生两个完整世代,和部分第三代,以老熟幼虫越冬。第一代幼虫有滞育现象,滞育率为51.5%。 2.两年来越冬世代及第一代成虫羽化的高峰,第一和第二代产卵的高峰,及第一和第二代幼虫蛀果的高峰,基本上都是一致的。两年中2代成虫羽化高峰相距48—54天,2代产卵高峰相距46—49天,2代幼虫蛀果高峰相距45—46天,三者说明完成一代,大致需时45—54天。 3.两年来观察越冬代及第一代成虫产卵前期之平均,分别为3.6—4.5天,及3.4—6.1天。各代最高产卵量是84—125—141粒,平均32.6—43粒。越冬代及第一代成虫寿命之平均,分别为6.8—10.6天。及7.6—9.1天。寿命之增长与其补充营养有关。雌虫寿命均较雄者为长。雌雄性比例为1:1。 4.成虫在不同品种上产卵的情况。表现有所不同。分析1957年在早、中、晚3品种上 所查得的第一代卵(564粒),各占21.9%、259.9%及52.1%。另外检查不同品种之蛀果率,亦发现同样现象...

1.苹果蠹蛾普遍分布于新疆维吾尔自治区各地,历年来受害最重的为苹果、沙果及香梨等。伊犁则为自治区内苹果的主要产地,为此特于1957—1958年在该地作了较全面的观察,该虫一年可发生两个完整世代,和部分第三代,以老熟幼虫越冬。第一代幼虫有滞育现象,滞育率为51.5%。 2.两年来越冬世代及第一代成虫羽化的高峰,第一和第二代产卵的高峰,及第一和第二代幼虫蛀果的高峰,基本上都是一致的。两年中2代成虫羽化高峰相距48—54天,2代产卵高峰相距46—49天,2代幼虫蛀果高峰相距45—46天,三者说明完成一代,大致需时45—54天。 3.两年来观察越冬代及第一代成虫产卵前期之平均,分别为3.6—4.5天,及3.4—6.1天。各代最高产卵量是84—125—141粒,平均32.6—43粒。越冬代及第一代成虫寿命之平均,分别为6.8—10.6天。及7.6—9.1天。寿命之增长与其补充营养有关。雌虫寿命均较雄者为长。雌雄性比例为1:1。 4.成虫在不同品种上产卵的情况。表现有所不同。分析1957年在早、中、晚3品种上 所查得的第一代卵(564粒),各占21.9%、259.9%及52.1%。另外检查不同品种之蛀果率,亦发现同样现象。1957年第一代幼虫对早、中、晚熟3品种(每一品种各200枚)的累进蛀果率分别为35%、41.5%及55%;至第二代时中熟及晚熟更发展至62.5%?

 
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