Annual monetary genetic gain and discounted profit were used to evaluate alternative breeding strategies. On the base of analyzing the expected breeding effects of current breeding scheme, the following factors which affect annual monetary genetic gain and discounted profit are considered: size of population, structure of breeding system, pattern of use of seedstock, and risk of inbreeding.

To find the optimum breeding scheme, optimum analysis considered that better annual monetary genetic gain and discounted profit could be reached as the proportion of nucleus vs. reproduction vs. production herd were varied 7-9 vs.11-13 vs. 80 percent, the proportion of nucleus does imported from reproduction flock should be less than 20 percent.

Annual monetary genetic gain and breeding profit were used to evaluate alternative breeding strategies. On the base of analyzing the expected breeding effects of current breeding scheme, the following factors which affect annual monetary genetic gain and discounted profit are considered: size of population, structure of breeding system, pattern of use of seedstock.

The first step is simulating the integrated breeding system through the profit equations for each genetic group,and calculate the basic discounted profit of the whole system.

Customer lifetime value is the present value of discounted profit contributed by customers who keep relationship with an enterprise,It contains current value,future value,economic value,noneconomic value.

We give two models for which the optimal admission and scheduling policy for maximizing expected discounted profit is determined by a threshold structure on the number of customers of each type in the system.

Each player maximizes his total discounted profit over the planning horizon.

In this paper, we use the Q-learning algorithm for RL to arrive at optimal dynamic prices that optimize the seller's performance metric (either long term discounted profit or long run average profit per unit time).

We consider the problem of a firm which seeks the maximum discounted profit from theoffer of a seasonal product on the market.

The firm invests in these two stages in order to maximize the multi-period, discounted profit.

A systematic method of evaluating breeding objectives of animals is proposed,which incorporates the methodology of system analysis with the principle of marginal method.The first step is simulating the integrated breeding system through the profit equations for each genetic group,and calculate the basic discounted profit of the whole system.The marginal return for each trait in all lines,which is defined as the increment of total profit when the trait value increases by one unit of genetic standard...

A systematic method of evaluating breeding objectives of animals is proposed,which incorporates the methodology of system analysis with the principle of marginal method.The first step is simulating the integrated breeding system through the profit equations for each genetic group,and calculate the basic discounted profit of the whole system.The marginal return for each trait in all lines,which is defined as the increment of total profit when the trait value increases by one unit of genetic standard variation,is calculated on the basis of genetic variation,economic value of the trait and genetic correlation with other traits.Finally,the relative breeding importance and economic weights of traits can be derived.The principle is applied to simulate a three-way integrated crossbreeding system of egg-type chickens and to evaluate the breeding objectives.Eight genetic groups with different backgrounds and breeding roles are defined.A set of Profit equations are established to feature the bioeconomic characteristics for the groups and to execute system simulation.The relative breeding importance and the relative body weight(BW),livability in growing period (VR),livability in laying period(VL) fertility (FY),hatch ability (HA) and feed consumption (FC) in laying period in 3 pure lines are evaluated individually.The results indicates that EW VR and EN, are the most important breeding traits in three lines respectively.Most traits show substantial different breeding importance in different lines.And this suggests that specialized lines with different emphasis be selected with respotivc selection index,so that these lines could be developed coordinately within the integrated system.

We consider a serial production system with machine breakdowns, where the machine at each station alternates between up and down states with exponential up and down time distributions. To obtain insight about the optimal production strategy, we focus on one production station. Its production process (output) and that of the previous station (input) are modeled by point processes with stochastic intensities. Our objectives is to control both input and output intensities such that expected discounted profit...

We consider a serial production system with machine breakdowns, where the machine at each station alternates between up and down states with exponential up and down time distributions. To obtain insight about the optimal production strategy, we focus on one production station. Its production process (output) and that of the previous station (input) are modeled by point processes with stochastic intensities. Our objectives is to control both input and output intensities such that expected discounted profit is maximized. We show that the optimal control policy is of a threshold type which is characterized by two threshold values.When each station in the serial system has reliable machines, the well known Kanban production strategy, which was first developed in Toyota Motor Co. of Japan, is usually used to control the production process at each station. Our result in this paper implies that, among other things, the traditional Kanban control rule has to be modified if the production environment is random.

Customer lifetime value is the present value of discounted profit contributed by customers who keep relationship with an enterprise,It contains current value,future value,economic value,noneconomic value.This paper carefully analyes customer lifetime value and poses relationship types related to customers,retalionship strategy and focal point,and hope give some reference to enterprise's customer relation ship management practices.