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rate of diffusion     
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  扩散速率
     Simulated extraction equations reveal that the rate of diffusion is chief dependent on initial matrix of a plant, which is relevant to temperature, solvent and its size of particles when it is extracted. It is discussed that the conditions in extraction have an influence on coefficients of extraction equations, on its yield rate.
     模拟得到的提取方程揭示了扩散速率主要由植物初始结构决定,初始结构与提取时的温度、溶剂和粒度相关,本文论述了提取条件的变化引起提取方程的系数的变化,进而影响提取率的变化。
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     The results show that the technological key problem of the low-temperature dyeing lies in increasing the uptake of dyes,the rate of diffusion and depressing the initial rate of dyeing.
     摸索了表面活性剂对染料上染量、匀染性和透染性的影响。 论证了低温染色的关键在于提高染料竭染率的同时,抑制初染速率、增加扩散速率,从而为制定蚕丝织物低温染色工艺,提供了一定的理论依据。
短句来源
     A two constant equation could be used to describe unevenness of the energy distribution of Ca 2+ adsorption on the sites of the soil surface. Activation energy (E b *) of Ca 2+ diffusion was calculated by using b value of the rate constant of Parabolic Diffusion Low and increased with increase in acidity, which reflected that the energy barrier to be overcome by Ca 2+ diffusion would rise up and the rate of diffusion in Ca 2+ adsorption decrease accordingly.
     用双常数方程描述Ca2 + 在吸附点位能量分布的不均匀性 ,用扩散速率常数计算的活化能 (Eb )随酸度的增加而增加 ,Ca2 + 扩散需克服的能障加大 ;
短句来源
     It appeared that electrochemical dyeing could not only increase equilibrium up-take of dyes,accelerate the rate of diffusion and reduce active energy of dyeing,but also reduce cost and save energy.
     试验结果表明,在一定电压下,电化学染色技术可以提高还原染料的平衡上染百分率,加快扩散速率,降低染料上染的活化能,降低成本,节约能源。
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  扩散速度
     Through EIP, enterprise can very fine merger inside various kinds of resource, reduce the detached island of information, thus meet the demands of information and increasing and rate of diffusion correctly.
     通过EIP,企业能很好的整合内部各种资源,减少信息孤岛,从而满足对信息以及增长和扩散速度的需求。
短句来源
     Predeformation increase the rate of diffusion in the carbarizing. When predeformation degree is the eptimum (≈30%), the depth of surface layers increases 20%.
     室温形变加速了气体渗碳过程扩散速度,当形变30%最佳变形量,渗层厚度的增加值可达20%。
短句来源
     In this paper, we prove the existence of solution to the martingale problem for infinite dimensional reaetion-diffusion partiele systems with the rate of diffusion being at most linear.
     本文利用有限维逼近的方法证明了一类扩散速度不超过线性的多物种无穷维反应扩散粒子系统鞅解的存在性。
短句来源
     When the RH is lower than 30%,the concentration of the water in the coatings is not sufficient to support the reaction; the reaction rate is lowered to the degree that it is comparable to the rate of diffusion,then the kinetics of the whole process begin to deviate from Fick′s law.
     当RH低于30%时,涂层中水的浓度不足以支持其反应,反应速度降到和扩散速度可相比,此时吸水过程开始偏离Fick第二扩散定律.
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  “rate of diffusion”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Results The diffusion function in RA group wer e significantly obstructed (all P<0.01), the abnormality rate of diffusion w as 6 2.07%, the rate of small airway obstruction was 48.28%, the pulmonary emphysemia was 43.10%, the ventilation function decrease was 32.76%, the obstructive venti latory disturbance was 32.76%, and the restrictive ventilatory functional distur bance was 36.21%.
     结果 RA组弥散功能明显受损(P均 <0 .0 1) ,弥散功能异常率为 62 .0 7% ,小气道阻塞为 48.2 8% ,肺气肿为 43 .10 % ,通气功能减退为 3 2 .76% ,阻塞性通气障碍为 3 2 .76% ,限制性通气障碍为 3 6.2 1%。
短句来源
     The toxicokinetic characterstics of MMH in rabbits was as follows: MMH can be absorbed rapidly and the rate of diffusion crossing skin was very fast.
     实验表明,MMH经家兔皮肤吸收入血快,而透入皮肤更快,存在“皮肤库”;
短句来源
     it can prevent effectively Al from diffusing towards matrix,and slow down the rate of diffusion of Ni,Co from CoCrAlTaY to matrix. Above 1100℃,the morphology of Ti-N film changes from thin foil to particles. Apparently the particle-shaped Ti-N can not prevent Ni,Co from the inter-diffusing between matrix and CoCrAlTaY coating.
     在1100℃时效时,Ti-N镀膜未分解,也不与基材及CoCrAlTaY涂层间发生互扩散,但组织形态由薄膜变为颗粒状,颗粒状Ti-N无法阻止Ni,Co在CoCrAlTaY涂层与基材间的互扩散.
短句来源
     The kinetics of palladium adsorption with a new type resin (P-950) was inves-tigated. The experimental results show that the adsorption of palladium-chloro complex on the resin is controlled by the rate of diffusion through liquid film. The adsorption rate of palladiumdecreased significantly with the increase of HCl concentration.
     研究了P-950哌啶树脂吸附钯的动力学.结果表明,该树脂从氯化物溶液中吸附钯的动力学符合Boyd液膜扩散方程,吸附速率随盐酸浓度的增加而下降;
短句来源
     The binetics of hydration of CPC which consists of tetracalcium phosphate (TECP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) is initially controlled by the surface dissolution of DCPA, and cvcntually controlled by the rate of diffusion through the product layers.
     其水化反应的动力学前期由DCPA的表面溶解控制,后期由通过产物层的扩散控制.
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  rate of diffusion
The rate of diffusion of the electrons in the zone ahead of the shock wave has been measured by means of electromagnetic induction.
      
The field of concentrations and the rate of diffusion toward a drop or particle of arbitrary shape situated in a stream of liquid are determined for the case in which a chemical action of the first order is taking place on the surface.
      
Specific features of the influence exerted by the type of accompanying electrolytes on the rate of diffusion transport of CoCl2 were considered.
      
Analysis of impedance data demonstrates that the adsorption of n-HepOH is mainly limited by the rate of diffusion of organic compound to the electrode surface.
      
It is shown that the rate of immersion clearing of a biological tissue depends on its type and is determined by the rate of diffusion of immersion liquids into the sample.
      
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Rate controlling processes for hydrogen enhanced crack growth in hydrogen, in water and in hydrogen sulfide have been identified for an AISI 4340 steel(tempered at 204℃). For environment-st(?)el system with slow reaction kinetics, e. g., hydrogen-stee Ⅰ and water-steel, crack growth is controlled by the surface reaction. For environment-steel sy(?)tem with fast reaction kinetics, e. g., hydorgen sulfide-steel, the rate controlling process for crack growth is either that of gas phase transport or diffu(?)ion....

Rate controlling processes for hydrogen enhanced crack growth in hydrogen, in water and in hydrogen sulfide have been identified for an AISI 4340 steel(tempered at 204℃). For environment-st(?)el system with slow reaction kinetics, e. g., hydrogen-stee Ⅰ and water-steel, crack growth is controlled by the surface reaction. For environment-steel sy(?)tem with fast reaction kinetics, e. g., hydorgen sulfide-steel, the rate controlling process for crack growth is either that of gas phase transport or diffu(?)ion. At low pressures, the crack growth rate is determined by the rate of transport of gas to the region near the crack tip. At high pressures, the crack growth rate is determined by the rate of diffusion of hydrogen to the embrittling sites adhead of crack tip. The results are discussed in. terms of fracture mechanics experiments, measured surface reaction kinetics, fractographic analysis and data on diffusion, and in relation to models for crack growth.

本文指出AISI 4340钢(204℃回火)在蒸镏水、氢气和硫化氢中氢致裂纹扩展可能的控制步骤。在介质与钢表面反应较慢时,例如在水或氢气中,此阶段裂纹扩展率是受到表面反应所控制.在介质与钢表面反应较快时,例如在硫化氢中,控制步骤在低气压时是气体传播到裂纹尖端;高气压时是氢原子由裂纹表面扩散到脆化区.这种扩展率控制步骤的指证是考虑了断裂力学实验,表面反应动力学、断口分析和氢扩散数据,以及相关的裂纹扩展模型的一致性.

Zinc sulfide and zinc-cadmium sulfide are widely used as host materials for the blue and green phosphors in kinescopes and other color display tubes. To achieve good luminescence yield and efficient deposition of the phosphor on the screen during tube manufacture it is essential to control the shape and the size distribution of the phosphor particles. For zinc sulfide and zinc-cadmium sulfide materials this can be done by carefully controlling the reaction conditions during the preparation. In this work, the...

Zinc sulfide and zinc-cadmium sulfide are widely used as host materials for the blue and green phosphors in kinescopes and other color display tubes. To achieve good luminescence yield and efficient deposition of the phosphor on the screen during tube manufacture it is essential to control the shape and the size distribution of the phosphor particles. For zinc sulfide and zinc-cadmium sulfide materials this can be done by carefully controlling the reaction conditions during the preparation. In this work, the requirements for growth of uniform particles have been investigated. The analysis and experimental results are presented below for zinc-cadmium sulfjde material of composition, Zn0.9Cd0.1S, grown under the prescribed conditions.The material is made by precipitation from water solution, under acid conditions, using the reaction between H2S and a mixture of the ions,Zn2+ and Cd2+ . In making uniform particles, the key element is to maintain very uniform conditions in the reaction vessel. It is important to minimize temperature gradients and concentration gradients, and to avoid convection and stirring during the reaction. The usual procedure for a precipitation reaction of this kind is to introduce H2S gas into the reaction vessel from an external source. This has the disadvantage that it results in strong concentration gradients of reactants and products, and yields non-uniform particles. We avoid this problem by generating the H2S slowly and uniformly, throughout the volume of the reaction vessel, by acid hydrolysis of thio-acetamide, CH3CSNH2, according to the reaction: CH3CSNH2 + H2O→CH3CONH2 + H2SUnder the conditions used, the H2S dissociates into H+ and HS- ions. By analysis of the reaction kinetics, it is shown that it is the HS- ion that actually takes part in the precipitation reaction.The HS- ion reacts with a mixture of Zn+2 and Cd+2 ions. CdS preci- pitates first-because it is much less soluble than ZnS. CdS crystallites grow rapidly, at first, until the initial supersaturation is reduced. After this, the reaction rate is limited by the rate of diffusion of HS- ions. During this stage of growth, multiple nucleation of new crystallites takes place on the surface of the growing particle.X-ray measurements show that the crystal structure and lattice constant are typical for zinc-cadmium sulfide of composition, Zn0.9 Cd0.S. X-ray line broadening shows that the crystallite size is of order 150A. The shape of the particles is perfectly spherical. Each sphere is a polycrystalline aggregate of many small crystallites. By controlling growth time and other conditions it has been possible to make spherical particles having a narrow size distribution for varjous mean sizes Within the range, 3 to 8 microns diameter. Typically, the stardard deviation of the particle size is 5 to 8% of the mean size.The kinetics of particle growth was studied by withdrawing saples from the reaction vessel at various times during growth. The mean particle diameter was then determined, by measuring scanning electron microscope photographs, and plotted as function of time. During the later stages of growth, the diameter grows at a rate proportional to the square root of time. This rate law is characteristic for diffusion limited growth.To be spherical and uniform in size, particles must grow separated from one another and from the walls and bottom of the reaction vessel. By taking account of Brownian motion and sedimentation processes, it is shown how this requirement places limits on the growth time and the size of the reaction vessel.By using standard procedures for activation and firing, the material described above can be made into (Zn, Cd) S:Cu:Al green phosphor that has good cathcdeluminescent efficiency. The efficiency of the spherical particle research material was compared with good quality RCA phosphor starting material, fired and activated identically. For both materials, the luminescent efficiencies were the same, within experimental error, for the same particle size range.

在粉末荧光材料的生产中要特别注意粒度大小的分布,只要用适当的方法就能制备出非常均匀的ZnS和(Zn,Cd)S球形颗粒,这种材料是从水溶液中均相沉淀出来的。在合成过程中要严格保持体系温度的恒定和反应物浓度的均匀一致。下面将讨论(Zn,Cd)S的制备方法和颗粒的物理特性。

This paper deals with the low-temperature dyeing of silk fabric with the pH-controlling agent and surface active agent. The relation between the exhaustion of various acid dyes and the deying temperature has been discussed.The results show that the technological key problem of the low-temperature dyeing lies in increasing the uptake of dyes,the rate of diffusion and depressing the initial rate of dyeing.A method to dye silk fabric with the acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer and surface active agent...

This paper deals with the low-temperature dyeing of silk fabric with the pH-controlling agent and surface active agent. The relation between the exhaustion of various acid dyes and the deying temperature has been discussed.The results show that the technological key problem of the low-temperature dyeing lies in increasing the uptake of dyes,the rate of diffusion and depressing the initial rate of dyeing.A method to dye silk fabric with the acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer and surface active agent at 70℃ is recommended in the paper.

本文添加pH值调节剂和表面活性剂,对蚕丝织物酸性染料低温染色进行了研究。初步探讨了温度与不同结构染料吸尽率的关系。摸索了表面活性剂对染料上染量、匀染性和透染性的影响。论证了低温染色的关键在于提高染料竭染率的同时,抑制初染速率、增加扩散速率,从而为制定蚕丝织物低温染色工艺,提供了一定的理论依据。同时,推荐出一种添加缓冲液醋酸—醋酸钠和匀染剂SZ—841、渗透剂SZ—801的低温(70℃)染色法。

 
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