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modulus of runoff
相关语句
  径流模数
     Then water inflow in tunnel is forecasted using groundwater dynamics and groundwater modulus of runoff.
     然后利用地下水动力学法、地下水径流模数法对隧道开挖涌水量进行了预测。
短句来源
     The modulus of infiltration (MOI),modulus of runoff(MOR) and modulusof sediment (MOS) are introduced as the index for evaluating the anti-water erosion ability of the soil-root composite(SRC).
     提出用渗水模数、径流模数和泥沙模数这3个指标来衡量土壤-草本植被根系复合体的抗水蚀能力。
短句来源
  “modulus of runoff”译为未确定词的双语例句
     For the sake of filling a vacancy in the technique of rainwater harvesting in test area, using the information of precipitation and water needed for planting and through one year's rainwater harvesting experiment, the results show that the average modulus of runoff was 0.8989, and the volume of harvesting water was 14.76 m3 in the greenhouse with 13.44 m~2 superficial area.
     为了填补试验地雨水收集技术的空白,试验从该地多年降雨资料及温室常种蔬菜种类的需水资料入手,通过近一年的集雨试验,得出棚面垂直投影面积为13.44m~2的试验温室的平均集流率可达0.8989,可收集雨水14.76m~3。
短句来源
     The annual mean runoff on the ground and modulus of runoff were 105.8 L and 10.58 m~(3)·km~(-2)·a~(-1) inside the mixed plantation. But those in pure plantation were 1 349.05 L and 134.9 m~(3)·km~(-2)·a~(-1).
     年均地表径流量105.8 L,径流摸数为10.58 m3.km-2.a-1,纯林分别为1 349.05 L和134.9 m3.km-2.a-1,土壤侵蚀模数为0.65 t.
短句来源
     The length of the slope in runoff area had obvious influence on the total runoff, but the gradient of the slope in the runoff area had the greatest influence not only on the total runoff, but also on the modulus of runoff.
     在斜坡水平距一定时,微集水区平均坡度虽然随着原地面坡度和田面水平宽度的增加而增大,但增幅与原地面坡度的增幅基本一致。 在造林允许的坡度、坡长范围内,集水区斜坡水平距对产流总量影响最大,而地面坡度还具有提高坡面产流率的作用。
短句来源
  相似匹配句对
     modulus decreases.
     各模量均有下降趋势。
短句来源
     MODULUS AND CAPACITY
     模和容量
短句来源
     Applications of Modulus of Convexity
     关于凸性模的若干应用
短句来源
     The Construction of the Modulus Curriculum
     模块化课程建设
短句来源
     Forest and Slope-runoff
     森林对坡面产流的影响研究
短句来源
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The modulus of infiltration (MOI),modulus of runoff(MOR) and modulusof sediment (MOS) are introduced as the index for evaluating the anti-water erosion ability of the soil-root composite(SRC). The relationship of MOI, MOR and MOS with the ground slope, rainfall intensity, seepage coefficient and anti-water erosion strength of SRC are found out through the rainfall simulation experiment, which provides thescientific basis for evaluating the soil-water conservation efficiency.

提出用渗水模数、径流模数和泥沙模数这3个指标来衡量土壤-草本植被根系复合体的抗水蚀能力。通过人工模拟降雨试验,分别建立了渗水模数、径流模数和泥沙模数与地面坡度、降雨强度、复合体渗透系数或抗水蚀强度之间的相关方程式,即土壤-草本植被根系复合体抗水蚀能力的土壤力学模型。

Landscape metrics have been widely used to describe landscape patterns quantitatively in the last two decades. With the quick development of geographical information system, more and more metrics are designed and calculated with ever increasing speed. Packages which can provide numerous varieties of landscape metrics, such as FRAGSTATS and APACK, make it more convenient for users to calculate those metrics without querying about their ecological meaning, or even without knowing their arithmetic formulas. Therefore...

Landscape metrics have been widely used to describe landscape patterns quantitatively in the last two decades. With the quick development of geographical information system, more and more metrics are designed and calculated with ever increasing speed. Packages which can provide numerous varieties of landscape metrics, such as FRAGSTATS and APACK, make it more convenient for users to calculate those metrics without querying about their ecological meaning, or even without knowing their arithmetic formulas. Therefore more and more users are using and interpreting landscape metrics arbitrarily, especially in China. It is high time to clarify if the metrics we are using so often can really indicate the desired pattern or not.This paper tested the behavior of some landscape pattern metrics against six pattern scenarios generated by neutral landscape models, by changing one spatial parameter while keeping all the others stable. The scenarios include: (1) Number of Classes, with map size 1000×1000, and 2~100 classes randomly distributed at equal area percentages; (2) Scale - Map Extent, with 10 equal classes randomly distributed at map size 8×8, 16×16,…, 500×500, and 1000×1000; (3) Scale - Resolution, with a 3-class predefined 10×10 map resampled by cell size 1, 0.5,…, and 0.05; (4) Proportion of One Class, with the area of one class changing from 1%, 10%, …, to 99% consequently in binary maps; (5) Aggregation Level - Rule, with 4-equal-classes in 1024×1024 cells maps at different aggregation levels according to the neutral landscape model RULE; and (6) Aggregation Level - SimMap, with 4-equal-classes in 500×500 cells maps at different aggregation levels according to the neutral landscape model SimMap. Landscape metrics were calculated and compared for different pattern cases in each scenario.Results demonstrated that most of the metrics response to some of the pattern scenarios only, for example, Average Patch Perimeter/Area Ratio and Shonnon Diversity, while they are not sensitive to the others. Therefore none of them can indicate all aspects of a landscape pattern. However, in spite of those limitations, still some of the metrics are recommended for future use: Total number of patches, Average patch size, Total edge density, Fractal double-logged, Contagion (Li & Reynolds), and Aggregation index. But attention must be paid on the limitation, redundancy and real meaning of the metrics. The relationship between metric values and ecological processes are more important than the values themselves. For instance, suitable habitat area, number of patches and lacunarity metrics might be well related to population size and growth, while pattern metrics of erosion-sensitive land use types could be related to hydrological indicators such as modulus of runoff, or modulus of erosion. However, this paper could not answer all questions regarding to the relationship between metrics and landscape patterns. For example, why there is a peak at class level when N=5 for Number of Patches in the Number of Classes scenario? Why the landscape level Average Patch Size is the lowest when one class reaches 10%~20% in a binary map? Similar questions also arise for more complicated indicators such as Fractal and Contagion. Further study on mathematical analysis of the research results is expected for future consideration.

探讨了在人为控制不同因子变量的条件下各景观格局指标对由中性随机模型产生的不同景观格局系列的反应 ,以评价一些常用指标的实用性和局限性。研究结果表明 ,大部分指标所指示的格局特征往往是不全面的 ,即它们只对格局系列中个别因子的变化敏感 ,而对另一些因子的变化反应迟钝。比较值得推荐的指标有 :总斑块数目 ,平均斑块大小 ,总边界密度 ,分维数 ,蔓延度 ,聚集度。但即使是这些指标 ,也各有其局限性 ,且存在冗余。由此提醒读者在运用景观格局指标时应在了解其实际意义的基础上 ,结合生态学过程慎重选择和解释 ,避免陷于数字游戏。

By the way of micro-plot field experimentation and theoretical analysis, micro-relief characteristic and runoff formation under the conditions of site preparation by reverse-slope terrace were studied. The results showed that site preparation by reverse-slope terrace can enlarge the degree of slop where runoff was generated. The range of slope gradient increased was in direct proportion to the width of terrace, which was 2.5°~11.5° per meter, and in the inverse ratio of the slope length, which was 0.5°~7.0°...

By the way of micro-plot field experimentation and theoretical analysis, micro-relief characteristic and runoff formation under the conditions of site preparation by reverse-slope terrace were studied. The results showed that site preparation by reverse-slope terrace can enlarge the degree of slop where runoff was generated. The range of slope gradient increased was in direct proportion to the width of terrace, which was 2.5°~11.5° per meter, and in the inverse ratio of the slope length, which was 0.5°~7.0° per meter. The length of the slope in runoff area had obvious influence on the total runoff, but the gradient of the slope in the runoff area had the greatest influence not only on the total runoff, but also on the modulus of runoff. Therefore, the regulative mechanism of site preparation by reverse-slope terrace to runoff formation demonstrated shortening the length, increasing the gradient of the slope and changing the form of the slope in the runoff area, which made apparently different formation of runoff and erosion from that of the original slope. So the site preparation work designed according to traditional records of runoff plot with straight slope cannot reach the design standard desired.

从产流、汇流的机制与理论模型出发,结合理论分析与微型径流小区观测,对反坡梯田造林整地工程在改变微集水区地形特征,以及由此而引起坡面产流状况发生变化的内在机制进行了研究。结果表明,反坡梯田造林整地工程可显著增大微集水区的平均坡度。其增幅与斜坡水平距成反相关,与田面水平宽度成正相关。集水区斜坡水平距每减小1m,微集水区平均坡度增加0.5°~7.0°,集水区斜坡水平距越小,增幅越大;田面水平宽度每增加1m,平均坡度增加2.5°~11.5°。在斜坡水平距一定时,微集水区平均坡度虽然随着原地面坡度和田面水平宽度的增加而增大,但增幅与原地面坡度的增幅基本一致。在造林允许的坡度、坡长范围内,集水区斜坡水平距对产流总量影响最大,而地面坡度还具有提高坡面产流率的作用。产流量与坡长、坡度均成正相关。反坡梯田造林整地对坡面产流的作用机制,在于造林整地缩短了坡长、改变了坡形、增大了微集水区的平均坡度,从而使微区坡面的产流、产沙状况发生了变化。依据传统径流小区观测资料,不考虑整地对微区地形与产流的影响,由此设计的造林整地工程,难以达到预期效果。

 
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