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cold temperature
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  低温
    In cold temperature condition (4℃ 36h), if the rice seedling grow in the solution of leak Ca2+, the functions of cell membrane and the ultrastruture of membranes of chloroplast and mitochondria were damaged gravely.
    缺Ca2+的水稻幼苗在低温胁迫下(4℃ 36h),细胞膜功能及超微结构破坏严重。
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  “cold temperature”译为未确定词的双语例句
    With composition analyzing and significance test of simultaneous & previous general circulation and surface temperature of extreme warm or cold January & July in Heilongjiang Province, distinct difference can be concluded in terms of statistics between previous general circulation or surface temperature and the tempreture of Heilongjiang Province, which gives some evidence for predicting extreme warm or cold temperature of Heilongjiang Province's winter and summer.
    通过对黑龙江异常暖与冷7月和1月的同期和前期环流场和下垫面温度距平的合成分析和差值显著性检验,归纳出了前期环流场和下垫面温度统计上显著的差异,所得的结果可以为预报黑龙江夏、冬季异常暖、冷提供依据。
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    In this paper a strong cold air gale process occurred at the end of December in 2004 is analyzed. It reveals that the main reason of this strong gale is the pressure gradient caused by cold air and the depression in East China Sea,the strong cold temperature advection in upper and lower layer and the middle momentum transportation downward because of the dynamic forcing descending caused by the divergence at the lower lever and the convergence at the middle lever.
    文章分析了2004年12月底的一次冷空气强风过程,揭示了冷空气南下与东海低压的发展造成的气压梯度、高低空较强的冷平流以及中低空辐合辐散差异引起的动力强迫下沉作用所造成的动量下传是造成本次猛烈强风的主要原因。
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    The results show that the formation mechanisms of the event are as follows. (1) The strong warm advection of 500hPa over the west Europe led to a blocking high created in Siberia area, and a zonal though, the north-east stream in the north edge of the though led to super polar cold air and the cold air from west together and got to strengthen, and then the abnormally strong cold high, front zone, cold temperature center and cold temperature advection appear.
    结果表明:这次寒潮及寒潮天气主要成因是(1)西欧上空500hPa强暖平流致使在西伯利亚地区形成阻塞高压,建立横槽,横槽北侧的东北气流引导超极地冷空气和西路冷空气合并加强; 形成了异常强的冷高压、锋区、冷温度中心和冷温度平流。
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    The results show that thunderstorms occur red mainly from May to September most of which are heat thunderstorms under the synoptic situation of cold temperature trough in the westerly air current behind upper level trough.
    结果显示:中川机场雷暴集中在5~9月,以高空槽后西风气流中存在冷温度槽形势的热雷雨居多。
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  cold temperature
Improvements in cold temperature hydrocarbon emissions would also be beneficial in many parts of Europe during the winter months.
      
The DEAE-dextran induced microtubules are stable to cold temperature (4°) and calcium.
      
We observed that the rubber polymer core of the rubber particles was still malleable at this extremely cold temperature, and the core stretched substantially during separation of the fracture planes.
      
While UV-C stress caused a general increase in substance formation, cold temperature stress resulted in a strong activation of barbatic acid biosynthesis.
      
Based on results of a former study in 2005, this investigation aimed at quantifying UV- and cold temperature stress-induced changes within the secondary metabolite production of the cultured mycobiont of the lichen Heterodea muelleri (Hampe) Nyl.
      
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Daily data(0000GMT) of sea level pressures( Jan. -Feb.) from 1977 through 1986 in the north part of Australia are analyzed with EOF method. The Heat Low indexes are determined from the coefficient of the first eigenvector com -bining with daily data of 500hPa geopotential heights.It is interesting that there is a pronouneed correlation between the Heat Low and the severe cold damages in Guangdong. The forwer lasts about 5 days. There are eighteen Heat Low pro cesses in the twenty months. After each, a severe...

Daily data(0000GMT) of sea level pressures( Jan. -Feb.) from 1977 through 1986 in the north part of Australia are analyzed with EOF method. The Heat Low indexes are determined from the coefficient of the first eigenvector com -bining with daily data of 500hPa geopotential heights.It is interesting that there is a pronouneed correlation between the Heat Low and the severe cold damages in Guangdong. The forwer lasts about 5 days. There are eighteen Heat Low pro cesses in the twenty months. After each, a severe cold damage happened in Guangdong. The interval between the formation of the Heat Low(critical index below-2) and the beginning of the cold damage is about two weeks. The longer the heat low maintains the more the number of days in which Guangdong has cold temperature and prolonged rain.

本文在普查了1977—1986年1—2月澳大利亚地面至500hPa三层逐日资料的基础上,用自然正交函数展开,计算了海平面气压场资料。有趣地发现澳大利亚热低压一般可持续5天左右,并与广东的重大冷害过程有明显关系。热低压出现日到广东有冷害过程出现一般约相距1—2周左右,且热低压持续越久,广东低温阴雨日数也越多。

By analysing the temperature data (1870-1989) and precipitation data (1850-1989) in Beijing some features are shown as follows. The variations of seasonal and annual mean t6mpeature departures are similar. There is a turning point in 1920. Before 1920, there is a cold temperature trend, and after 1920 there is a warm trend. The warming ratio is 0.2℃ per 10-year during last 40 years. The maximum temperature in winter and summer shows a trend of decrease, while the minimum temperature shows a...

By analysing the temperature data (1870-1989) and precipitation data (1850-1989) in Beijing some features are shown as follows. The variations of seasonal and annual mean t6mpeature departures are similar. There is a turning point in 1920. Before 1920, there is a cold temperature trend, and after 1920 there is a warm trend. The warming ratio is 0.2℃ per 10-year during last 40 years. The maximum temperature in winter and summer shows a trend of decrease, while the minimum temperature shows a warming trend. Before 1972, the departures of annual and seasonal temperature range are basically positive. After 1972, they are mainly negative. Before the 1920s the mean tempearture in Beijing has the same cold trend as in eastern China, the Northern Hemisphere and the globe. Since 1920, the trend in Beijing and eastern China has been very similar but different from that in the Northern Hemisphere and the globe. From 1950 to 1989 the normalized precipitation departures (△R/R) continuously decrease with the ratio of -11.1%. The 10-year annual mean temperature and normolized. precipitation departures are basically out of phase.

本文通过对北京地区120年气温和150年降水资料的分析发现:(1)年和季的平均气温变化有着明显的一致性,1920年是个转折点,前期偏低,后期偏高。(2)冬、夏季的极端最高气温近20年来呈偏低趋势,而极端最低气温呈持续偏高趋势。(3)年、季极端气温差值距平1972年以前以正距平为主,1972年以后以负距平为主。50年来差值持续变小。(4)北京与中国东部、北半球,全球平均气温在1920年以前趋势相同。1920年以后,北京和中国东部的趋势相同,而和北半球、全球有着明显的差别。(5)北京的年降水从50年代至80年代持续下降,平均每10年下降12.2%,而年气温平均每10年增温0.2℃,与年降水基本呈反相关关系。

The upper reaches of the Yangtze hiver lies in the middlelow latitude ofNorthern Hemisphere. The climatic variation was not remarkable during Han Dynasty.The northeastern boundary of the type of litchi economic distribution during TangDynasty was almost 2 latitude northeastwards coamparing with that of the present. Asannual mean temperature of litchi growing requires temperature of above 18℃, so theannual mean temperatUre of Chengdu, Leshan etc, was above 18℃ at that time,which was about 1-2℃ higher than present.The...

The upper reaches of the Yangtze hiver lies in the middlelow latitude ofNorthern Hemisphere. The climatic variation was not remarkable during Han Dynasty.The northeastern boundary of the type of litchi economic distribution during TangDynasty was almost 2 latitude northeastwards coamparing with that of the present. Asannual mean temperature of litchi growing requires temperature of above 18℃, so theannual mean temperatUre of Chengdu, Leshan etc, was above 18℃ at that time,which was about 1-2℃ higher than present.The distribution of litchi in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River during SongDynasty had already reached 31°N in the eastern region and about 30°N in the west.On the whole, the northern boundary of litchi planting during Tang and Song Dynastyhadn' t greatly changed in the upper reaches of the Yangtze hiver. According tohistorical materials, the cold climate during Southern Song Dynasty in the twelfthcentury was proved by the change of litchi distribution in the upper reaches of theYangtze River.The records of historical documents indicate that the Three Gorges of the Yangtzehiver experienced very cold temperature from 1170 to 1 172. But the cold climate ofSouthern Song period had a minor effect on litchi growing in the region of 29°N orlower in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River.During the Little Ice Age, the cold climate was very obvious in the upper reachesof the Yangtze caver which can be deduced from the migration of litchi distribution.During the period of Ming and Qing Dynasty, the northern boundary of litchi hadmoved southward and reached the region of 29°30' N or lower.Studies suggested that the temperature began to rise from the twentieth century.Although today the northern boundary of litchi in the upper reaches of the YangtZeRiver can reach Wuling Town in Wanxian County at 30°30’ N.Considering the migrations of litchi planting distribution in the upper reaches of theYangtze hiver in the past 2000 years, the climatic fluctuations in the upper reaches ofthe Yangtze caver reconciled with national climatic fluctuations, such as the warm andhnmid in Tang Dynasty, the cold period of Southern Song Dynasty in the twelfthcentury, the warm climate of Yuan Dynasty, and the cold climate of Ming and QingDynasty, etc.According to the changes of litchi distribution in the upper reaches of theYangtze River, 1170's was the coldest period, the colder period is the Eastern Jin,Southern and Northern Dynasty. The low temperature in the farer Tang Dynasty wasn'tremarkable in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. The cold climate of SouthernSong Dynasty was very obvious, which indicate that the cold fluctuations of two-Jin,Southern and Northern Dynasty and the later Tang dynasty were much smaller thanthat of Southern Song Dynasty.

通过对近2000年来长江上游荔枝分布北界变化的讨论,说明长江上游荔枝种植北界最北可达北纬31°40’,近2000年来荔枝种植的北界总的来看是逐渐向南退缩;两晋、南北朝时期和唐后期的寒冷气候在长江上游地区反映不太明显,而南宋12世纪的寒冷气候在长江上游反映十分明显,这说明12世纪的寒冷气候是长江上游近2000年来最寒冷的时期;在12世纪中长江上游又以70年代最为寒冷。

 
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