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grassland climate
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  草原气候
     During 1.49-1.36 Ma,herbs declined slightly but pteridophytes increased relatively greatly,revealing a dry-cold grassland climate.
     在1.49~1.36Ma期间,草本植物有小幅下降,但蕨类植物增加幅度较大,显示了干冷草原气候特征。
短句来源
     Regionalization of Grassland Climate Characteristics and Ecotypes in Inner Mongolia
     内蒙古草原气候特点与草原生态类型区域划分
短句来源
     In order to develop and utilize reasonably climate resources and offer a scientific basis for the sub-area management of livestock production over grasslands, an analysis was made of the Inner Mongolia grassland climate characteristics and effects of climate on the growth of pasture grass, the distribution of domestic animal breeds and the soil environment.
     为了合理开发利用气候资源,给草原畜牧业生产的分区管理提供科学依据,文章对内蒙古草原气候特点及气候对牧草生长、畜种分布和土壤环境的影响进行了分析,发现内蒙古气候湿润度的某些等值线与土壤带的分界线几乎完全重合,表明土壤带的形成与气候条件密切相关。
短句来源
     (2) There were 7 types of climate in the research area. The East Region was prevailingly controlled by the meso-temperate forest-to-steppe climate,while the Middle Region,by the warm-temperate continental forest-to-steppe climate,and the West Region,by the temperate cold alpine grassland climate.
     (2)研究区包括7种气候类型,其中,东部主要以中温带季风性森林草原气候为主,中部以暖温带大陆性森林草原气候为主,西部以温带草原气候为主;
短句来源
  “grassland climate”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Using climate data(1954~2004) in Ningxia farming-pastoral area(Yanchi country),the changing tendencies of temperature and precipitation and the change of grassland climate productivity during 51 years were analyzed.
     本文用宁夏农牧交错区(盐池县1954~2004年)的气候资料,分析了该地区51a来气温、降水的变化趋势及其草地气候生产力的变化。
     Thus, water is the key factor controlled grassland climate productivity.
     草地气候生产力与年降水量关系密切,水分是制约草地气候生产力的关键因子。
     According to climate data(1970~2000) in the northern farming and pastoral area,the climate change cycle,trend and grassland climate productivity about 30 years were analyzed.
     根据北方农牧交错带(定西县1970~2000年)的气候资料,分析了该地区30年来气候变化周期、趋势及其草地气候生产力的变化。
短句来源
     3) Grassland actual productivity in Gonghe basin is estimated to 1/5~1/12 of grassland climate potential productivity, according to the data from field survey.
     共和盆地的实际草地生产力是气候生产力的1/5~1/12;
短句来源
     According to climate data(1970-2000) in the northern farming and pastoral area,the research analyzed the climate change cycle,trend and grassland climate productivityabout 30 years.
     根据北方农牧交错带(定西县1970-2000年)的气候资料,分析了该地区30年来气候变化周期、趋势及其农作物气候生产力的变化。
短句来源
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  相似匹配句对
     Regionalization of Grassland Climate Characteristics and Ecotypes in Inner Mongolia
     内蒙古草原气候特点与草原生态类型区域划分
短句来源
     IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON TEMPERATE GRASSLAND IN NORTHERN CHINA
     气候变化对中国北方温带草原植被的影响
短句来源
     ,and the climate was wet;
     ,气候偏湿 ;
短句来源
     ,and the climate was dry.
     ,气候偏干。
短句来源
     Songs from Grassland
     来自草原深处的天籁之声——绿色中国行全国巡回展演在京拉开帷幕
短句来源
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  grassland climate
Environmental fluctuations intrinsic to the grassland climate and the co-existing biota are fundamental to grassland biodiversity.
      


To improve the parameterization scheme in the grid scale of GCMs over different land surface status, China has organized Land Surface Processes experiments and the study of interaction of surface with atmosphere (LSPI) since 1987. These experiments are all international cooperation, and coordinated by WCRP and IGBP. Lanzhou Institute of Plateau Atmospheric Physics has played a pioneer role in these experimental studies. (a) The progress of HEIFE The first LSPI, the HEIFE (Heihe River Basin Field Experiment),...

To improve the parameterization scheme in the grid scale of GCMs over different land surface status, China has organized Land Surface Processes experiments and the study of interaction of surface with atmosphere (LSPI) since 1987. These experiments are all international cooperation, and coordinated by WCRP and IGBP. Lanzhou Institute of Plateau Atmospheric Physics has played a pioneer role in these experimental studies. (a) The progress of HEIFE The first LSPI, the HEIFE (Heihe River Basin Field Experiment), was carried out in 1988 through 1993, scaled 70×90 km, in an arid region of Northwest China on a large Gobi/sandy desert with oasis dispersed along Heihe River and irrigation canals. A concept of “Desert Oasis System” was put forward in 1993, which declared that in addition to the prevailing wind system, because of topography and surface status, local and regional circulation can be formed in conjunction with diurnal heating cycle in Heihe basin. Sensible heat advected from surrounding desert area with an integrated value as large as half of the net radiation in clear windy afternoon, becoming one of the main energy sources to the oasis vegetation. On the other hand, water vapor transported from oasis to adjacent desert is possibly one of the water sources for the desert plants. Land surface processes over desert and oasis are correlated closely. The derivation of regional surface effective parameters to be used in modeling has been always a major task. Different schemes were used in the area representative aggregation, based on the observation data from more than 10 surface stations in such complex area scaled. It has been found that some parameters the results from different schemes might have difference of order of magnitude. To use remote sensing from space is indispensable. Many scenes of different satellite data, including NOAA AVHRR, LANDSAT TM, and ERS ATSR etc., have been analyzed in the ‘up scaling’ study. The derivation of statistics of important parameters was successful, such as surface temperature, albedo, vegetation index, roughness length, transportation coefficients, etc., as well as the surface radiation, sensible heat and evaporation fluxes. Modeling study has also been a major part in HEIFE. 1 D surface processes study has been done mainly in desert area, concentrated in the water process near desert surface. Planetary boundary layer modeling has been carried out in analyzing regional wind field and the process in between oasis and desert. Some detailed studies have been done by using 2 D and 3 D mesoscale models, particularly, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), a non hydrostatic and compressible 3 D mesoscale model, has been used recently in the LSPI study in Heihe Basin. By using of HEIFE data set, also, some parameterization results retrieved from satellite data in recent years, the boundary layer structure and energy/water exchange processes in this area have been simulated successfully; some specific phenomenon have also been modeled and explained theoretically. However, more detailed simulation is still needed. (b) IMGRASS Another LSPI, the IMGRASS (Inner Mongolia Semi Arid Grassland Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Interaction), has started preparation soon after the HEIFE field campaign, and carried out its field observation on a comparatively homogeneous area in the summer of 1998. IMGRASS is a BAHC GEWEX type experiment emphasized on the understanding of land surface process in temperate semi arid grassland, and the validation of satellite remote sensing algorithms. It also attempts to understand the grassland climate interaction under the human activity stress with the target for sustainable development in the area. Four core stations, with comprehensive observations of soil, vegetation, atmospheric boundary layer, surface fluxes of radiation, heat, water vapor, and trace gases, have been operated in 1998 in the representatives parts of a region around 100×150 km, centered at about (116.3°E, 43.5°N). A radio controlled mini aircraft equipped with

 80 年代中开始的国际大型陆面过程实验和地气相互作用研究,现在正向更加深入广泛的方面发展。中国科学院兰州高原大气物理研究所主持了80 年代后期开始的中日合作“黑河地区地气相互作用观测实验研究”( H E I F E) ,接着积极参与组织了“内蒙古半干旱草原土壤—植被—大气相互作用”( I M G R A S S) 和“全球水分能量循环亚洲季风实验—青藏高原陆面物理过程研究”( 中日合作 G A M E Tibet 和 T I P E X) 等几个项目,取得大量珍贵资料和一系列研究成果,从而在国际陆面过程( L S P) 研究中居于领先地位。本文介绍了近年来国际 L S P 研究以及国内由 H E I F E 到 I M G R A S S 和 G A M E Tibet/ T I P E X 的进展,以引起科学界以至社会更大的关注

Based on hydrography and historic geography, the paper studied the environmental evolution of northern Ulan Buh Desert in historical time. According to historic and natural conditions, sandy land in this area had been formed in Pre-Qin Dynasty. But on the plain of Yellow River and round the TuShenZe lake, some ancient oases still existed resulting from plentiful water supply from the river and the lake. Three cities were just founded on oases in western Han Dynasty. Recorded by historic volumes, the above cities...

Based on hydrography and historic geography, the paper studied the environmental evolution of northern Ulan Buh Desert in historical time. According to historic and natural conditions, sandy land in this area had been formed in Pre-Qin Dynasty. But on the plain of Yellow River and round the TuShenZe lake, some ancient oases still existed resulting from plentiful water supply from the river and the lake. Three cities were just founded on oases in western Han Dynasty. Recorded by historic volumes, the above cities belonged to military settlements whose scales were small and the output of cereals couldnt meet the demand of local people, let along economic prosperity. Moreover, natural conditions which the three cities depended on lay in four aspects as follows: (1)During the period from Western Han Dynasty to Northern Wei Dynasty about 600 years, the TuShenZe lake was formed by overflowing of the Yellow River, and its area reached 400 km 2. Every year,the lake conveyed 400 million m 3 vapor to atmosphere and an amount of ground water to the land round the lake. (2)At the same time, the Yellow River flowed across hinterland desert, then water surface evaporation and river seepage flow prevented soil desertification. (3)Yellow River diversion works located near northern Linrong, they watered the crops of Linrong and Woye counties, thus crops coverage also prevented soil desertification. (4)Small lake groups near the Sanfen city was the natural condition maintaining ancient oases. In spite of these, the danger led to oases desertification was still existed. Based on investigation by Li Dao yuan in 494 AD, the landscape along Wuja river, Yellow River and in Urad Front Banner were all dunes. There were seven pieces of shifting dunes in northern Suofan prefecture, namely today's west point of Hobq Desert and northern Ulan Buh Desert. After Northern Han Dynasty, because of the natural course change of the Yellow River, TuShenZe lake lost its water supply, which resulted in the water level of the lake decreased 1 m per year and dried up soon. The area of ancient oases shrank and the area of desert expanded, influenced predominantly by the climate changing towords a severe aridity and coldness with frequent winds. In comparison of oases in northern Ulan Buh desert with that in Taklimakan desert, it is indicated that ancient oases dispeared because of water source drying up led to desertification. However, the Yellow River, with 300 000 km 2 water collection surface upper the Linrong, was influenced slightly by human activities in historical time. So that its water amount is plentiful and stable. The possibility of drying up or interruption is faint. In summary, the desertification of northern Ulan Buh Desert shows: (1) When develop water resources of arid and semi arid regions, the lowest limit water balance should be maintain. (2) The wetland such as lake is the huge sustain system to keep ecological balance, especially in arid and semi arid regions. (3) Viewed from thousand year scale, Mu Us desert, Hobq desert and Northern Ulan Buh desert from western Han Dynasty to northern Wei Dynasty were in same climate dry grassland to desert grassland climate. More proofs about the three deserts were recorded by historic volumes. So the view of man made desert" is untenable.

乌兰布和沙漠北部在先秦时期即已形成沙漠,由于黄河及屠申泽等水分条件的影响,当时尚存在着几处绿洲,西汉临戎等3座县城就建立在这些绿洲上。其后,由于黄河干流改道,屠申泽干涸,导致了绿洲的沙漠化。

The author explored historical volumns with the method of history geography and drew conclusion as follows: (1) 《Wei Shu》(History of the Northern Wei Dynasty) recorded that Tuo Basi, emperor of Northern Wei Dynasty had hunted in desert area from today's Dalad Qi to Jungar Qi, the place is just the east of Hobq Desert. More proofs were found in 《Shui Jing Zu·He Shui》, its author, Li Daoyuan recalled that he had ever followed the emperor to inspect “He Tao” region, and investigated desertification trend around...

The author explored historical volumns with the method of history geography and drew conclusion as follows: (1) 《Wei Shu》(History of the Northern Wei Dynasty) recorded that Tuo Basi, emperor of Northern Wei Dynasty had hunted in desert area from today's Dalad Qi to Jungar Qi, the place is just the east of Hobq Desert. More proofs were found in 《Shui Jing Zu·He Shui》, its author, Li Daoyuan recalled that he had ever followed the emperor to inspect “He Tao” region, and investigated desertification trend around “Ling Rong”. He point out that fixed dune and semi fixed dune existed from Wujia River to today's Yellow River main channal. These records proved that the western Hobq Desert had been desertified in latter Northern Wei Dynasty (about AD494-AD527). (2) According to the statement in 《Shui Jing Zhu·He shui》 about the right branch of Yellow River in “Jin-Shann” Valley area: the upper Jia Lu River flow across “Sha Ling” (dune or loose mound covered by sand), it is guessed that the place is near the mordern sandyland area. Also, two branches of Salawusu river, originated from or flow across “Sha Ling”. These indicate that the south boundary of Mu Us Desert was same as today's. (3) The two tombstones\_Helianbebe praised Qiwu and HuYizhou praised Tongwan city, described two different places. The former praised a beautiful natural husbandary farm in left bank of Yellow River between Da Hei River and Hun He River. The latter refered to Tong Wan city and praised the city backing famous mountain (Bai Yu Mountain) and facing great flow (Na Lin River). Its position has important military meaning. (4) During the period from Qing Han northern Ordos plateau was under the control of dry grassland desert grassland climate. This kind of climate made the earth surface that made of sandy materials easy to appear aeolian sandy landform. On the other hand, backward herding manner of nomadic nationalities and great quantity of husbandary accelerated dersertification process.

运用历史地理学方法对史料进行考证 ,其结论是 :鄂尔多斯高原上的库布齐沙漠和毛乌素沙地在北魏时期已存在 ,而且其范围与现代基本相同 ,因此否定了这些沙漠是以后农垦所造成的“人造沙漠”观点

 
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