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   internal debt 在 财政与税收 分类中 的翻译结果: 查询用时:0.007秒
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internal debt
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  “internal debt”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Liang Qichao's Comment on “the Internal Debt of Yuan Shikai's Type”
    梁启超评“袁世凯式公债”
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    With the help of the latest data,analyzing a series of indexes of China′s internal debt and external debt, the article draws a conclusion that the risk of government debt of China has reached a level we could not be blindly optimistic.
    本文用最新的数据分析了我国内外债风险的一系列指标 ,对我国内外债风险做出了一个综合评估 ,结论是我国的政府债务风险不容盲目乐观。
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  internal debt
Weak profitability may also foster the use of internal debt, if it serves to fill additional financing needs caused by low profitability.
      
Within the internal debt aggregate, relative shares have shifted slightly.
      
This pecking order in favour of internal debt can be explained by significant cost savings from the use of the internal capital market.
      
This is realized by modelling in detail the mix of bank and internal debt in affiliates.
      
Second, because of its owner-provided nature, internal debt is very flexible and can easily be renegotiated at low or zero costs.
      
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In the beginning of the twentieth century, Liang Qichao made an extensive research on the history of internal debt which played a special function in the history of the late Qing Dynasty. The “internal debt of Yuan Shikai's type” was defined as a typical instance which answered the question why the local bureaucrats held internal debt eagerly. This paper presents a discussion of Liang's analysis of the internal debts, an analysis which embodied his sober\|minded political consciousness....

In the beginning of the twentieth century, Liang Qichao made an extensive research on the history of internal debt which played a special function in the history of the late Qing Dynasty. The “internal debt of Yuan Shikai's type” was defined as a typical instance which answered the question why the local bureaucrats held internal debt eagerly. This paper presents a discussion of Liang's analysis of the internal debts, an analysis which embodied his sober\|minded political consciousness.

2 0世纪初 ,梁启超系统地探讨了晚清时期举办的国内地方公债的历史。尤其是对“袁世凯式公债”的评析 ,集中披露了地方官僚竞相举借国内公债的真相 ,体现了梁启超在内债问题上的独特思考和清醒的政治意识

Since the implementation of expansionary fiscal policies, we have issued Lots of government bonds, while the scale of external debt has been increasing year after year.With the help of the latest data,analyzing a series of indexes of China′s internal debt and external debt, the article draws a conclusion that the risk of government debt of China has reached a level we could not be blindly optimistic. Based on the above analysis and with the experience of other countries for reference,the article...

Since the implementation of expansionary fiscal policies, we have issued Lots of government bonds, while the scale of external debt has been increasing year after year.With the help of the latest data,analyzing a series of indexes of China′s internal debt and external debt, the article draws a conclusion that the risk of government debt of China has reached a level we could not be blindly optimistic. Based on the above analysis and with the experience of other countries for reference,the article puts forward some policy advice to cut down the level of risk of government debt.

自实行积极的财政政策以来 ,我国已发行了大量国债 ,同时外债规模也逐年增加。本文用最新的数据分析了我国内外债风险的一系列指标 ,对我国内外债风险做出了一个综合评估 ,结论是我国的政府债务风险不容盲目乐观。在以上的分析基础之上以及借鉴国外经验教训 ,对化解政府债务风险提出了一些政策建议。

Public debt, which had had profound influences on the finance and banking as well as economy of all Chinese governments before 1949, was obviously a very important problem in China's modern history of economy. Researches into China's external public debt have been started early enough in the academic community that a lot of related scientific achievements have been scored. On the contrary, however, there have been few special or systematic researches regarding the public debt in modern China. So, it is highly...

Public debt, which had had profound influences on the finance and banking as well as economy of all Chinese governments before 1949, was obviously a very important problem in China's modern history of economy. Researches into China's external public debt have been started early enough in the academic community that a lot of related scientific achievements have been scored. On the contrary, however, there have been few special or systematic researches regarding the public debt in modern China. So, it is highly necessary to enhance the said researches. The public or internal debt in question means the total amount of money borrowed by all the previous central governments of modern China or by local governments with the approval of the central government, including (1) public bonds issued by the Ministry of Finance, those issued by the Ministry of Railways, Ministry of Communication and the Commission of Construction as well as some other relevant departments of the central government, and (2) government bonds and treasury bonds as well as debts based on contracts and agreements. While researches on China's internal debt started as early as the 1930s were far form being perfect, those that have been conducted by contemporary scholars are just oriented towards historical periods and special subjects. So far little has been achieved in terms of comprehensive researches. Scholars failed to pay due attention to the researches during the long period from the founding of new China through the 1980s, in which was published only one monograph entitled Materials Regarding the History of Old China's Public Debt (translated name) compiled by Qian Jiaju. It was not until after the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the CPC that scholars began to show interest in researches into the history of modern China's internal debt. With the researches deepening, they have tended to reach objective and fair conclusions. For example, Jin Pusen, who made a more active and impartial judgment of the prewar (19371945) 10year policies regarding the internal debt of the then government than ever before. He appraised the policies positively while pinpointing its class limitations. From the 1930s on, certain progress was made in this regard, which provides a good foundation for the further research on this topic. Nevertheless, there have ever since been quite a few problems and weaknesses that deserve attention, mainly including: Firstly, as Wu Jingping pointed out, although the internal debt is part of the contents of all almost textbooks on modern Chinese history and contemporary Chinese history, works on the periodic history of the Republic of China, and other textbooks and monographs on the history of economy, finance, or banking, there is a lack of systematic and special researches except for the abovementioned book by Qian Jiaju. Secondly, there is a tendency of doing researches out of context. Instead, they should be carried out in the broader context  the then political, economic and financial context  according to the fundamental Marxist principles on productive forces and relations of production, and the economic base and the superstructure. We should, through political and economic criticism, judge the nature and use of the internal debt and find out the different characteristics of modern China's internal debt from those of the capitalist internal debt and socialist China's internal debt. For example, modern China's internal debt contributed to the survival and consolidation of the governments; it was chiefly for a nonproductive purpose; it became one of the causes for the lopsided development of the banking industry; and it was known for its bad credit. Thirdly, The research area is limited. We should expand the research area, including not merely the rules on the issuance of government loans but also their uses. In fact, the object of the study of internal debt also includes direct loans, secured loans, etc. Lastly, it is a tough challenge to take in making an analysis of modern China's internal debt

自20世纪30年代以来,关于近代中国内债史的研究已经取得了一定的成绩,但也存在着一些值得注意的问题,主要有四:(1)迫切需要对近代中国内债问题作一个系统、专门的研究,使相关的专著能早日面世;(2)必须联系近代中国的政治、经济和军事的发展来研究近代中国内债;(3)应该拓宽近代中国内债史的研究领域,深化研究的层面;(4)应运用现代公债理论来分析近代中国内债史,为今天国债政策的制定提供借鉴。

 
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