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cold temperature
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  低温
    A statistical model between the rela-tive emptiness rate(R)and the total amount of the harmful cold temperature(V)was established:R=a+b(-V)~cIt is deemed that V can give an objective and comprehensive estimation of theeffects of the strength and sustained time of cold temperature on the fruiting ofbarley.
    相对空壳率(R)与危害低温总量(V)间定量关系的动态数学模型为:R=a+b(-V)~c利用大田冷害调查资料对模拟结果验证表明,危害低温总量能客观反映最低温度和低温持续时间对相对空壳率的综合影响。
短句来源
    The results show that the callus induction of anthers collected from 5 ̄8 fruit branches and pretreated for 6 days at cold temperature (2 ̄4℃) is better on MS medium with 1.5 mg/L 2,4 D and 0.5 mg/L ZT.
    结果表明,以5~8果枝上1~2果的花药做材料,低温(2~4℃)处理6d后在附加1.5mg/L2,4-D+0.5mg/LZT的MS培养基上培养,愈伤组织发生最好。
短句来源
    Effects of cold temperature on the green plantlet differentiation rate of calli in anther culture of wheat
    低温对小麦花培愈伤组织绿苗分化率的影响
短句来源
    The pollen grains of different stage were culture in vitro after cold temperature and mannitol pretreatment,the results showed that the pollen grains of monokaryotic stage had gigantic potential of sporophyte development,and the percentage of dedifferentiation was up to 4.1%.
    1.对不同发育时期的花粉经低温和甘露醇处理后,进行培养,其中单核期幼嫩花粉培养后脱分化频率达4.1%,具有孢子体发育的巨大潜力。
短句来源
    Travois, Aurova alfalfa with different cold-resistance are chose to study on the adaptation from physiological aspect in the seasonal cold temperature stress in field experiment, analyzing the relationship between morphology and physiology character and cold-resistance. The main results are as follows:(1)21 different alfalfas cultivars were classified into 3 cold-resistance ranks, the material from Australia were all can’t over winter, which are in the same weak cold resistance group.
    选取越冬率高的引自美国的Travois苜蓿、越冬率低的(现存植株最多的)引自澳大利亚的Aurova苜蓿进一步从生理的角度探讨苜蓿对季节性低温胁迫适应性,并对形态学、生理学指标与抗寒性的关系进行分析,主要试验结果如下:(1)21个紫花苜蓿品种依据越冬率被分为四个抗寒等级,其中来来自大澳大利亚的四个品种聚为一类,都不能在此地区安全越冬。
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  “cold temperature”译为未确定词的双语例句
    A STUDY THE PHYSIOLOGICAL SUSCEPTIBLE PERIOD TO COLD TEMPERATURE AND THE CLIMATIC CRITICAL PERIOD OF THE CHILLINC INJURY OF BARLEY
    大麦冷害的生理敏感期和气候关键期
短句来源
    (2)The results of study on the adaptation of alfalfa in seasonal cold temperature stress showed that the activity of POD SOD and CAT increased firstly then decreased with the decrease of temperature and three kind of enzymes’activity were highest in early winter and decreased in late winter.
    (2)紫花苜蓿对季节性低温的适应性试验结果表明,从夏末到冬季,Travois和Aurova两紫花苜蓿根颈中的POD、SOD、CAT酶活性均随季节温度的降低呈现先上升后下降的趋势,在初冬达到顶峰,进入冬季后酶活性下降。 从夏末到初冬,Travois、Aurova苜蓿的SOD活性分别增加了139.60%、112.73%。
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  cold temperature
Improvements in cold temperature hydrocarbon emissions would also be beneficial in many parts of Europe during the winter months.
      
The DEAE-dextran induced microtubules are stable to cold temperature (4°) and calcium.
      
We observed that the rubber polymer core of the rubber particles was still malleable at this extremely cold temperature, and the core stretched substantially during separation of the fracture planes.
      
While UV-C stress caused a general increase in substance formation, cold temperature stress resulted in a strong activation of barbatic acid biosynthesis.
      
Based on results of a former study in 2005, this investigation aimed at quantifying UV- and cold temperature stress-induced changes within the secondary metabolite production of the cultured mycobiont of the lichen Heterodea muelleri (Hampe) Nyl.
      
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Cold injury which influence riee production in different rice growing countries oc- curs at various growth stages.The degree of cold injury depends on the air or water temperature,the cropping pattern,the growth stage of the rice and other factors.It is generally aeeepted that cold tolerance of rice at one stage is different from another stage.However,Okabe and Toriyama reported that varieties seem to respond simi- larly to cold temperature at different growth stages.Some varieties have been found to be...

Cold injury which influence riee production in different rice growing countries oc- curs at various growth stages.The degree of cold injury depends on the air or water temperature,the cropping pattern,the growth stage of the rice and other factors.It is generally aeeepted that cold tolerance of rice at one stage is different from another stage.However,Okabe and Toriyama reported that varieties seem to respond simi- larly to cold temperature at different growth stages.Some varieties have been found to be tolerant at different growth stages. The purpose of this experiment is to find whether cold tolerance scores at different growth stages of different kinds of riee are correlated or not.

从国际水稻研究所种质库取得50个水稻品种,其中包括粳型品种12个,釉稻18个,爪哇型品种10个,釉×粳杂种3个,以及野生稻7个。在芽期、苗期、移栽期、孕穗期、开花期,进行了耐冷性的测定。结果指出,在不同的水稻类型中,其耐冷性的次序为:粳稻>爪哇型>秈稻>野生稻。从本实验所采用的有限量的品种来看,在苗期粳型品种的耐冷性比其它类型好;在开花期某些爪哇型品种比粳型品种好;在芽期和苗期之间,以及在芽期和开花期之间,其耐冷性有明显的正相关。在其它时期之间未找到这种相关性。这指出,在特殊地区的低温发生时期的一定生育阶段中,进行筛选是必要的。

Observations were made under the electron microscope on the cytostructural conditions of the microspores that had been subjected to an injurious cold temperature dnring the boot stage in indica rice.The facts revaled from the observations were as follows.When the daily mean temperature in two days was 20℃(max.24℃.min.14℃)the injui-rous effect on the developing microspores was obvious.In the same pollen sac the difference in cyto-structural coditions among the individual developing microspores injured...

Observations were made under the electron microscope on the cytostructural conditions of the microspores that had been subjected to an injurious cold temperature dnring the boot stage in indica rice.The facts revaled from the observations were as follows.When the daily mean temperature in two days was 20℃(max.24℃.min.14℃)the injui-rous effect on the developing microspores was obvious.In the same pollen sac the difference in cyto-structural coditions among the individual developing microspores injured by cold was very great, quite a portion of the microspore cells was distorted or even disintegrated in various degrees , and the vacuoles were especially seriously deformed (destroyed) . In the tapetum the cytoplasm of the cells was also disorganised in various degrees. Finally the outcome of cold injury was an increace in the rate of blighted(empty) grains,i.e.,an increace of 35.1% as against the control.

应用电子显微镜对水稻孕穗期冷害的小孢子和绒毡层进行观察,得到如下结果:日平均温度20℃(最高24℃,最低14℃,持续时间2天),对籼稻品种(晚籼)的小孢子发育已有明显的影响。受低温影响的小孢子个体之间(在同一花粉囊中)的发育形态有很大差异。一部分小孢子的细胞器不同程度被破坏或解体,尤其各种形态的液泡系被破坏,液泡膜收缩,出现龟裂现象。受低温影响在绒毡层细胞的细胞质中,各种细胞器也不同程度被破坏或解体。最后导致空秕率增加,其空秕率比对照增加35.1%.

Young panicles of Hsien rice of cvs.Jinwan no.3and Jaya/233 F_6 at the meiotic stages were treated with GA_310,15 and 20ppm,and ethrel (CPA)600,1000 and 1400ppm.Another set of experiment was pretreated with cold temperature 16 days after spraying treatments with GA_3 and CPA. The result shows that,cold pretreatment together with spraying GA_3 10ppm and CPA 600ppm promoted the induction rate of anther cultured to green plantlets in a great range,cv.Jinwan no.3 gained higher rate of green plantlets...

Young panicles of Hsien rice of cvs.Jinwan no.3and Jaya/233 F_6 at the meiotic stages were treated with GA_310,15 and 20ppm,and ethrel (CPA)600,1000 and 1400ppm.Another set of experiment was pretreated with cold temperature 16 days after spraying treatments with GA_3 and CPA. The result shows that,cold pretreatment together with spraying GA_3 10ppm and CPA 600ppm promoted the induction rate of anther cultured to green plantlets in a great range,cv.Jinwan no.3 gained higher rate of green plantlets through the promotion of callus,while cv.Jaya/233 F_6 abtained higher rate of green plantlets through the accelerated differentiation of green plantlets.

晚籼“金晚3号”和 Jaya/233在减数分裂期喷洒不同浓度的赤霉酸(GA_3 10、15、20ppm)和乙烯利(CPA 600、1000、1400 ppm),部分幼穗结合低温处理,结果表明:单独用低浓度激素处理对“金晚3号”绿苗的诱导有抑制作用。随着浓度提高,绿苗诱导率均有所提高。激素结合低温处理能大幅度提高愈伤组织诱导率,但绿苗分化率普遍降低。而低浓度激素结合低温处理,花粉绿苗诱导率显著提高。激素对“Jaya/233”作用表现则不同。单独用激素处理能大幅度提高愈伤组织诱导率,但不能正常增殖,也未分化绿苗。低温处理愈伤组织能正常增殖,并分化绿苗。而激素结合低温处理能提高愈伤组织的分化力,从而提高花粉绿苗的诱导率。

 
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