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weathering
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  风化
     Study and Modeling of the Weathering of Spilled Oils at Sea
     海上溢油风化过程的研究及模拟
短句来源
     Study on Design Method of the Dynamic Strength and Its Application to the Full Weathering Granite Subgrade in Highway Subgrade
     公路路基动强度设计方法及其在全风化花岗岩路基中的应用研究
短句来源
     Weathering and Pedogenesis of Karst Catchments, Behavior of Mineral Elements and Environmental Quality
     喀斯特流域风化成土作用及其矿质元素行为与环境质量
短句来源
     The Evolution of Minerals on Weathering Section of Guo-Shan Kaoline Deposit
     郭山高岭土矿床风化剖面上矿物的演化
短句来源
     TWO REACTION EQUATIONS OF CHEMICAL WEATHERING
     两个化学风化反应方程式的讨论
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  风化作用
     Weathering and Metal Pollution
     风化作用与金属污染讨论
短句来源
     Under weak weathering condition,FeO,MgO,CaO,Na_2O,K_2O are leached.
     风化作用较弱时,以淋滤FeO、MgO、CaO、Na2O、K2O等组分为主;
短句来源
     Chemical weathering of the Xiashu Loess at three localities in the lower r eaches of the Changjiang River is studied in detail on basis of eleme ntal contents,K 2 O /Na 2 O,K 2 O /CaO  ,Al 2 O 3 /Na 2 O,CIA and A 2 CN 2 K dia-gram.
     根据元素含量、K2O/Na2O、K2O/CaO、Al2O3/Na2O、CIA及ACNK图解等指标对长江下游地区下蜀土的化学风化作用进行了研究。
短句来源
     The ratios of SiO 2/Al 2O 3 or SiO 2/R 2O 3 are usually used as indices of supergene chemical weathering intensity.
     Si/Al或SiO2 /R2 O3 常常作为表生化学风化作用强度的重要指标。
短句来源
     Whereas,Under strong weathering condition,Al_2O_3,Fe_2O_3,SiO_2 also much migrated.
     风化作用较强时,A l2O3、Fe2O3、SiO2亦发生大量迁移。
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  风蚀
     A distribution of particle size reflects the relative balance of weathering and pedogenetic processes.
     颗粒大小的分布反映风蚀和成土过程的相对平衡,颗粒大小的分布可以看成是颗粒数目大于某一粒径或质量小于某一粒径的累计函数,这些累计函数可以用幂律表示,其指数描述为分形维数。
短句来源
     In the paper,types of desertification,shape variation of dunes,size distribution of sand source material,weathering modulus of different soil structures in the ore mining area are discussed and investigated.
     本文围绕煤矿开采地区沙漠化类型、沙丘形态变化、沙源物质的粒度特征、不同土体结构的风蚀模量等问题进行了研究、探讨。
短句来源
     The types and the current distributed characteristics of rocky desertification were analyzed, specifically explored the causes and forming mechanism of karst eco environmental fragility from the following aspects such as weathering resistance of carbonate rock,the soil forming process of carbonate rock,surface structures of karst landforms, two different kinds of boundary face in karst soil profile, overloaded pressure of population and backward farming methods, etc.
     阐述了西南岩溶山区石漠化的发展现状 ,从碳酸盐岩的抗风蚀能力、成土过程、地貌结构、土体剖面、人口压力及耕作方式与产业结构等方面详细分析了西南岩溶石漠化的成因机理 ,探讨了石漠化治理应坚持的六条原则 ;
短句来源
     Due to those joints within glacial remains were eroded by glacier and running water action, especial exogenous process of frost weathering and wind abrasion for a long time, the unique granite forest was gradually formed nowadays.
     由于北大山冰川遗迹中的节理裂隙,受到冰川和流水侵蚀,特别是长期强烈的寒冻风化及风蚀等外动力作用,逐渐形成了现今独特的花岗岩石林。
  “weathering”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Rock Weathering Tendency at Different Stages of Soil-Forming Processes in Fildes Peninsula, Antarctic
     Rock Weathering Tendency at Different Stages of Soil-Forming Processes in Fildes Peninsula, Antarctic
短句来源
     Role of Lichens in Weathering and Soil-Forming Pro-cesses in Fildes Peninsula, Antarctic
     Role of Lichens in Weathering and Soil-Forming Pro-cesses in Fildes Peninsula,Antarctic
短句来源
     Major ion chemistry and control of weathering of Bhimtal Lake, Humaun Himalaya, India
     Major ion chemistry and control of weathering of Bhimtal Lake,Humaun Himalaya,India
短句来源
     The Influence of Heat-Treatment on Weathering of P_2O_5-B_2O_3-Al_2O_3-MgO-K_2O Glasses
     热处理对P_2O_5-B_2O_3-Al_2O_3-MgO-K_2O玻璃风化的影响
短句来源
     Compounding Pattern of REE,Clay and Humic Acid in the Weathering Crust of Granites
     Compounding Pattern of REE, Clay and Humic Acid in the Weathering Crust of Granites
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  weathering
The contents of basic salt components in the continental discharge related to weathering processes were calculated taking into account the atmospheric transfer of soluble salts from the ocean and their supply from anthropogenic sources.
      
The aulacogen within the Moscow Syneclise was covered by sediments accumulated during the intense chemical weathering of a peneplain.
      
Nickel and iron-cobalt ores from weathering crusts on ultramafic massifs in the Urals contain elevated PGE concentrations.
      
Platinum group minerals first found in weathering crusts in Russia are primarily represented by Pt-palladium, native platinum, and compounds of Pd and Pt with Bi, Sb, and Te.
      
Platinum group elements are characterized by a high differentiated mobility in the weathering profile.
      
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Various kinds of acid igneous rocks are found around the Kushan, to theeast of Foochow, Fukien. One earlier variety of the granites, provisionally termedas Kushan Granite, is coarser-grained, often flesh-colored, and biotite-bearing,similar in character to the most frequently seen and widely distributed graniteof whole Fukien; the other, the Kueichi Granite, often intruding into the firstnamed, is colored by different shades of grey, mostly, fine-grained, and mia-rolitie, containing minor amount of hornblende...

Various kinds of acid igneous rocks are found around the Kushan, to theeast of Foochow, Fukien. One earlier variety of the granites, provisionally termedas Kushan Granite, is coarser-grained, often flesh-colored, and biotite-bearing,similar in character to the most frequently seen and widely distributed graniteof whole Fukien; the other, the Kueichi Granite, often intruding into the firstnamed, is colored by different shades of grey, mostly, fine-grained, and mia-rolitie, containing minor amount of hornblende instead of biotite, yet sometimesvarying its texture to felsitic, porphyritic, or even to micro-graphic. In thecourse of weathering, the soils thus formed from these two granites, as well astheir corresponding surface vegetations are also evidently dissimilar. That the Kueichi granite was really intruding into the Kushan is evidencedby its ramifying apophyses in the latter, its broad marginal phase, its miaro- litie cavities elongated and lined parallel to the intrusive contact and the"sericitization front", so to show a convex curvature facing the Kushan Graniteside along their mutual contact. The prevalent strike of the contact of the granites conicides with thefracture and joint systems of the Kushan Granite, one set of which is N65°E,being also parallel to one of the major vertical joints of the Kueichi. This isprobably due to the prolonged fracturing during the formation of Pacificfolding zones of the Chekiang and Fukien coast, rendering the KueichiGranite intruding along the said fracture system yet itself subjected to the samemechanical stress. Rocks correlated to these two granites are found elsewhere in Fukien. Theymay also be comparable to the two granites of Sihwashan, S. Kiangsi, foundby C. S. Mo and his colleagues. The repeated intrusions of the Post-Jurassicgranites may allow to consider the possibility of repeated formations of theirgenetically related ores. The lead-zinc deposits of Yuntai and Lungyai areprobably related to the igneous activity of the Kueichi Granite.

经初步瞭解,福建鼓山分布着两种后侏罗纪花岗岩。这从岩石地面分布上的接触情况与显微镜下观察的岩石中组成成分的接触情况两方面得到证实的。从二者产生状态看来,彼此生成时间甚为接近,而同属於太平洋运动产物,分属早晚期活动。再根据前人各种地质文件,推论出福建各地普遍存在着相当於这两种侵入的花岗岩类岩石。因此,联系到福建后侏罗纪金属矿成矿作用的多次性可能。这在江西西华山已有发现。此后从多次性来研究后侏罗纪的炎成矿床的成矿作用,成为必要了。

Clay particles of less than 1μ were separated from 18 selected soil samples, representing important types of red and yellow soils of southern China.Com- position of clay minerals was identified by X-ray defraction,differential ther- mal analysis,base exchange capacity and chemical constituents.Zonality of the weathering stage of the soil,as shown in Fig.I,is explained briefly as follows. Region(Ⅰ)Lateritic soils Representative clay minerals:Kaolinite-gibbsite-hematite.Soils of this type mainly distribute...

Clay particles of less than 1μ were separated from 18 selected soil samples, representing important types of red and yellow soils of southern China.Com- position of clay minerals was identified by X-ray defraction,differential ther- mal analysis,base exchange capacity and chemical constituents.Zonality of the weathering stage of the soil,as shown in Fig.I,is explained briefly as follows. Region(Ⅰ)Lateritic soils Representative clay minerals:Kaolinite-gibbsite-hematite.Soils of this type mainly distribute on the rolling hills of northern Hainan island,Laichou peninsula and south-central Yunnan.Formation of lateritic soil seems confined to the highly weathered parent materials of basalt origin,which were formed possibly at tertial geological age.Present direction of soil development remains much controversy. The whole soil contains around 20% Fe_2O_3 as hematite.Clay portions (<1μ)of the soil possess base exchange capacity 5—5.5 m.e.per 100 grams and SiO_2/Al_2O_3 ratio 1.4—1.5. TiO_2 in form of ilmenite presents both in silt and clay fractions up to 4—6%. Region(Ⅱ)Red soils of tropic zone Representative clay minerals:Kaolinite-halloysite.Soils of this type form a narrow belt in the tropic zone,extending from southern Fukien to Kwangsi. They are derived from various parent materials,including granite,metamor- phic rocks,sand stones,shales and marine deposits.Clay minerals of kaolinite group are the characteristic weathering product of this soil type with minor portions of gibbsite,hematite,quartz,and illite. Clay fractions of this soft type possess base exchange capacity 10—15 m.e. per 100 grams and SiO_3/Al_2O_3 ratio 1.7—2.0. Region(Ⅲ)Red soils of subtropic zone Representative clay minerals:Kaolinite-quartz-Montmorillonite.Soils of this type distribute in the subtropic zone of south-cntral China,occurring on the low hills and terraces below 500—600 meters altitude.They are derived from granite,phyllite,sandstones,shales and red clay.The much higher ex- change capacity of clay fraction(20—25 m.e.per 100 grams),higher SiO_2/Al_O_3 ratio(2.0—2.3),together with the identified clay minerals characterize the less advanced weathering stage in comparison to the soils of tropic zone. In the silt fraction of this soil type much of orthoclass and mica remain undecomposed. Region(Ⅳ)Yellow soils on the mountainous region of southern China Representative clay minerals.Kaolinite-montmorillonite,Illitequartz and montmorillonite-quartz. On the higher mountains above 600—700 meters altitude of southern China, including both tropic and subtropic zones,yellow soils and partially red soils occur.Clay minerals of this soil type characterize a moderately weathering stage.Montmorillonite,illite,kaolinite and quartz are the major constituents, but variations of the composition of these minerals are determined by the primary minerals of their parent rocks. Clay fractions of this soil type possess base exchange capacity 24—34 m.e. per 100 grams,with higher content of active alumina up to 2.5—5.5 m.e.per 100 grams. Soils occurring on the depression area of red earth region usually appear yellowish.The diversity of soil color leads much controversies in soil classifi- cation.Present investigation indicates that the change from reddish coloration to yellowish in the depression area is induced by the hydration of hematite. Once a small portion of the anhydrous ferric oxide has been hydrated into geothite or limonite due to local variation of the moisture condition,while the main constituents of the clay minerals remain unchanged,the soil gives a dis- tinctive yellowish coating.The change is very sensitive.

1.用 X-光分析,差热分析,化学分析和代换量测定方法,综合鉴定了华南砖红壤性红壤,热带红壤,亚热带红壤和山地黄壤的粘土矿物组成,并绘制了华南土壤主要粘土矿物组成分区图。我们将华南土壤分为四个区,即砖红壤性红壤区,主要粘土矿物为高岭石,三水铝石,赤铁矿;热带红壤区,主要粘土矿物为高岭石,埃洛石;亚热带红壤区以高岭石,石英,濛脱石为主;山地黄壤区,以伊利石,濛脱石,石英,高岭石为主,其组合因母岩的不同而转移。2.我们对微域地形,如坡上、坡下;南坡、北坡和局部气候的影响,使土壤颜色发生了显著的变化的红色,黄色土壤进行了研究。结果证明,二者的化学性质、粘土矿物组成完全相同。在低洼地区和阳坡等湿润条件下赤铁矿部分水化成为针铁矿,因之使土壤颜色变黄。但这种黄色土壤与风化程度较浅的山地黄壤是有很大区别的。3.我们把由浅海沉积物母岩发育,过去称为砖红壤性红黄色土的土壤,划归红壤。因为我们研究结果证明,这类土壤的风化程度并不比红壤深些,它们的粘士矿物组成和化学性质与热带地区的红壤也很一致。砖红壤性土壤,仅仅局限于一定的母岩。4.在紫红色砂岩发育的山地黄壤中发现了一水软铝石的存在,对它的生成、转变尚待进一步研究。

The so-called "landscape horizon" in this paper is viewed from the fact that the landscape acts as an objective and independent substance of matters on the surface of the earth Along a given line in any unit of regions the landscape may be sectioned crossly Landscape is a component part on the land of the landscape sphere, which envelopes the earth, so that its basic components are also .solid, gas, liquid, and organic matters. The science of the landscape may be therefore considered as regional geography. All...

The so-called "landscape horizon" in this paper is viewed from the fact that the landscape acts as an objective and independent substance of matters on the surface of the earth Along a given line in any unit of regions the landscape may be sectioned crossly Landscape is a component part on the land of the landscape sphere, which envelopes the earth, so that its basic components are also .solid, gas, liquid, and organic matters. The science of the landscape may be therefore considered as regional geography. All the evidences concerning the completion of major types of the landscape, the floral and faunal extinction and new species—production, and especially the apperance of man prove thai the history of the landscape can only date back to the begining of the Quaternary Era, so that palaeogeography may be restricted in this scope. According to time, the landscape includes naturally the weathering crust as its bass, and its upper end should be coincided with the top of air near the ground, or of the highest trees. Thus its thickness is all the same in standard to any reginal unit Obviously, the extent of the landscape do not exceed the continental slopes in the sea. Judging from the statements mentioned above, a horizon of four dimensions has to logically occur in any unit of regions. It is the "landscape horizon", in which vertical and horizontal differentiations have continuously proceeded. Controlled by some geographic processes, the "landscape horizon" has been vertically differentiated into three sub—horizons: the sub—horizon of weathering crust, of soils, and of biotic community and air, They altogether revealed the morphological structure in types of the landscape. The horizontal differentiations conditioned by some other gcogra phic processes indicate the relationships of the landscape in areal continuity. The diagrams of the "landscape horizon" must be based on field works. Here are two examples, one, for the "landscape horizon" of steppe, and the other, of desert (figures 1 and 2). These diagrams can be used to (1) point out the structural and ecological features, in other words, the typological characteristics of the landscape, (2) determine the boundaries of regions and provide a basis for the plan of agriculture, and (3) help to study some theoritical problems of regional divisions. The author believes that the concept of the "landscape horizon" may be nseful in practical as well as in theoritical works.

本文所谓“景观层”是出之于景观是地球表面上起作用的一种客观的独立的物质实体的看法。在区域任一单元的一定线上景观能用剖面体现出来。景观是环围地球的景观壳在陆地上的一个组成部分,因之它的基本组成要素也是固体,气体、液体、和有机质。以此之故景观学可以认为是区域地理学。所有景观主要类型之完成,动植物之死亡和新种之产生,和特別是人类之出现的证据都证明景观历史仅能回溯至第四纪之始。古地理学因此应当限于这个范畴之內。根据时间,景观的下限自然包有风化壳,而其上限则与近地面空气层或最高乔木顶部相一致。显然,它的广度不超过大陆斜坡。由上可知一种具有四度空间的层必见于任何区域单元之內。这就是“景观层”。其中垂直和水平分异作用不断进行着。为一些地理过程所规定,“景观层”在垂直方向上被分异为风化壳,土壤、和生物与空气三个亚层。它们共同揭示了景观类型的形态构造。而受制于另一些地理过程的水平分异则表明景观在空间连续性上的相互关系。“景观层”图解根据野外工作制出。这里举出二例:一为草原“景观层”图解,另一则属于荒漠(图1和2)。这种图解可用以(1)指出景观的构造和生态特征,换言之,郎其类型特点;(2)确定区域的界限并为农业规划提供基础,和(...

本文所谓“景观层”是出之于景观是地球表面上起作用的一种客观的独立的物质实体的看法。在区域任一单元的一定线上景观能用剖面体现出来。景观是环围地球的景观壳在陆地上的一个组成部分,因之它的基本组成要素也是固体,气体、液体、和有机质。以此之故景观学可以认为是区域地理学。所有景观主要类型之完成,动植物之死亡和新种之产生,和特別是人类之出现的证据都证明景观历史仅能回溯至第四纪之始。古地理学因此应当限于这个范畴之內。根据时间,景观的下限自然包有风化壳,而其上限则与近地面空气层或最高乔木顶部相一致。显然,它的广度不超过大陆斜坡。由上可知一种具有四度空间的层必见于任何区域单元之內。这就是“景观层”。其中垂直和水平分异作用不断进行着。为一些地理过程所规定,“景观层”在垂直方向上被分异为风化壳,土壤、和生物与空气三个亚层。它们共同揭示了景观类型的形态构造。而受制于另一些地理过程的水平分异则表明景观在空间连续性上的相互关系。“景观层”图解根据野外工作制出。这里举出二例:一为草原“景观层”图解,另一则属于荒漠(图1和2)。这种图解可用以(1)指出景观的构造和生态特征,换言之,郎其类型特点;(2)确定区域的界限并为农业规划提供基础,和(3)有助于探讨区划的某些理论问題。因之,“景观层”概念在实践和理论工作上是有用的。

 
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