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mandibular
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  下颌
     The Relation between Bone Loss of Mandibular Incisors and Stress Distribution Patterns with Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis
     三维有限元法分析下颌切牙牙槽骨吸收与应力分析的相关关系
短句来源
     The Study on the Mechanotransduction Mechanism of Mandibular Condylar Chondrocyte
     下颌髁突软骨细胞力学信号转导机制的研究
短句来源
     Changes in Expression of MMPs and TIMP-1 in Young Rat Condylar Cartilage during Functional Mandibular Advancement
     前伸下颌后大鼠髁突软骨内MMPs和TIMP-1表达变化的研究
短句来源
     Callus Formation Enhanced by BMP-7 Gene Modified Autologous Bone Marrow MSCs in Rat Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis
     BMP-7基因修饰的自体骨髓间充质干细胞促进大鼠下颌牵张成骨的实验研究
短句来源
     The Study of the Mechanism of Endochondral Ossification in the Rabbits Condyle Following Forward Mandibular Positioning
     下颌持续前导后生长期兔下颌髁突软骨内成骨机制的研究
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  下颌骨
     Study and Application of Repairing Mandibular Defect by Autogenic Morselized Bone
     自体微小颗粒骨修复下颌骨缺损的研究和应用
短句来源
     The Experimental and Clinical Study of Titanium Implant-Vascularized Bone Graft in Early Repair of Mandibular Defects
     钛种植体—血管化骨移植早期修复下颌骨缺损的实验及临床应用研究
短句来源
     Repair Mandibular Defects with BMP7 Gene Transduced MSCs on n-HA/PA66 Scaffold in Rabbit
     BMP7基因修饰的兔骨髓MSCs复合纳米羟基磷灰石/聚酰胺仿生骨修复兔下颌骨缺损的实验研究
短句来源
     An analysis on the factors for failure in grafting bone after the operation for benign mandibular tumors
     下颌骨良性瘤术后植骨失败因素的分析
短句来源
     EFFECTS OF PLASTER-OF-PARIS PARTICULATE IMPLANTS IN MANDIBULAR BONE CAVITY: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
     下颌骨骨腔煅石膏颗粒植入效果的实验研究
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  下颌的
     Results ①Mandibular angles of the six goats were shorten by 0 8 cm to 1 3 cm respectively in 48 days to 78 days;
     结果 压缩 4 8~ 78d后 ,下颌骨缩短 0 8~ 1 3cm ,下颌骨升支下段前移 ,下颌角变钝 ,但因对侧下颌的缩结 ,咬合变化不大 ;
短句来源
     Overjet correction averaged 7.2mm,of which 44.44% was due to skeletal and 55.56% due to dental changes; 34.72% was due to maxillary and 65.28% due to mandibular effects.
     7.2mm,其中骨性作用占44.44%,牙性作用占55.56%,上颌的综合作用占34.72%,下颌的综合作用占65.28%。
短句来源
     The fused teeth typically occurred unilaterally(68.75percent),and mainly located in the anterior region,more frequently in the mandibular(91.25percent)than that in the maxillary arch.
     融合牙主要发生于下颌的前牙区,下颌占91.25%,单侧型占68.75%。
短句来源
     Results : The retention of maxillary was at least 5.7 times more than that of mandibular denture.
     结果:上颌总义齿的固位力约为下颌的5.7倍以上。
短句来源
     Results & Conclusion ①In a length direction,the cause of Class Ⅱ openbite is mainly the mandibular retrusion.
     结果与结论 ①长度方向 :Ⅱ类开牙合中Ⅱ类牙合关系的产生主要是因为下颌的后缩。
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  “mandibular”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Research on Repairing Mandibular Defect with Tissue Engineering Bone Graft Modified by bFGF Gene
     bFGF基因修饰组织工程骨移植修复颌骨缺损及相关机制的实验研究
短句来源
     The Experimental Study of Local hBMP-2 Gene Transfer Mediated by Adenovirus in Reconstruction of Mandibular Bone Defect
     腺病毒介导的hBMP-2基因转移修复颌骨缺损的实验研究
短句来源
     An Experimental Study on the Effects of Bone Formation and Repair of Rats Mandibular Bone Defects Using ADSCs Transferred with BMP-2 Gene Combined with CTCP
     BMP-2基因转染ADSCs复合CTCP成骨及修复颌骨缺损的实验研究
短句来源
     Clinical observation of operative treatment in patients with mandibular prognathism.
     下颌前突手术治疗的临床观察
短句来源
     The Linear Regressive Eguation of Mandibular Bone
     下颔骨的线性回归分析
短句来源
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  mandibular
The larva differs from those of the majority of the related species in the presence of only one row of the inner mandibular spines.
      
adenensis in longer pectoral fins, deeper head, and fewer pores in the suborbital and mandibular canals.
      
Fragments of the anterior part of a mandibular rostrum and a maxillary bone of the plesiosaur Polycotylidae indet.
      
The specimens belong to a relatively long-snouted polycotylid with a mandibular symphysis incorporating 13 pairs of teeth.
      
The polycotylid from the Campanian of the Saratov Region is probably closely related or identical to Georgiasaurus from the Santonian of the Penza Region, in which structural details of the mandibular symphysis remain uncertain.
      
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Mental and mandibular foramen of 250 Chinese mandibles were studied. It wasfound that the mental foramina wer located as follows: below apex of the lst premolar--1.2% on the right, 0.4% on the left; between the lst and 2nd premolar--18.8% on theright, 7.6% on the left; below apex of the 2nd premolar--74.4% on the right,82.4% on the left; between the 2nd premolar and lst molar--5.6% on the right,8.8% on the left; below apex of the lst molar--none on the right, 0.8% on the left. Theaverage distance of the...

Mental and mandibular foramen of 250 Chinese mandibles were studied. It wasfound that the mental foramina wer located as follows: below apex of the lst premolar--1.2% on the right, 0.4% on the left; between the lst and 2nd premolar--18.8% on theright, 7.6% on the left; below apex of the 2nd premolar--74.4% on the right,82.4% on the left; between the 2nd premolar and lst molar--5.6% on the right,8.8% on the left; below apex of the lst molar--none on the right, 0.8% on the left. Theaverage distance of the anterior margin of the foramen to the mental symphysis was26.5 mm. on the right, 26.8 mm. on the left; to the posterior border of the ramus, 70.0 mm.on the right, 69.0 mm. on the left; to the alveolar border, 15.5 mm. on the right, 15.2 mm.on the left; to the basal margin, 15.6 mm. on the right, 15.5 mm. on the left.With regard to the occurrence of the multiple mental foramina, it was found tobe 1.2% on the left 1.8% on the right, and 0.4% on both sides simultaneously. Theapproximate position of the mandibular foramen was slightly higher than the midpointof the ramus and is a little to the posterior border of the ramus. The average distanceof the lowest margin of the foramen to the mandibular notch was 22.5 mm. on the right,25.1 mm. on the left; to the basal margin, 25.5 mm. on the right, 27.6 mm. on the left;to the posterior border, 15.8 mm. on both sides; to the anterior border, 20.0 mm. on theright, 20.6 mm. on the left. Various observations on this subject by other authors wereintroduced and discussed.

观察250个中国人颏孔及下颌孔的位置所得到的结果如下:1.78.4%的颏孔是在第2前臼齿的下方。2.多颏孔以下颌骨数计算有5.2%,以侧计算有2.8%。3.颏孔大致是在下颌体长的前1/4的地点,下颌体高的中间。4.下颌孔大致是在下颌支高的中央,稍靠後缘。

The time required for the embryonic development of Dolerus tritici Chu at 27℃ is about 7days. Both the mode of cleavage and the formation of the germ band are in common with otherinsects. At very early stages, the amnion degenerates without formation of a dorsal organ, butthe serosa persists until eclosion. The gastrulation is accomplished by means of an invagination ofthe germ band, the endoderm (mesenteron rudiment) being of bipolar origin. During embro- genesis the germ band divides into 19 segments: 5 cephalic...

The time required for the embryonic development of Dolerus tritici Chu at 27℃ is about 7days. Both the mode of cleavage and the formation of the germ band are in common with otherinsects. At very early stages, the amnion degenerates without formation of a dorsal organ, butthe serosa persists until eclosion. The gastrulation is accomplished by means of an invagination ofthe germ band, the endoderm (mesenteron rudiment) being of bipolar origin. During embro- genesis the germ band divides into 19 segments: 5 cephalic (including the acron), 3 thoracic and11 abdominal. The premandibular segment bears no appendages and disappears in the early stage;the antennae are post-oral in origin but soon migrate forward into pre-oral position; the labrum isunpaired, therefore represents no true appendage. The blastokinesis consists of the shortening of the dorsally flexed germ band and the bendingof its caudal end to the venter. During blastokinesis, the process of doxsal closure of the embryois completed. A neural groove, which appears behind the mouth and extends to the caudal end, gives riseto the ventral nerve cord. The protocerebrum, the duetocerebrum and the optic lobes arise fromthe pre-oral ectoderm. In the begnning, the stomodeal nervous system appears as two outgrowthsfrom the dorsal wall of the stomodeum. The mesenteron is formed by two masses of endodermal cells (mesenteron rudiments) situatedinner to the blind ends of ectodermal stomodeum and proctodeum. At the end of proctodeum thereare outgrowths which developing into Malpighian tubules. There are 14 pairs of ectodermal invaginations altogether present. Of these 4 pairs in the headgive rise in succession to the anterior tentorial arms, the mandibular apodemes, the posterior tentorialarms and the salivary glands; while those occurring in meso- and metathorax and in first to eighthabdominal segments develop into tracheal and form the tracheal system. Originally the oenocytesare ectodermal cells which invaginate at first alone with the abdominal tracheal and later lose theirconnections with the integument. The median mesoderm gives rise to haemocytes, the splanchnic mesoderm forms the muscularcoat of the digestive tube, while the somatic mesoderm develop into the skeletal muscles as well asthe fat bodies. Those cells which occur at the junction of the splanchnic and the somatic layersform the dorsal vessel and the dorsal diaphragin. Anteriorly the aorta is formed by the union oftwo coelomic sacs of the acron.

麦叶蜂的胚胎发育在27℃恒温下7天完成。核的分裂迁移与胚盘的形成与一般昆虫相同。胎膜有两层:羊膜形成不久即破裂而退化,不形成背器,浆膜一直保留至孵化前。麦叶蜂的原肠形成由于胚带中央部分细胞的内陷,内胚屋(中肠基)位于两端。胚带一共分为19节,计头部5节(包括原头,但前上颚节不久消失,不具副器),胸部5节,腹部11节。触角最初位于口后,以后移至口前。上唇不成对,非副器。 麦叶蜂的胚带末端初弯向背面,当形成神经节及副器最发达时胚带缩短,以后其末端又弯向腹面,使整个胚带由卵的腹面迁至背面。当进行上述胚动时,胚带同时自首尾两端开始背合。 神经沟自口后开始,至尾端为止,由此而来的神经细胞形成腹面神经索,前脑中脑及视叶由口前的外胚层而来。侧单眼由视叶外面的外胚层发生内陷,形成网膜细胞,而表层的细胞即成为角膜细胞。胃肠神经系由前肠背面两个突起发展而来。 中肠由前肠及后肠末端两群内胚层细胞(中肠基)发育而成,后肠末端的凸起形成马氏管。 外胚层成对的内陷共有14对,头部的4对成为幕骨前臂、上颚内突、幕骨后臂及唾腺,中胸、后胸及腹部第1—8节者形成呼吸系统。酒色细胞为随同气管一起内陷的外胚层细胞,但形成后与体表失去联络。 血球主...

麦叶蜂的胚胎发育在27℃恒温下7天完成。核的分裂迁移与胚盘的形成与一般昆虫相同。胎膜有两层:羊膜形成不久即破裂而退化,不形成背器,浆膜一直保留至孵化前。麦叶蜂的原肠形成由于胚带中央部分细胞的内陷,内胚屋(中肠基)位于两端。胚带一共分为19节,计头部5节(包括原头,但前上颚节不久消失,不具副器),胸部5节,腹部11节。触角最初位于口后,以后移至口前。上唇不成对,非副器。 麦叶蜂的胚带末端初弯向背面,当形成神经节及副器最发达时胚带缩短,以后其末端又弯向腹面,使整个胚带由卵的腹面迁至背面。当进行上述胚动时,胚带同时自首尾两端开始背合。 神经沟自口后开始,至尾端为止,由此而来的神经细胞形成腹面神经索,前脑中脑及视叶由口前的外胚层而来。侧单眼由视叶外面的外胚层发生内陷,形成网膜细胞,而表层的细胞即成为角膜细胞。胃肠神经系由前肠背面两个突起发展而来。 中肠由前肠及后肠末端两群内胚层细胞(中肠基)发育而成,后肠末端的凸起形成马氏管。 外胚层成对的内陷共有14对,头部的4对成为幕骨前臂、上颚内突、幕骨后臂及唾腺,中胸、后胸及腹部第1—8节者形成呼吸系统。酒色细胞为随同气管一起内陷的外胚层细胞,但形成后与体表失去联络。 血球主要来自中间中胚层,脏壁中胚层成为消化管的肌层,体壁

The common description of the accessory meningeal artery in the textbooks of ana-tomy is either too brief or inaccurate, and some current misconceptions and contradic-tions have not yet been cleared up. Our investigation is based on the results of 57 dissections of 33 cadavers with thefollowing conclusions: 1. Frequency of occurrence: The accessory meningeal artery is found in 50 sidesof 32 cadavers, i.e. in 87.7% of the dissections and 97.0% of the cadavers. 2. The accessory meningeal artery often originates...

The common description of the accessory meningeal artery in the textbooks of ana-tomy is either too brief or inaccurate, and some current misconceptions and contradic-tions have not yet been cleared up. Our investigation is based on the results of 57 dissections of 33 cadavers with thefollowing conclusions: 1. Frequency of occurrence: The accessory meningeal artery is found in 50 sidesof 32 cadavers, i.e. in 87.7% of the dissections and 97.0% of the cadavers. 2. The accessory meningeal artery often originates from the middle meningeal artery(the 2nd class 70% and the 4th class 8%), and less frequently originates from themaxillary artery (the 1st class 16%) or from both of them (the 3rd class 6%). 3. The accessory meningeal artery often passes medial (type P 50%) or lateral(type S 28%) to the posterior division of the mandibular nerve (or the inferior dentalnerve and the lingual nerve). Usually the artery courses forwards and upwards intothe pterygospinous foramen. 4. In most cases, the main trunk of the accessory meningeal artery does not passthrough the foramen ovale. 5. The accessory meningeal artery distributes principally to the lateral and medialpterygoid muscle, tensor veli palatini muscle, parts of the sphenoid bone, and the man-dibular nerve. In addition, its small ramus passes through the accessory foraminum ornotch of the foramen ovale into the middle cranial fossa, and supplies the dura materanterior to the foramen ovale. Some possible racial differences between the Chinese and American materials arediscussed.

一般常用的中外文解剖学书籍对硬脑膜副动脉的描述过于简略或不够正确,某些流行的错误概念和矛盾没有得到及时的澄清。调查了33具尸体57侧。观察结果: (1)出现率:在32具尸体的50侧找到硬脑膜副动脉,占调查尸体数97.0%,占调查侧数87.7%。 (2)类型统计:按主干的起始点和行径分类型。凡主干起于土颌动脉者列入第一类(Ⅰ),起于硬脑膜中动脉者列入第二类(Ⅱ),两干分别起始者列入第三类(Ⅰ—Ⅱ)和第四类(Ⅱ—Ⅱ);凡主干行经下颌神经后股或舌神经和下齿神经外侧者为浅型(S),行经这些神经内侧者为深型(P),两干分别走神经内外侧者为浅深型(SP)和浅—深型(S—P),主干沿下颌神经后缘入卵圆孔后部者为卵圆孔型(O)。统计结果见表2和表3。按起点分类,以第二类(Ⅱ)为最多(70%);按行径分型,以深型(P)为最多(50%);把起点和行径结合起来分类型,以ⅡP类型为最多(40%)。 (3)与卵圆孔和翼棘孔的关系:硬脑膜副动脉虽常有细小分支进入卵圆孔供给下颌神经颅内段,但主干极少有进入卵圆孔的。多数硬脑膜副动脉的主干或深干进入翼棘孔, 少数则有分支进入翼棘孔。 (4)分支分布:硬脑膜副动脉分支分布于翼外肌、翼内肌、张腭...

一般常用的中外文解剖学书籍对硬脑膜副动脉的描述过于简略或不够正确,某些流行的错误概念和矛盾没有得到及时的澄清。调查了33具尸体57侧。观察结果: (1)出现率:在32具尸体的50侧找到硬脑膜副动脉,占调查尸体数97.0%,占调查侧数87.7%。 (2)类型统计:按主干的起始点和行径分类型。凡主干起于土颌动脉者列入第一类(Ⅰ),起于硬脑膜中动脉者列入第二类(Ⅱ),两干分别起始者列入第三类(Ⅰ—Ⅱ)和第四类(Ⅱ—Ⅱ);凡主干行经下颌神经后股或舌神经和下齿神经外侧者为浅型(S),行经这些神经内侧者为深型(P),两干分别走神经内外侧者为浅深型(SP)和浅—深型(S—P),主干沿下颌神经后缘入卵圆孔后部者为卵圆孔型(O)。统计结果见表2和表3。按起点分类,以第二类(Ⅱ)为最多(70%);按行径分型,以深型(P)为最多(50%);把起点和行径结合起来分类型,以ⅡP类型为最多(40%)。 (3)与卵圆孔和翼棘孔的关系:硬脑膜副动脉虽常有细小分支进入卵圆孔供给下颌神经颅内段,但主干极少有进入卵圆孔的。多数硬脑膜副动脉的主干或深干进入翼棘孔, 少数则有分支进入翼棘孔。 (4)分支分布:硬脑膜副动脉分支分布于翼外肌、翼内肌、张腭肌、蝶骨大翼颞下面、下颌神经等结构,此外,还常有一小分支经卵圆孔附属小孔或小切迹入颅中窝,供给卵圆孔前硬脑膜。最后,对常用解剖学书籍的扼要描述作了建议;讨论了可能有人种差异的问题;并建议采用名词“翼肌脑膜动脉”。

 
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