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female parent
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  母本
     S47 and S134 could produce S47-700 and S134-1200,the characteristic bands of the female parent;
     S47和S134产生母本特征带S47-700 和S134-1200;
短句来源
     Only 3 variants at Glu-1 loci out of 36 lines whose female parent was A42912 were found,Furthermore,Variation frequency of Glu-1 loci in 1B/1R lines was 60.0%.
     在36个母本为A 42912株系中,3个株系的G lu-1等位基因发生变异且这3个株系皆为1 B/1 R易位系,1 B/1 R易位系中G lu-1位点发生变异的频率为60.0%,非1 B/1 R易位系G lu-1位点没有变异;
短句来源
     The maximum reproduction yield can be gained when the female parent dentist is 11×104/667 m2.Spraying 2 g/667 m2 GA in 50% spikes presenting period is good to reproduction yield and the female outcross seed set.
     当母本密度为11×104株/667 m2时,繁殖产量最高,抽穗50%时喷施2g/667 m2的赤霉素,对繁殖产量和母本异交结实都起一定的作用。
短句来源
     1. The SDS-PAGE of HMW-GS 7+8 and 17+18 was same as female parent in F1 of the cross combination between Ganchun 20 and Yonliang 4. But it was codominance in the cross combination between Yonliang 4 and Ganchun 20.
     1、以甘春20号为母本时,高分子量麦谷蛋白7+8亚基和17+18亚基在杂种F_1代的表现与母本相同,以永良4号为母本杂交时表现为共显性;
短句来源
     as to heredity of the heavy of fruit and the length of carpopodium, HS-22 makes female parent be superior to HS-20。
     对于果重、果柄长度遗传而言,HS-22 作母本优于HS-20。
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  “female parent”译为未确定词的双语例句
     In the crosses which 6442S was used as the female parent,the proportions of the additive effect and dominant effect showed high value,with the heritabilities ranged from 73.3% to 99.2%,and there existed polygene heritability in the crosses 6442S/Xinlu B,6442S/R402 and 6442S/1990,with the least value of 0.83% and the highest one 35.5%.
     以6442S为母本的组合中,加性效应和显性效应比重都较高,但它们的基因遗传率变化幅度较大,达73.32%~99.17%,其中组合6442S/新露B和6442S/R402、6442S/1990存在多基因遗传,多基因遗传率最小为0.83%,最高达35.52%;
短句来源
     Bran of wheat, KH2PO4 and MgSO4 wereadded in PDA as female parent culture medium.
     母种培养基为PDA中添加麦麸、KH_2PO_4和MgSO_4;
短句来源
     In the crosses which 1290S acted as the female parent,the genetic effect of cross 1290S/1990 was predominant on additive effect and dominant effect,whereas cross 1290S/Xinlu B on epistasis effect,and the heritabilities of the two crosses were over 94%.
     以1290S为母本的两个组合中,1290S/1990的遗传效应偏重于加性效应和显性效应,1290S/新露B偏重于上位性效应遗传,它们的遗传率均达94%以上;
短句来源
     Oviparous, 6 eggs laid in June, mean length ± SD = 15.47 ± 0.87 mm, range 14.2~16.6, mean width ±SD=9.32±0.32 mm, range 9.0~9.9. Eggs-guarding behavior by female parent.
     卵生,6月份产卵,每次6枚,平均长径±SD=15.47±0.87mm,平均短径±SD=9.32±0.32mm。 雌体有护卵行为。
短句来源
     The results indicate that the optimum row ratio of male parent to female parent is 1∶4~6;
     结果表明 ,宁杂 1号制种亲本行比以 1∶ 4~6为宜 ;
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  female parent
The frequency of the transmission of allele Adh-P+ through male gametes depends on the genotype of the female parent and the conditions of pollination.
      
chilense as female parent and therefore they exhibit H.
      
red petal-purple spot and strong fibre) and female parent (plant type, earliness, white fibre, lint length, etc.) were established.
      
timopheevii as a female parent was crossed to common wheat.
      
With 33 primer combinations, a total of 455 markers (225 from the female parent and 230 from the male parent) segregated in a 1:1 ratio, corresponding to DNA polymorphism: heterozygous in one parent and null in the other.
      
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(The Kiangsu Affiliated Academy of the Chinese,Academy of Agricultural Sciences)Hybrid vigour in cotton has been reported by a number of workers.Most of them dealtwith interspecific hybrids.They were mostly marked with an increase in plant growth,especially in the F_1 crosses of American Upland × Sea-island and American Upland × Egyptiancotton.In order to study the possibility of producing an extra long fibre cotton in the Yang-tze basin and the Hwangho Plain by making use of hybrid vigour,the following problemswere...

(The Kiangsu Affiliated Academy of the Chinese,Academy of Agricultural Sciences)Hybrid vigour in cotton has been reported by a number of workers.Most of them dealtwith interspecific hybrids.They were mostly marked with an increase in plant growth,especially in the F_1 crosses of American Upland × Sea-island and American Upland × Egyptiancotton.In order to study the possibility of producing an extra long fibre cotton in the Yang-tze basin and the Hwangho Plain by making use of hybrid vigour,the following problemswere investigated at Nanking,Kiangsu during 1959-1962.(1)Combining ability between different interspecific crosses with special reference toyield,earliness and fibre qualities.(2)Morphological and physiological characters of economic importance in F_1 hybrids.(3)Performance of promising hybrids in field production.(4)Method of producing hybrid seeds with cheaper cost and less labour.Fifty-nine combinations were studied from 1960 to 1962,among which Pong-zai No.1(Upland cotton)×L.S.4923(Sea-island)was the best in yield and earliness.The averageyield of this F_1 hybrid in three years with 178 kg.of seed cotton or 53.7 kg.of lint cotton permow.As compared with the parents it was 94.35% of seed cotton or 82.2% of lint cotton ofthe yield of Delta-upland cotton and 187.17% of seed cotton or 172.74% of lint cotton of theyield of Sea-island L.S.4923.The fibre quality of F_1 hybrids approached Sea-island parent with a mean fibre length of40 m.m.,mean fibre fineness of 7000 meters per gram wt.,and single fibre strength of 4.5g.The methods and procedures for producing commercial hybrid cotton seed were as follows:(1)Hybrid F_0's seed was produced by hand emasculation and pollination which was ofvalue in areas abundant with hand-labor or adapted to transplanting for saving seeds up to4/5.(2)The female parent with recessive markers,was pollinated by hand without emascula-tion.In the thinning of the hybrid progeny all recessive plants were removed,leaving onlythe true F_1's.The recessive characters used for markers were virescent yellow foliage,redstem and hairy petiole of the seedling.The percentage of hybrid seed setting for differentupland cotton varieties ranged from 13% to 78%.Observations on heterosis in the characters of F_1 hybrids of G.hirsutum×G.barbadensewere summarized as follows:Plant Characters Comparison of bybrid with Upland and Seaisland parentsDays from planting to seedling Earlier than either parentDays from budding to flowering Intermediate nearer to earlier UplandDays from seedling to boll maturity Intermediate nearer to late Sea-island Days of bud development Intermediate nearer to earlier UplandDays of boll development Longer than Sea-islandDays from seedling to first boll maturity IntermediatePlant height Taller than either parentNumber of monopodia Less than either parent,but approaching Up landNumber of sympodia More than either parentNumber of fruiting points per plant More than either parentPosition of main stem nodes where first fruiting branch appears Lower than either parentInternode length of axis Longer than either parentInternode length of fruiting branch Longer than either parentPetiole length Longer than either parentLeaf area Larger than either parentLeaf lobe index Intermediate,approaching Sea-islandShedding percentage IntermediateDistribution of bolls in different parts of the plant Approaching Sea-island,most bolls setting at middle and upper parts of the plantWeight of seed cotton per boll IntermediateNumber of ovules per boll Approaching Sea-island in a lower numberMotes percentage More than either parentPistil length IntermediateCorolla area and index Larger than either parentSeed index Larger than either parentLint index IntermediateMaturity Intermediate,approaching late Sea-islandFibre length Longer than either parentFibre fineness Approaching Sea-islandYield in seed cotton Approaching Upland,higher than Sea-islandYield in lint cotton Lower than Upland,higher than Sea-islandProduction of dry matter More than either parentProduction of dry matter per square meter of leaf area More

1959—1962年试验证明,海陆杂种一代具有早熟、丰产、优质的特性。海陆杂种一代的籽棉产量接近陆地棉,而显著高于海岛棉。成熟期较海岛棉早,比陆地棉偏迟。生育特性一般介于两亲之间,不同程度的偏向于海岛棉,有的特性超过两亲范围以外。纤维细长,强度高,可以制成高挡纺织品。在江苏各地示范试种结果良好。在制种技术方面研究证明,采用具有某一隐性指示性状,进行不去雄杂交(人工辅助授粉),杂交率达70%,每工作日可制种6—8斤。

This paper deals with the genetic behaviour and breeding practice of the interspecific hybridsbetween G.hirsutum and G.arboreum obtained in 1944 and 1952.The main results are pre-sented as follows:1.The pollen grains of the Asiatic cotton germinate slowly on the stigma of the Uplandcotton.The growth of pollen tubes is slow and their female and male gametes are incom-patible at fertilization.Generally only a few ovules were fertilized within a boll.Owing tothe fact that the production of the nutritive substances...

This paper deals with the genetic behaviour and breeding practice of the interspecific hybridsbetween G.hirsutum and G.arboreum obtained in 1944 and 1952.The main results are pre-sented as follows:1.The pollen grains of the Asiatic cotton germinate slowly on the stigma of the Uplandcotton.The growth of pollen tubes is slow and their female and male gametes are incom-patible at fertilization.Generally only a few ovules were fertilized within a boll.Owing tothe fact that the production of the nutritive substances was inadequate to meet with the re-quirement of the normal development of the boll,it is difficult to obtain hybrids.In orderto promote the boll setting,pollinated maternal pollen grains ware applied on the stigmatawhich had been pollinated with paternal pollen grains several hours before.In this way,wegot the interspecific hybrids. 2.The interspecifie hybrids between these two species are physiologically abnormal.Thehybrids are highly sterile,either by selfing or by back crossing.The pollen grains of theUpland or Asiatic cotton may germinate on the stigma of the F_1 hybrids and the growing rateof their pollen tubes is also normal.Abnormality of the ovules may be the main cause forabortion.Most of the hybrid ovules have no embryo sacs.Occasionally a few ovules fertilized,but aborted during the development of embryoes.The chromosome number of the pollen mothercells of the F_1 hybrid,in general,is 39,or occasionally 52.The chromosome behaviour isirregular in meiosis,forming not only quartets,but also micronuclei.The percentage ofapparently well developed pollen grains is only 7.1% most of which are inviable too.The back-crosses either with the Upland or the Asiatic cotton as recurrent parent with F_1 hybrids aspollen parents are also with difficulty,because their pollen grains are highly abortive.3.The suitable concentration of sucrose in agar medium for artificial germination ofcotton pollen grains varies with cotton species:G.arboreum,34-35%,the Upland cotton,37-40%,and the Sea Island cotton,37-39%.4.By treating the mixed solution of 38% sucrose and a small amount of vitamin B1 onthe stigma of the F1 hybrid,the fertilization and development of the ovules may be promoted.The formation of the abcission layer of the stalk may be inhibited by the treatment of 5 p.p.m.2, 4-D linolin paste.By using the forementioned treatments,the fruiting percentage of theF_1 hybrids backcrossed with the Upland cotton rise up to 4.19%,even though there is only afew bolls with one mature seed,quite a number of them are seedless.Alternatively,by meansof repeated pollination,the fruiting percentage was 0.19%,and seeds are obtained.By usingG.arboreum L.as recurrent parent in backcrosses with the F_1 hybrids,the fruiting percentagerises up to 9.16%,but no seed has ever been obtained.5.For the purpose of improving the lint length and Ginning percentage,it is importantto choose the recurrent parent in the backcross with the F_1 hybrid.It may be ineffective forincreasing the number of backcrosses.6.The range of segregation of the lint length and ginning percentage of the backcrossprogeny,is wider in using F_1 hybrids as female parent than as males.Thus,it should beconcerned for selection of higher lint length and gining percentage.7.In the progeny of the interspecific hybrid of 1944 Combination,individual plants withgood economic characters were observed,such as lint length 41.3 mm.,ginning percentage 41.9%,hairiness,disease resistant,and early maturity,etc.By applying repeated selection of in-dividual plant,four desirable new strains were obtained:“Long Fibre No. 2,”“NankingCotton No.25,”“1003-7,”and “5161-2.”The characteristics of the “Long Fibre No.2”areearly maturity,long lint,single boll weight 5.28g.,fibre length 36 mm.,ginning percentage 31%,lint index 5.22g.,seed index 11.48g..The corresponding characters of the other varieties are:“Nanking Cotton No.25”:5.54g.,30-32 mm.,37-39%, 6.51g.,10.04g;“1003-7”:5.8g.,31,5mm.,38.6-39.18%,6.56g.,10.48g.;“5161-2”:5.20g.,30.31 mm.,39-39.7%,6.80g.,10.76g,respectively.

1.对陆地棉与中棉的杂种第一代和克服杂种第一代的不孕性进行研究,初步找出了不孕的原因和克服办法,为创造种间杂种,丰富育种材料,提供了可能。2.种间杂种遗传基础复杂,与具有优良性状多的陆地棉品种回交,获得许多超越亲本性状的新类型,可以选育出丰产、优质、抗病性强等的新品系。3.杂种第一代花粉母细胞染色体数,在同一花蕾上就有所不同,说明受精卵细胞在分裂的过程中已不正常,每一细胞的染色体数也不尽相同。

The F_1 hybrid plant between Oryza sativa L.and Pennisetum sp.was obtained by Teng Yen Tang in 1958.In many morphological characters the hybrid appears to be superior to the parental plants,such as the culms are taller,the leaves are comparatively longer and broader,and the spikes are apparently much larger.However,the form of the spikes of the hybrid plant is spreading type which resembles that of the mother plant. In general,the hybrid plant bears a close resemblance to the female parent,though its spikelets...

The F_1 hybrid plant between Oryza sativa L.and Pennisetum sp.was obtained by Teng Yen Tang in 1958.In many morphological characters the hybrid appears to be superior to the parental plants,such as the culms are taller,the leaves are comparatively longer and broader,and the spikes are apparently much larger.However,the form of the spikes of the hybrid plant is spreading type which resembles that of the mother plant. In general,the hybrid plant bears a close resemblance to the female parent,though its spikelets produce conspicuous long awns which must be inherited from the pollen plant. The F_1 hybrid is almost completely sterile,for it only occasionally produces one or two grains in open condition.Owing to the high regenerating feature,the hybrid plant has been successfully cultivated by vegetative propagation. In a majority of cases,megaspores have been observed to degenerate in rather early stages.More than half of the ovaries examined thus lack embryo-sac formation,they seem to grow parthenocarpically to some extent before degeneration sets in.Embryo- sacs have also been observed to degenerate sooner or later after their formation.In a well formed embryo-sac,when it does occur,the normal three successive mitoses of the nucleus of the embryo-sac mother cell do not occur regularly,and the matured embryo- sac which results,lacks some of its apparatuses.In some cases,the apparatuses differen- tiate in abnormal way.The number of the polar nuclei may be more than two,that of the antipodals is,sometimes,less than three,and the egg apparatus may be composed of four cells instead of three.It is apparently that the apparatuses of the embryo-sac produced in such abnormal manner are functionless.In other cases,the sac loculus of an enlarged ovary has been found to contain nothing but liquid.Only in very rare cases,the for- mation of the embryo-sac and the differentiation of the apparatuses have been carried through in the proper manner. The chromosome number of Oryza sativa L.is n=12 and that of Pennisetum sp. is n=9.Both the somatic and the gametic chromosome numbers of the F_1 hybrid are variable and they generally do not correspond to the sum of the reduced chromosome numbers of the parents,unlike what they usually do in the intergeneric hybrids raised from other cereals as reported by many investigators.In meiosis of the hybrid,the chromosome behavior is very irregular,different numbers of uivilents and bivalents have been counted in different pollen mother cells,and one or two trivalents may also be pre- sent in some of the pollen mother cells.The trivalents are often V-shaped,but some- times they are chain-shaped.A number of lagging chromosomes have been met with at metaphases and anaphases of both first and second meiotic divisions.During the forma- tion of the restitution nuclei the laggards are often excluded,but they do not form micronuclei.In both heterotypic and homotypic meiotic divisions the spindle formation is regular.There is no unequal division of the pollen mother cell.Multipolar spindle and multispindle are not present,and finally normal tetrads result.However,the tetrads do not develop further and most of them soon degenerate.There is only a small number of floulets in the anthers of which a few fertile pollens have been observed.It is evident that all the irregularities occurred in the course of embryo-sac formation and differentia- tion together with the breakdown of the meiotic cycle in the pollen mother cells are the causes of the sterility of the F_1 hybrid plant.

1.本工作对于邓炎棠所获得的水稻北陆12-狼尾草杂种 F_1不孕植株进行了细胞学观察,附带对于胚囊的形成及雌配子体的分化作了简单的描述。2.在孕穗期固定的材料中观察到多数大孢子在形成过程中即退化而不能发育成胚囊。一些已形成的胚囊中没有细胞而也呈退化现象。雌配子体大多数不能正常分化为卵器、极核与反足细胞,或能分化而细胞的数目不正常,有时卵器中助细胞与卵细胞不能区分。在有一些情况下子房膨大而胚囊中充满了液体。仅在少数情况下观察到雌配子体的正常发育。3.母本水稻的染色体为 n=12,父本狼尾草的染色体为 n=9,而杂种 F_1的体细胞染色体变化在12—42之间,而在花粉母细胞中的染色体则变化在12—20之间,但也有多至30余者。4.在减数分裂中期Ⅰ及Ⅱ和后期Ⅰ及Ⅱ都经常看到有大量落后的染色体。在后期Ⅰ及Ⅱ偶然也遇到染色体桥。在末期Ⅰ及Ⅱ或甚至在形成四分孢子时仍经常观察到遗留在核外的染色体。但并不形成小核。5.在减数分裂的两次分裂中纺锺体的形成都是正常的,没有发现细胞的不等分裂,多极纺锺体或多纺锺体等现象。四分体的形成同样也是正常的,没有发现二分体或五分体等的形成。但是,小孢子形成后,其核大多数不能分裂,因而产生了败...

1.本工作对于邓炎棠所获得的水稻北陆12-狼尾草杂种 F_1不孕植株进行了细胞学观察,附带对于胚囊的形成及雌配子体的分化作了简单的描述。2.在孕穗期固定的材料中观察到多数大孢子在形成过程中即退化而不能发育成胚囊。一些已形成的胚囊中没有细胞而也呈退化现象。雌配子体大多数不能正常分化为卵器、极核与反足细胞,或能分化而细胞的数目不正常,有时卵器中助细胞与卵细胞不能区分。在有一些情况下子房膨大而胚囊中充满了液体。仅在少数情况下观察到雌配子体的正常发育。3.母本水稻的染色体为 n=12,父本狼尾草的染色体为 n=9,而杂种 F_1的体细胞染色体变化在12—42之间,而在花粉母细胞中的染色体则变化在12—20之间,但也有多至30余者。4.在减数分裂中期Ⅰ及Ⅱ和后期Ⅰ及Ⅱ都经常看到有大量落后的染色体。在后期Ⅰ及Ⅱ偶然也遇到染色体桥。在末期Ⅰ及Ⅱ或甚至在形成四分孢子时仍经常观察到遗留在核外的染色体。但并不形成小核。5.在减数分裂的两次分裂中纺锺体的形成都是正常的,没有发现细胞的不等分裂,多极纺锺体或多纺锺体等现象。四分体的形成同样也是正常的,没有发现二分体或五分体等的形成。但是,小孢子形成后,其核大多数不能分裂,因而产生了败育的花粉粒。仅在极少数花的花药中见到正常的花粉粒。6.正常发育的雌雄配子非常少,因而导致了杂种 F_1植株的高度不孕性。

 
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