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field debris
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     ON THE DEBRIS FLOW SCIENCE
     论泥石流学
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     ON THE INITIATION OF DEBRIS FLOW
     泥石流的启动分析
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     Field Survey for Debris Flow
     泥石流野外调查方法
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The agromyzid fly Melanagromyza sojae is one of the most important pests infest ing soybeans. It occurs in all the soybean cultivation areas of Shantung Province and its host plants include more than nine cultivated and wild legume plants. The larvae tunnel into the stems and interrupt the conduction of water and nutrients. Soybean seedlings may thus be killed, the growth of the older plants is retarded, and the crop yields are greatly reduced.This insect has five generations each year in Shantung Province....

The agromyzid fly Melanagromyza sojae is one of the most important pests infest ing soybeans. It occurs in all the soybean cultivation areas of Shantung Province and its host plants include more than nine cultivated and wild legume plants. The larvae tunnel into the stems and interrupt the conduction of water and nutrients. Soybean seedlings may thus be killed, the growth of the older plants is retarded, and the crop yields are greatly reduced.This insect has five generations each year in Shantung Province. The pupae overwinter in the stems of the soybean plants and the adults emerge in next June. The larvae and adults of the first and second generations occur in July and August respectively. The population of the third generation larvae reaches its peak in late August and since then the fourth and fifth generations may overlap. The adults are very active at 6:00 to 8:00 AM and the eggs are laid singularly, mostly on the under surfaces near the midrib bases of upper leaves. The incubation period takes two to three days. The larvae of the first generation infest the spring crop, those of the second and third generations both the spring and summer crops, and those of the third and fourth generations the late crop.Proper treatments of field debris and the plants harbouring overwintering pupae, increasing fertilizers, early sowing and thinning out seedlings in proper times may be effective for controlling this pest. At the peaks of adult occurrence lower dosage sprays with 50% Sumithion, 50% Phoxim, 50% Malathion and 40% Dimethoate can give good results.

豆杆黑潜蝇是大豆的重要害虫之一,在山东省大豆产区均有分布。已知寄主有大豆、赤豆等九种豆科植物。幼虫蛀食髓部及木质部,形成隧道,严重影响养分和水分的传导。危害重时,幼苗枯死,轻时植株生长缓慢,花荚脱落,产量降低。 豆秆黑潜蝇在山东一年发生五代,以蛹过冬。翌年6月上旬末为蝇始发期,下旬中达盛发期。7月上旬为一代幼虫盛期,旬末为一代蝇始发期,下旬中达盛期,旬末至8月上旬中为二代幼虫盛期和二代蝇始发期,中旬达盛期,下旬为三代幼虫盛发期。四、五代重叠发生。成虫活动以6—8时为盛期。卵单粒散产,多产在叶背近基部主脉附近表皮下,以上中部叶着卵较多,卵历期2—3天。一代幼虫主要危害春豆,二、三代相继危害春豆和夏豆,四、五代危害晚播大豆及赤豆等。幼虫老熟后,在豆株茎壁上咬一羽化孔,以便成虫羽化钻出。 防治措施:集中处理越冬寄主,消灭越冬蛹:增施肥料,提早播种,适时间苗等农业措施,均有一定效果。在成虫盛发期用50%杀螟松、50%辛硫磷、50%马拉硫磷和40%乐果乳剂原液超低量喷雾,毒杀当代成虫及下代幼虫效果显著。

 
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