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correction of defect
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     Multigrid Iteration with Defect Correction
     带有亏量校正的多重网格迭代
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     CORRECTION
     一点修正
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     The Basic Defect of Chinese Traditional Culture and Its Correction
     中国传统文化的根本缺陷及其救治
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objective:To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of tympanoplasty and the clinical prospects with compostie tragal cartilage perichondria autograft(CTCPA)in tympanoplasty.Methods:50 patients received tympanoplasty by CTCPA,including reconstruction of the tympanic membrane(TM)and ossicular chain,obliteration in mastoid cavity,correction of defects in the attic wall and the posterior canal wall.Results:94% of the TM perforation was successfully treated.The...

objective:To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of tympanoplasty and the clinical prospects with compostie tragal cartilage perichondria autograft(CTCPA)in tympanoplasty.Methods:50 patients received tympanoplasty by CTCPA,including reconstruction of the tympanic membrane(TM)and ossicular chain,obliteration in mastoid cavity,correction of defects in the attic wall and the posterior canal wall.Results:94% of the TM perforation was successfully treated.The audiometric date are presented as a 3 frequency(500,1000,2000 Hz)purtone average air bone gap.At 6 months postoperations,a air bone gap of less than or equal to 20 dBHL was achieved in 83.7% (41 ears),and less than or equal to 10 dBHL in 55.1%(27 ears).The hearing was elevated 22 dBHL in average.hearing decrease and tympanic membrane retraction were not found during the follow up period for six months to four years.Conclusion:CTCPA can effectively prevent retraction pockets and improve hearing.Composite tragal cartilage perichondria should be an ideal material for tympanoplasty.

目的 :了解自体耳屏软骨 -软骨膜复合移植在鼓室成形术中的可行性和应用前景。方法 :利用自体耳屏软骨 -软骨膜复合移植修补鼓膜穿孔、上鼓室外侧壁、耳道后壁鼓室成形术 50例。结果 :50例中 47例移植物成活 ,成功率为 94% ;术后 6个月语言频率气骨导间距≤ 1 0 d BHL 2 7例 ,占 55.1 % ;气骨导间距≤ 2 0 d BHL 41例 ,占 83.7% ;气导平均提高 2 2 d BHL。术后 6个月至 4 a随访 ,未发现听力回降及鼓膜回缩。结论 :自体耳屏软骨 -软骨膜复合移植鼓室成形术后听力改善明显 ,移植易成活。移植物中软骨的弹性和硬度不影响术后听力提高 ,且对术后鼓膜有一定的支撑作用 ,因而对防止术后鼓膜回缩、听骨粘连 ,提高鼓室成形术远期效果有一定作用

Objective To summarize our clinical experiences of application of tissue expansion in repair of facial cutaneous lesions. Methods Tissue expanders of 50~400ml in size were implanted beneath the skin adjacent to cutaneous lesions. One to four months after periodically injecting normal saline solution into the expander to slowly expand the overlaying skin, the expander was taken out, and the expanded skin was used to form local flaps to resurface the skin defect due to removing of facial lesions. Results...

Objective To summarize our clinical experiences of application of tissue expansion in repair of facial cutaneous lesions. Methods Tissue expanders of 50~400ml in size were implanted beneath the skin adjacent to cutaneous lesions. One to four months after periodically injecting normal saline solution into the expander to slowly expand the overlaying skin, the expander was taken out, and the expanded skin was used to form local flaps to resurface the skin defect due to removing of facial lesions. Results Twenty-one in 23 cases underwent successful expanded flap correction of defects after lesion removing, with maximal defect being 8cm by 11cm in size. One case presented expander exposure 53 days after surgery, thus the expander was taken out and the skin lesion was removed and resurfaced with expanded flap in addition to splitting skin grafting. Extensive facial scar in another case was corrected with twice sequential expansion. Conclusion Skin expansion is a good choice for correction of defects due to facial cutaneous lesion removing. Splitting skin grafting and sequential skin expansion are necessary when defect is too large to correct or expanded flap is not large enough.

目的:总结应用皮肤扩张术修复面部皮肤病损的临床经验。方法:Ⅰ期手术选用50~400ml容量的扩张器埋植于面部病损邻近皮肤正常区域的皮下层,注水扩张1~4个月;Ⅱ期切除面部病损,运用扩张皮瓣修复皮肤缺损。结果:23例中,21例面部病损切除后利用扩张皮肤形成局部皮瓣一次完成修复,修复后的皮肤质地和色泽与受区接近,外形满意。一次修复缺损创面最大者约8cm×11cm。1例于Ⅰ期手术后53天扩张器外露,提前取出扩张器形成局部皮瓣加植皮修复,效果良好;1例为较大面积的面部扁平瘢痕,第一次扩张后仍残留1/4瘢痕,经二次扩张遂完全切除瘢痕并修复。结论:运用皮肤扩张术修复面部病损切除后的皮肤缺损是一种较为理想的修复方法,在某些特殊情况下,可能还需要辅助植皮或应用连续扩张法完成修复。

>=The reliability analysis is aimed at prevention、 discovery and correction of defects .This article expounds the theoratical basis is provided for the later reliability test by setting up the reliability model of products and making the distribution of reliability during the initial period of analysising.

可靠性分析以预防、发现和纠正缺陷为目标。本文通过在设计初期建立产品可靠性模型,进行可靠性分配,为以后可靠性试验提供理论依据。

 
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