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    It is found that according to the pipeline steel tube standard and the adoption of suitable technological process, WGJ510C2 steel is suitable for the manufacture of National Great Theater by using high frequency sews resistance welding methode, and each performance index is totally qualified.
    结果表明:按照管线钢管规范,采用合适的工艺流程,WGJ510C2钢适用于国家大剧院工程用高频直缝电阻焊钢管的制造,各项性能指标完全合格。
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    Based on the ETABS procedure,the strength,rigidity and integral stability of the structural member under the action of frequently occurred earthquake are analyzed; elastodynamic time-procedure analysis on integral structure are carried out in adoption of Shanghai artificial seismic wave listed in 4 items of Code for Seismic Design of Building(DJ08—9—2003),and pushover analysis on overall structure under the action of rare occurrence earthquake is finished.
    采用ETABS有限元程序对结构在多遇地震作用下结构构件的强度、刚度、整体稳定性进行分析,并选用上海市《建筑抗震设计规程》(DJ08—9—2003)所列的4条上海人工地震波对整体结构进行了弹性动力时程分析补充计算,对整体结构采用罕遇地震作用下静力弹塑性Pushover分析。
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    Construction Control in Adoption Strong Ramming Method to Fill Soil Area Proceed Foundation Treatment
    采用强夯法对填土区进行地基处理的施工控制
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    The primary study contents as follows: acquire the superhigh strength and excellent duration by adoption of the confecting technique of high performance concrete;
    印模施工技术的研究与探索。 主要研究内容有以下几个方面:采用高性能混凝土配制技术获得彩色饰面层的超高强度和优异的耐久性;
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    The Building Management System (BMS) in this design adoption Honeywell Enterprise Building Integrator (EBI).
    本设计的建筑管理系统(BMS)采用霍尼威尔公司的企业建筑集成系统EBI。
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    An Ultimate Load Capacity Analysis of Preforce Concrete Structure by Virtual Laminated Element Method
    采用虚拟层合单元法分析钢筋混凝土结构的极限承载能力
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    Study of Wind Vibration Control for a Large Cantilevered Steel Spatial Truss with Circular Tube Viscoelastic Dampers
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    A STUDY OF THE APPLICATION OF MICROWAVE DEWATERING TECHNIQUE IN THE CONCRETE ENGINEERING
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    The Elastoplastic Analysis by the Coupling of Boundary Element Method to Finite Element Method
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    Calculation of Dynamic Flexibility in Cutting Process of Vibration System with Dynamic Vibration Absosber
    采用动力减振器时切削过程振动系统动柔度的计算
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  adoption
Impact of operating costs on investment strategies in new technology adoption with a further new technology anticipated
      
The adoption of new technologies often represents a crucial componet of firms' investment decisions.
      
This paper studies a dynamic duopoly model in which two firms compete in adoption of current technology with a further new technology anticipated.
      
There exist three kinds of equilibria that may occur in adoption of current technology, which mainly depends on the level of operating costs and the first-move advantage.
      
With the adoption of a preconcentration step, the sensitivity of our method was improved and the method detection limit (MDL) was reduced to 0.1 μg/L.
      
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Once the configuration of a rigid frame (including the lengths, crosssections, supporting connections, etc. of all its bars) has been laid out, there exists one set of frame constants, which expresses the elastic characteristics of the frame, and, therefore, is independent of its loading condition. By employing these frame constants, not only the computations of the end moments of all the bars under any one loading condition are greatly simplified, but also, when the frame is to be analyzed under several loading...

Once the configuration of a rigid frame (including the lengths, crosssections, supporting connections, etc. of all its bars) has been laid out, there exists one set of frame constants, which expresses the elastic characteristics of the frame, and, therefore, is independent of its loading condition. By employing these frame constants, not only the computations of the end moments of all the bars under any one loading condition are greatly simplified, but also, when the frame is to be analyzed under several loading conditions, the computations related and not related to loading are distinctly separated, and, therefore, the repeated portion of computations for each loading condition, unavoidable otherwise, is entirely eliminated. As most of the rigid frames encountered in practice have to be analyzed always under many loading conditions, the practical superiority of the methods employing frame constants over other methods is thus obvious.

任一刚構之形式(包括共中各桿之長度,截面,及支承等情形)既經擬定之後,該剛構即有一套表示共彈性特質而與其荷載無關之刚構常數存在。採用此項剛構常數,不但其在任一荷載情形之下桿端力矩計算,大大簡化,而且在多種荷載情形下進行分析時,可將其与荷載無關及有關之二部份計算完全分开,因此省去他種分析法在每一種荷載情形下所必須重複之部份計算。實用之剛構,既常須在多種荷載情形下進行分析,故採用剛構常数分析法在實用中之優越性,至為顯明。採用剛構常数之分析法太約以立特(Wilhelm Ritter)教授之定點法為最早,而於表示剛構常數之各種方式中,亦以定點位置最為簡明,最為基本。本文首先指出:於任一剛構中,每桿之左右兩端各有一個而且祇有一个有獨立性之基本剛構常數,其計算係二個各向左右進行不相牽涉之步驟,但為計算剛構常數本身及桿端力矩之便利计,常須於每桿之左右二端,各另加計算一個無獨立性之輔助剛構常數,惟此外並不需要任何其他第三個剛構常数。恰於廿年以前,我國林同棪教授在國內外發表其力矩一次分配法(林氏原稱其法為“直接力矩分配法”,似欠妥),採用桿端之“約束剛度係數”(restraining rigidity factor),“修正傳...

任一刚構之形式(包括共中各桿之長度,截面,及支承等情形)既經擬定之後,該剛構即有一套表示共彈性特質而與其荷載無關之刚構常數存在。採用此項剛構常數,不但其在任一荷載情形之下桿端力矩計算,大大簡化,而且在多種荷載情形下進行分析時,可將其与荷載無關及有關之二部份計算完全分开,因此省去他種分析法在每一種荷載情形下所必須重複之部份計算。實用之剛構,既常須在多種荷載情形下進行分析,故採用剛構常数分析法在實用中之優越性,至為顯明。採用剛構常数之分析法太約以立特(Wilhelm Ritter)教授之定點法為最早,而於表示剛構常數之各種方式中,亦以定點位置最為簡明,最為基本。本文首先指出:於任一剛構中,每桿之左右兩端各有一個而且祇有一个有獨立性之基本剛構常數,其計算係二個各向左右進行不相牽涉之步驟,但為計算剛構常數本身及桿端力矩之便利计,常須於每桿之左右二端,各另加計算一個無獨立性之輔助剛構常數,惟此外並不需要任何其他第三個剛構常数。恰於廿年以前,我國林同棪教授在國內外發表其力矩一次分配法(林氏原稱其法為“直接力矩分配法”,似欠妥),採用桿端之“約束剛度係數”(restraining rigidity factor),“修正傳遞係數”(modified carry-over factor),及“修正勁度”(modified stiffness)為

It is pointed out in this paper that the following apparent discrepancies exist in Coulomb's Theory: (1) In any problem in mechanics, a force to be definite must have all the three factors involved under consideration. In Coulomb's Theory, however, the point of application of the soil reaction on the plane of sliding is somehow neglected, thus enabling the arbitrary designation of the obliquity of the earth pressure on the wall to be equal to the friction angle between the wall surface and soil. As a matter...

It is pointed out in this paper that the following apparent discrepancies exist in Coulomb's Theory: (1) In any problem in mechanics, a force to be definite must have all the three factors involved under consideration. In Coulomb's Theory, however, the point of application of the soil reaction on the plane of sliding is somehow neglected, thus enabling the arbitrary designation of the obliquity of the earth pressure on the wall to be equal to the friction angle between the wall surface and soil. As a matter of principle, the point of application should never be slighted while the obliquity of the earth pressure could only have a value that is compatible with the conditions for equilibrium. (2) If the point of application of the soil reaction is taken into account in the problem, the sliding wedge would only tend to slide either on the plane of sliding or on the surface of wall but not on both at the same time, thus frustrating the very conceptidn of sliding wedge upon which Coulomb's Theory is founded. (3) The above discrepancies arise from the fact that the shape of the surface of sliding should be curvilinear in order to make the wedge tend to slide as desired, while Coulomb, however, adopted a plane surface instead. (4) Coulomb, in finding the plane of sliding, made use of the maximum earth pressure on the wall (for active pressure), which refers to the different magnitudes of pressure corresponding to different assumed inclinations of the plane of sliding. But from the relation between the yield of wall and amount of pressure, this maximum value is really the minimum pressure on the wall, which it is the purpose of the theory to find. In engineering books, however, this terminology of maximum pressure has caused considerable confusion, with the result that what is really the minimum pressure is carelessly taken as the maximum design load for the wall. How can a minimum load be used in a design?This paper also attempts to clarify some contended points in Rankine's Theory: (1) It is claimed by Prof. Terzaghi that Rankine's Theory is only a fallacy because of the yield of wall and that of the soil mass on its bed. This charge is unjust as it can be compared with Coulomb's Theory in the same respect. (2) Some books declare that Rankine's Theory is good only for walls with vertical back, but it is proved in this paper that this is not so. (3) It is also generally believed that Rankine's Theory is applicable only to wall surfaces with no friction. This is likewise taken by this paper as unfounded and illustration is given whereby, in this regard, Rankine's Theory is even better than Coulomb's, because it contains no contradiction, as does Coulomb's.

本文從力學觀點對庫隆理論提出下列問題:(1)在解算力學問題時,每個力有三個因素都該同時考慮,但庫隆對土楔滑動面上土反力的施力點竟置之不理,因而才能對擋土墙上土壓力的傾斜角作一硬性假定,使它等於墙和土間的摩阻角,然而施力點是不能不管的,因而土壓力的傾斜角是不能離開平衡條件而被隨意指定的。(2)如果考慮了土反力的施力點,則土楔祇能在滑動面上,或在墙面上,有滑動的趨勢,而不能同時在兩個面上都有滑動的趨勢,因而庫隆的基本概念“滑動土楔”就站不住了。(3)問題關鍵在滑動面的形狀;如要使土楔在滑動面和墙面上同時有滑動趨勢,則滑動面必須是曲形面,然而庫隆採用了平直形的滑動面。(4)庫隆的土楔滑動面是從墙上最大的土壓力求出的(指主動壓力),這裏所謂“最大”是指適應各個滑動面的各個土壓力而言,但對適應墙在側傾時土壓力應有的變化來說,這個最大土壓力却正是墙上極限壓力的最小值。一般工程書籍,以為這土壓力既名為最大,就拿它來用作設計擋土墙的荷載,荷載如何能用最小的極限值呢?本文對朗金理論中的下列問題作了一些解釋:(1)朗金理論在擋土墙的位移問題上所受的限制,是和庫隆理論一樣的,竇薩基教授曾就此問題認為朗金理論是幻想,似乎是無根據的。...

本文從力學觀點對庫隆理論提出下列問題:(1)在解算力學問題時,每個力有三個因素都該同時考慮,但庫隆對土楔滑動面上土反力的施力點竟置之不理,因而才能對擋土墙上土壓力的傾斜角作一硬性假定,使它等於墙和土間的摩阻角,然而施力點是不能不管的,因而土壓力的傾斜角是不能離開平衡條件而被隨意指定的。(2)如果考慮了土反力的施力點,則土楔祇能在滑動面上,或在墙面上,有滑動的趨勢,而不能同時在兩個面上都有滑動的趨勢,因而庫隆的基本概念“滑動土楔”就站不住了。(3)問題關鍵在滑動面的形狀;如要使土楔在滑動面和墙面上同時有滑動趨勢,則滑動面必須是曲形面,然而庫隆採用了平直形的滑動面。(4)庫隆的土楔滑動面是從墙上最大的土壓力求出的(指主動壓力),這裏所謂“最大”是指適應各個滑動面的各個土壓力而言,但對適應墙在側傾時土壓力應有的變化來說,這個最大土壓力却正是墙上極限壓力的最小值。一般工程書籍,以為這土壓力既名為最大,就拿它來用作設計擋土墙的荷載,荷載如何能用最小的極限值呢?本文對朗金理論中的下列問題作了一些解釋:(1)朗金理論在擋土墙的位移問題上所受的限制,是和庫隆理論一樣的,竇薩基教授曾就此問題認為朗金理論是幻想,似乎是無根據的。(2)有些工程書中認為朗金理論是專為垂直的墙?

This paper is a supplement to the author's previous paper "The Constants and Analysis of Rigid Frames", published in the first issue of the Journal. Its purpose is to amplify as well as to improve the method of propagating joint rotations developed, separately and independently, by Dr. Klouěek and Prof. Meng, so that the formulas are applicable to rigid frames with non-prismatic bars and of closed type. The method employs joint propagation factor between two adjacent joints as the basic frame constant and the...

This paper is a supplement to the author's previous paper "The Constants and Analysis of Rigid Frames", published in the first issue of the Journal. Its purpose is to amplify as well as to improve the method of propagating joint rotations developed, separately and independently, by Dr. Klouěek and Prof. Meng, so that the formulas are applicable to rigid frames with non-prismatic bars and of closed type. The method employs joint propagation factor between two adjacent joints as the basic frame constant and the sum of modified stiffness of all the bar-ends at a joint as the auxiliary frame constant. The basic frame constants at the left of right ends of all the bars are computed by the consecutive applications of a single formula in a chain manner. The auxiliary frame constant at any joint where it is needed is computed from the basic frame constants at the two ends of any bar connected to the joint, so that its value may be easily checked by computing it from two or more bars connected to the same joint.Although the principle of this method was developed by Dr. Klouěek and Prof. Meng, the formulas presented in this paper for computing the basic and auxiliary frame constants, besides being believed to be original and by no means the mere amplification of those presented by the two predecessors, are of much improved form and more convenient to apply.By the author's formula, the basic frame constants in closed frames of comparatively simple form may be computed in a straight-forward manner without much difficulties, and this is not the case with any other similar methods except Dr. Klouěek's.The case of sidesway is treated as usual by balancing the shears at the tops of all the columns, but special formulas are deduced for comput- ing those column shears directly from joint rotations and sidesway angle without pre-computing the moments at the two ends of all the columns.In the method of propagating unbalanced moments proposed by Mr. Koo I-Ying and improved by the author, the unbalanced moments at all the bar-ends of each joint are first propagated to the bar-ends of all the other joints to obtain the total unbalanced moments at all the bar-ends, and then are distributed at each joint only once to arrive at the balanced moments at all the bar-ends of that joint. Thus the principle of propagating joint rotations with indirect computation of the bar-end moments is ingeneously applied to propagate unbalanced moments with direct computation of the bar-end moments, and, at the same time, without the inconvenient use of two different moment distribution factors as necessary in all the onecycle methods of moment distribution. The basic frame constant employed in this method is the same as that in the method of propagating joint rotations, so that its nearest approximate value at any bar end may be computed at once by the formula deduced by the author. Evidently, this method combines all the main advantages of the methods proposed by Profs.T. Y. Lin and Meng Chao-Li and Dr. Klouěek, and is undoubtedly the most superior one-cycle method of moment distribution yet proposed as far as the author knows.Typical numerical examples are worked out in details to illustrate the applications of the two methods.

本文為著者前文“剛構常數與剛構分析”之補充,其目的在將角變傳播法及不均衡力矩傳播法加以改善,以便實用。此二法均只需一個公式以計算剛構中所有各桿端之基本剛構常數(即任何二相鄰結點间之角變傳播係數),將此項公式與柯勞塞克之公式相比較,藉以指出前者較後者為便於應用,並亦可用之以直接分析較簡單之閉合式剛構,此外補充說明此法中之剛構常數與定點法之關係,剛構有側移時計算各結點角變所需之各項公式亦行求出。不均衡力矩傳播法係顧翼鹰同志最近研究所得者,既係直接以桿端力矩為計算之對象,而且只須採用不均衡力矩分配比將各結點作用於各桿端不均衡力矩之總和,一次分配,即得所求各桿端分配力矩之總值,實係力矩一次分配法之一大改進,著者將顧氏之法加以推廣与改善,使其原則簡明而計算便捷,著者認為此法係將林、柯、孟三氏法之所有優點熔冶於一爐,實可稱為现下最優之力矩一次分配法。最後列舉算例,以說明此二法在實際工作中之應用。

 
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