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probable evidence
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     On Electronic Evidence
     电子证据可采论
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     On Disclosing Evidence
     证据开示问题初探
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     probable benign;
     B级倾向良性;
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     ON MOST PROBABLE METHOD
     关于最可几法
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     Objective Summarize the clinical features of probable SARS cases in Tangshan, and provide evidence for SARS diagnosis and treatment.
     ①目的 总结唐山市传染性非典型肺炎 (非典 )的临床特点 ,为临床病例的诊断和治疗方案的选择提供参考。
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  probable evidence
Under these conditions mainly an increase in the mean discharge frequency in the responses and a decrease in their latent periods were found in the "low-frequency" neurons, probable evidence of dominance of corticofugal facilitation.
      
Probable evidence for periodicities in global seismic energy release
      
Incised channels and dendritic drainage patterns in the bed of Lake Mamawi provide probable evidence of a previous dry period in the delta.
      
radiodurans homologues clearly group with eukaryotic or archaeal homologues, and 17 additional trees were found to show probable evidence of horizontal gene transfer.
      
Of these, 3 also had definite evidence and 1 probable evidence of a glomerulopathy associated with hyperfiltration due to reduced renal mass.
      
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Abstract Objective To explore the change of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF),basic fibroblast growth fact6r (bFGF) and angiogenesis by the intervention of bFGF, adenosine(Ado) on acute myocardial infarction(AMI) model of rabbit, and to provide a probable evidence for treatment of AMI. Methods AMI model was established by ligating anterior descending branch of coronary artery in the Japan-Sino hybridization white rabbit. The postoperative rabbits were randomly divided into 6 groups and each group...

Abstract Objective To explore the change of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF),basic fibroblast growth fact6r (bFGF) and angiogenesis by the intervention of bFGF, adenosine(Ado) on acute myocardial infarction(AMI) model of rabbit, and to provide a probable evidence for treatment of AMI. Methods AMI model was established by ligating anterior descending branch of coronary artery in the Japan-Sino hybridization white rabbit. The postoperative rabbits were randomly divided into 6 groups and each group was treated with different drugs. Group 1 and 2 were treated with normal saline (NS) for 28 and 14 days (d), group 3 and 4 with bFGF for 28 and 14d, group 5 and 6 with Ado, Ado and bFGF for 14d.The rabbits were killed on the 14 th or 28 th day and hearts were excised, sectioned and colorated with HE stain, Masson trichrome stain and immunohistochemical stain to observe VEGF, bFGF and CD 34 through microscope,which were quantified with the help of computer-assisted morphometry.Results Compared with group 1, granulation tissue of infarctionzone (IZ) in group 2 freshened up, and capillary density (CD) in the IZ was increased, so were the amount of VEGF in the IZ (P=0.002, 0.030). The CD in the IZ as well as VEGF and bFGF in the group 3 and 4 were increased (P=0.001~0.043). In the group 5,VEGF were increased in the border zone (BZ) compared with group 2 (P=0.006), and the difference of VEGF, bFGF and CD between group 5 and 6 were not found.Conclusion Intravenous bFGF may increase VEGF and bFGF significantly, thus promoting the angiogenesis in the IZ and BZ in the infarcti on heart as the VEGF and bFGF are potent angiogenic growth factors; Ado may promote the expression of VEGF in the BZ,but may not enhance the promoting angiogenesis function of bFGF.

目的 研究兔心肌急性缺血后碱性成纤维细胞生长因子 (basicfibroblastgrowthfactor,bFGF)、血管内皮生长因子 (vascularendothelialgrowthfactor,VEGF)、血管密度的变化及bFGF、腺苷 (adenosine ,Ado)对其的影响。方法 将急性心肌梗死 (acutemyocardialinfarction ,AMI)兔分为 6组 ,1、 2组各给生理盐水 (normalsaline ,NS) 2 8d和 14d ,组 3、 4各给bFGF2 8和 14d ,5、 6组分别给Ado、bFGF和Ado 14d ,处死后取心脏标本切片 ,HE、Masson染色及VEGF、bFGF、CD34 免疫组化染色后显微镜观察并用图像分析软件定量。结果  2组梗死区肉芽组织较组 1新鲜 ,其VEGF的表达、毛细血管密度 (capillarydensity ,CD)高于 1组 (P =0 0 0 3,0 0 30 ) ;3、 4组急性缺血心肌的VEGF、bFOF、CD均显著增加 (P =0 0 0 14~ 0 0 4 3) ;5组梗死边缘区的VEGF表达增加 (...

目的 研究兔心肌急性缺血后碱性成纤维细胞生长因子 (basicfibroblastgrowthfactor,bFGF)、血管内皮生长因子 (vascularendothelialgrowthfactor,VEGF)、血管密度的变化及bFGF、腺苷 (adenosine ,Ado)对其的影响。方法 将急性心肌梗死 (acutemyocardialinfarction ,AMI)兔分为 6组 ,1、 2组各给生理盐水 (normalsaline ,NS) 2 8d和 14d ,组 3、 4各给bFGF2 8和 14d ,5、 6组分别给Ado、bFGF和Ado 14d ,处死后取心脏标本切片 ,HE、Masson染色及VEGF、bFGF、CD34 免疫组化染色后显微镜观察并用图像分析软件定量。结果  2组梗死区肉芽组织较组 1新鲜 ,其VEGF的表达、毛细血管密度 (capillarydensity ,CD)高于 1组 (P =0 0 0 3,0 0 30 ) ;3、 4组急性缺血心肌的VEGF、bFOF、CD均显著增加 (P =0 0 0 14~ 0 0 4 3) ;5组梗死边缘区的VEGF表达增加 (P =0 0 0 6 ) ;6组梗死后心肌的VEGF、bFGF及CD与 5组无差异。结论 静脉内给bFGF能使AMI处VEGF、bFGF量增加 ,促进新生血管形成 ;Ado能使梗死边缘区VEGF表达增加 ,但不能增强bFOF促血管再生的作用。

>=Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the major contributor to the global burden of disease among the non communicable diseases. WHO currently attributes one-third of all global deaths (15.3 million) to cardiovascular diseases. According to the Global Burden of Disease Study, a 55% rise would occur in DALY loss attributable to CVD between 1990 and 2020 in the developing countries 1. This would be in contrast to a 14.3% reduction in the proportion of DALY loss attributable to CVD during the same period in the developed....

>=Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the major contributor to the global burden of disease among the non communicable diseases. WHO currently attributes one-third of all global deaths (15.3 million) to cardiovascular diseases. According to the Global Burden of Disease Study, a 55% rise would occur in DALY loss attributable to CVD between 1990 and 2020 in the developing countries 1. This would be in contrast to a 14.3% reduction in the proportion of DALY loss attributable to CVD during the same period in the developed. The increasing burden of CVD would be borne mostly by the developing countries in the next two decades. CVD is the first leading death both in China urban and rural area. It has been summarized in the " Draft Report of the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Disease" that evidence on lifestyle factors and risk of developing CVD can be classified into 4 levels : convincing evidence 、probable evidence 、perhaps evidence、not sufficient evidence, 3 status of nutrition and diet factors (reduce risk, increase risk, no relation) are clarified under each level. The effects of many components of macro nutrients on CVD risk have been approved by intensive studies. Saturated fatty acids (SFA)as a group raise total and LDL cholesterol, but individual SFA have different effects , myristic acid , lauric acid, palmitic acid and trans fatty acid have raising effect on plasma cholesterol, they are considered as strong factors to increase CVD risk, while stearic acid has not been shown to elevate blood cholesterol and is rapidly converted to oleic acid (OA) in vivo. While linoleic acid (LA) and fish or fish oil (EPA, DHA) are identified to reduce CVD risk. However, modifying the type and amount of carbohydrates and protein to lower CVD risk factors has attracted recent attention of scientists, studies are going to unravel the different physiological effects of animal and plant protein to elicit on CVD risk, and exploring semi-and non digestible carbohydrates and glycemic index of food affect risk factors for CVD. It will review the present underst landing of macro nutrients affect CVD risk, and discuss role of diets with different macronutrient profiles on prevention of CVD.

心血管疾病是严重威胁健康的主要慢性病,据WHO估计,因心血管疾病导致的死亡占总死亡的1/3(1500万例/年)。根据全球疾病负担研究的资料,在1990年-2020年期间,发展中国家因心血管疾病导致的伤残调整寿命年(disability-adjusted life years,DALY)的丢失将增加55%,与此形成鲜明对照的是,发达国家在同期因心血管疾病造成DALY丢失的比例将下降14.3%。因此在未来的20年中,心血管疾病的负担将主要来自发展中国家。我国统计资料显示,无论城市或农村,心脑血管疾病均为首要死因。在WHO/FAO在最近发布的“膳食营养与心血管疾病预防”的专家报告中,总结了膳食营养与心血管疾病(包括冠心病、高血压、脑卒中、心律失常)危险因素的研究证据,将证据的强度分为4个水平:有力的证据(convincing evidence)、很可能的证据(probable evidence)、可能的证据(perhaps evidence)、不充足的证据(not sufficient evidence),在各个水平下分别列出了增加危险性、降低危险性和无关系的膳食营养因素。该报告更新和丰富了膳食营养因素对心血管疾病...

心血管疾病是严重威胁健康的主要慢性病,据WHO估计,因心血管疾病导致的死亡占总死亡的1/3(1500万例/年)。根据全球疾病负担研究的资料,在1990年-2020年期间,发展中国家因心血管疾病导致的伤残调整寿命年(disability-adjusted life years,DALY)的丢失将增加55%,与此形成鲜明对照的是,发达国家在同期因心血管疾病造成DALY丢失的比例将下降14.3%。因此在未来的20年中,心血管疾病的负担将主要来自发展中国家。我国统计资料显示,无论城市或农村,心脑血管疾病均为首要死因。在WHO/FAO在最近发布的“膳食营养与心血管疾病预防”的专家报告中,总结了膳食营养与心血管疾病(包括冠心病、高血压、脑卒中、心律失常)危险因素的研究证据,将证据的强度分为4个水平:有力的证据(convincing evidence)、很可能的证据(probable evidence)、可能的证据(perhaps evidence)、不充足的证据(not sufficient evidence),在各个水平下分别列出了增加危险性、降低危险性和无关系的膳食营养因素。该报告更新和丰富了膳食营养因素对心血管疾病防治的作用的观点和知识。就宏量营养素而言,许多组分与心血管疾病危险性之间的关系已得到清晰的阐述,如含12-16个碳原子的饱和脂肪酸、反式脂肪酸被确定为强有力的增加危险性的因素,而亚油酸、鱼和鱼油(EPA、DHA)则被认为是强有力的降低危险性的因素。近年来,对碳水化合物和蛋白质的种类和数量在降低心血管疾病危险性的作用引起了很大的兴趣。研究人员正在积累资料以阐明动物蛋白和植物蛋白的不同生理学效应对减少心血管疾病危险性的作用机理,以及半消化和非消化性碳水化合物、血糖指数等与心血管疾病危险性的关系。本文将重点讨论膳食脂肪、碳水化合物、蛋白质对心血管疾病危险因素的影响,以及不同宏量营养素组成的膳食在心血管疾病防治中的价值和作用。

 
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