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toxin weapon
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     2.toxin.
     2疫毒学说;
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     霍乱毒素
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     大都会培训总动员
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     Harpoon Weapon System
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  toxin weapon
Stability of toxins after aerosolization is also an important factor, because it further limits toxin weapon effectiveness.
      
Addresses the use of biotechnology in providing effective countermeasures to biological and toxin weapon agents.
      


During the 1980s there was a considerable controversy in the world over theorigin of yellow rain. The point at issue was whether yellow rain was biological--chemicalwarfare agents or a phenomenon of nature. The purpose of this contribution is to make aconcluding report on achievements and advances in the research of yeljow rain at home andabroad during the past ten years and more.Since the mid-1970s there has been three reported allow rain events.occurring in theworld. Early in September 1976, mysterious-rain-like...

During the 1980s there was a considerable controversy in the world over theorigin of yellow rain. The point at issue was whether yellow rain was biological--chemicalwarfare agents or a phenomenon of nature. The purpose of this contribution is to make aconcluding report on achievements and advances in the research of yeljow rain at home andabroad during the past ten years and more.Since the mid-1970s there has been three reported allow rain events.occurring in theworld. Early in September 1976, mysterious-rain-like yellow drops, called "yellow rain" bythe local people, first fell from the sky over many regions of northern Jiangsu Province. Yellow rain fell.as a liquid or paste on plant leaves, roofs and fields. The drops, ranging in sizefrom 2 to 6 mm, were usually round to oval, and looked like a half of a soybean, with paley8llow to yellowish brown colour. It did not stick to the ground tightly and became pow-dery after poking. The yellow spots fell only for a short time, from a few minutes toten-odd minutes, usually over a limited area. The density varied from several to over 10drops per m2 on average, with a maximum of 160 drops recorded. Many people talkedabout the yellow rain phenomenon with curiosity at the start, and this developed into apanic. A popular interpretation was to associate yellow rain with earthquakes, since in thesummer of the same year there was a disastrous earthquake in Tangshan, eastern HebeiProvince. People took the yelloW drops as a sign of another big earthquake. Being afraid ofit, they stayed outside of their houses. Some suspected that the yellow deposits were airdropped toxin agents, and as a result did not dare take food or drink in case of contamina-tion by the yellow material.By the end of the 1970s and the early 1980s, yellow rain was reported in succession inSouth-East Asia (mainly Laos and Cambodia). Local villagers reported that yellow rainwas associated with strange and serious diseases, including vomiting and diarrhea, skin irritation and lesions, dizziness, convulsion, gastro-intestinal bleeding, and sudden death. TheAmerican government had some of the yellow rain samples collected from Laos,Cambodia, and Afghanistan analyzed, and found the presence of fungal toxins, includingT-2, HT-2, NIV, DAS and DON. The government claimed that the former Soviet Unionand its allies had been using toxin weapons. There followed a burst of yellow rain research.After extensive studies and investigations from different aspects and Points of yiew, the international debate on yellow rain started.The latest yellow rain event occurred some time in the mid-1980s on the campUs ofUniversity of Malaya, Malaysia, where the vehicles parked were spattered with yellow toreddish brown spots. Many people suggested that the spots could possibly originate fromthe remaining curry in the discarded food wrappings. Others believed that the f spots mightbe chemical sprays used in some laboratories.After detailed laboratory studies on northern Jiangsu yellow rain samples and field investigations, the author proposed as early as 1977 a bee feces theory for the origin of yellowrain. The samples examined under the microscope in acetolysed preparations, were found,without exception, to be made mainly of pollen. Detailed palynological analysis showedthat the pollen grains observed are of angiospermous origin, among which t,he dominantelement is the tree pollen of Ulmus parvifilia Jacq., plus some grass pollen such asGramineae and Compositae. There were also minor components of algae, flingal hyphaeand setae in samples. All the primary plant taxa identified from the pollen are common innorthern Jiangsu Province, and were in biossom at that time. Samples of yellow rain collected from various sites and at different times within the same period were more or less similar in their pollen composition, clearly reflecting the local vegetation, The further studiesindicated that the pollen. grains found in the samples were gathered by the honey-bee Apismellifera lingustica Spin., and bee culture is very popular in northern Jiangsu Pr

80年代国际上围绕黄雨问题展开了一场大论战.争论的焦点是,黄雨究竟是人造的生物/化学致毒武器,还是一种自然现象.作者早在1977年便提出黄雨的蜜蜂粪便说,认为黄雨是一种自然现象─—蜜蜂在空中净化排出的粪便.黄雨的蜜蜂粪便说现已得到国际公认,是对中国、东南亚(老挝和柬埔寨)和马来西来黄雨的唯一令人满意的解释.本文旨在总结10多年来国内外在黄雨科学这一研究领域所取得的成就和进展.

Avian Influenza is an acute and highly contacting infectious disease,especially for poultry to easi-ly infect, which is caused by type AI virus.AI virus genes have been thought to be the principal gene reservoir and the cause of changes of human influenza virus.At present it has been listed as one of A type violently infec-tious disease by Office International des Epizooties(OIE)and even in the catalog of animal infectious disease by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention(BTWC).Thus by introduction of...

Avian Influenza is an acute and highly contacting infectious disease,especially for poultry to easi-ly infect, which is caused by type AI virus.AI virus genes have been thought to be the principal gene reservoir and the cause of changes of human influenza virus.At present it has been listed as one of A type violently infec-tious disease by Office International des Epizooties(OIE)and even in the catalog of animal infectious disease by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention(BTWC).Thus by introduction of AI virus epidemic in world, the close relation between human influenza pandemic and AI virus,and existence,evolution and dissemination of A type influenza virus,the significance of AI on public health is illustrated to strengthen the cognition of AI.

流感是由A型流感病毒引起的急性高度接触性传染病,特别是鸡对禽流感有较高的易感性。A型禽流感病毒历来被认为是人类流感的最大基因库,是人流感病毒发生变异的新基因来源。国际兽医局已将其列为A类烈性传染病之一,并被列入国际生物武器公约动物类传染病名单。为此,通过对禽流感在世界流行情况,人流感大流行及与禽流感病毒的关系,A型流感病毒的存在、传播及其演化等内容的介绍,阐明禽流感公共卫生意义,增强对A型禽流感的认识。

Biotechnology has the ability of changing natural characters by men. It also constitutes an unprecedented threat to the protection of the biology diversity and conflicts with the ethical concept of human society. In the joint efforts of experts,scholars,government and all circles,developed countries have initially established normative system of living creature. United Nations Environment Programme has made the Safe Criterion in International Biotechnology in the intternational scope. For this reason, we must...

Biotechnology has the ability of changing natural characters by men. It also constitutes an unprecedented threat to the protection of the biology diversity and conflicts with the ethical concept of human society. In the joint efforts of experts,scholars,government and all circles,developed countries have initially established normative system of living creature. United Nations Environment Programme has made the Safe Criterion in International Biotechnology in the intternational scope. For this reason, we must strengthen the researches on the interrelated law issues about biology science. Because human-beings can take any scientific progress as weapons,as the fast development of biotechnology,it is possible to develop a new generation of biological weapons with more hidden killing-genic weapons in near future. The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological(Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction plays a positive role in forbidding the biological weapons and preventing them from spreading. It has become the fundamental part of the united safe frame of international arms control treaty system and on the centre of the UN.The Chinese government always insists that we should forbid in full scale and destroy thoroughly all the massive destruction weapons,including biological weapons and we always highly emphasize the positive effect of the conventions in the area of protecting the global peace and safety.

生物技术所具有的人为改变生物自然性状的能力,也对生物多样性的保护构成了前所未有的威胁,并与人类社会的伦理观念发生了冲突。在专家学者、政府部门和各界的共同努力之下,发达国家目前已初步建立了生物安全规范体系。在国际范围内,联合国环境规划署制定了《国际生物技术安全准则》。为此, 我们必须加强对生物科技相关法律问题的研究。科学上的任何一样进步,人类都可以拿来作为武器。随着生物技术的飞速发展,在不久的将来很有可能会研制出杀伤力更隐蔽的新一代生物武器——基因武器。《禁止生物武器公约》对于禁止生物武器、防止生物武器扩散发挥了积极作用,已成为国际军控条约体系和以联合国为中心的集体安全框架的重要组成部分。中国政府一贯主张全面禁止和彻底销毁包括生物武器在内的一切大规模杀伤性武器,高度重视公约在维护世界和平与安全方面的积极作用。

 
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