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honey gland
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Crosses between Ogura CMS Brassica campestris var. purpuraria (AA, 2n=20) and Raphanus sativus (RR, 2n=18) were made and many intergeneric hybrids were produced. The F1 seedlings did not show chlorosis at low temperature. When red Raphanus sativus varieties were used as male parent the leaf petiole and leaf vein of F1 plants were purple, and when white Raphanus sativus varieties were used as male parent the leaf petiole and leaf vein of F1 plants were not purple. All the F1 plants had white flowers and normal...

Crosses between Ogura CMS Brassica campestris var. purpuraria (AA, 2n=20) and Raphanus sativus (RR, 2n=18) were made and many intergeneric hybrids were produced. The F1 seedlings did not show chlorosis at low temperature. When red Raphanus sativus varieties were used as male parent the leaf petiole and leaf vein of F1 plants were purple, and when white Raphanus sativus varieties were used as male parent the leaf petiole and leaf vein of F1 plants were not purple. All the F1 plants had white flowers and normal honey glands. Male gametes of the F1 were highly sterile and female garnetes of the F1 were partly fertile. Cytological studies indicated that chromosome number of the F1 was 2n=19 as expected, the mean chromosome pairing pattern was 15.53Ⅰ+1.34Ⅱ+0.25Ⅲ+0.01Ⅳ. Most chromosomes exsistet as univalents, but there also exsisted some bivalents, trivalents and even tetravalents, suggesting that chromosome set A was partly homologous with chromosome set R

以Ogura细胞质雄性不育紫菜苔(AA,2n=20)为母本,以不同萝卜品种(RR,2n=18)为父本进行杂交,获得了大量的属间杂种。杂种F1幼苗在低温下子叶及真叶均不缺绿。以红萝卜为父本获得的杂种F1植株叶柄、叶脉呈紫红色;以白萝卜为父本获得的杂种F1植株叶柄、叶脉不呈紫红色。所有的杂种F1植株都开白花,蜜腺正常,雄配子高度不育,但是雌配子具有部分育性。杂种F1花粉母细胞的染色体数目为预期的2n=19,染色体平均配对构型为15.53Ⅰ+1.34Ⅱ+0.25Ⅲ+0.01Ⅳ,多数染色体以单价体的形式存在,但也有一些二价体、三价体甚至四价体,最多达到6Ⅰ+3Ⅲ+1Ⅳ,参加配对的染色体数达到13条,表明A染色体组和R染色体组具有一定的同源性。对该杂种的遗传及育种意义进行了讨论。

Crosses of Ogura CMS Brassica campestris var. purpuraria×Raphanus sativus×Brassica napus were made and four hybrids were produced. One plant (PRN 1) was mosaic with yellow and milk white flowers and some flowers had both yellow and white petals. The others (PRN 2, 3, 4) had white flowers. PRN 4 had degenerated anthers, the other three had three to six anthers and could produce some pollens, but the pollens of PRN 2 were unstainable by I 2 KI solution. PRN 2 had four normal honey glands,...

Crosses of Ogura CMS Brassica campestris var. purpuraria×Raphanus sativus×Brassica napus were made and four hybrids were produced. One plant (PRN 1) was mosaic with yellow and milk white flowers and some flowers had both yellow and white petals. The others (PRN 2, 3, 4) had white flowers. PRN 4 had degenerated anthers, the other three had three to six anthers and could produce some pollens, but the pollens of PRN 2 were unstainable by I 2 KI solution. PRN 2 had four normal honey glands, PRN 1 and PRN 3 had two, and PRN 4 had none. PRN 2 had normal leaf color and the other three showed different degrees of chlorophyll deficiency at low temperature. The chromosome number of PRN 1 was 2n=38 and had the mean chromosome paring configuration of 14 67Ⅰ+10 07Ⅱ+1 06Ⅲ, and its chromosome set constitution might be AACR. This chromosome constitution may be due to the fertilization of female gamete of n=19 (AR) with male gamete of n=19 (AC) from B. napus. The occurrence of mosaic flower color in this plant may be attributed to the chromosome abnormalities caused by wide hybridization, such as chromosome deficiency and the formation of chromosome fragments and chromosome bridges. The chromosome number of PRN 2 was 2n=35 and the mean chromosome paring configuration was 13 89Ⅰ+8 33Ⅱ+1 33Ⅲ+0 11Ⅳ. The chromosome number of PRN 3 was 2n=33 and the mean chromosome paring configuration was 14 00Ⅰ+7 82Ⅱ+1 00Ⅲ+0 09Ⅳ. The chromosome number of PRN 4 was not determined as there was no pollen mother cell formation. Chromosome bridges and laggards were observed in PRN 1~3. Some seeds were harvested from PRN 1~ 3 but none was harvested from PRN 4 when backcrossed with B.napus . It seems possible for us to overcome the chlorophyll deficiency and honey gland abnormality and restore the male fertility in Ogura CMS by introduction of the nucleus of R.sativus into this cytoplasmic male sterile line.

以OguraCMS紫菜苔×萝卜杂种F1(AR ,2n =19)为母本 ,以甘蓝型油菜 (AACC ,2n =38)为父本进行杂交 ,获得了 4棵杂种植株。其中 1株 (PRN 1)的花色为嵌合体 ,该植株上的花多为黄色 ,但是也有乳白色花 ,另外还有 1朵花甚至 1个花瓣上同时具有黄色和白色区域 ,其余 3株 (PRN 2、 3、 4 )都开白花。PRN 4的花药开花前退化 ,其余 3株都可以看到 3~ 6枚花药 ,能够产生部分花粉 ,但是PRN 2的花粉不能被I2 KI溶液染色。PRN 2具有 4个蜜腺 ,PRN 1和PRN 3具有 2个蜜腺 ,PRN 4无可见蜜腺。在低温下PRN 2叶色正常 ,其余 3株幼叶表现不同程度缺绿。PRN 1的染色体数目为 2n =38,染色体平均配对构型为 14 6 7Ⅰ +10 0 7Ⅱ +1 0 6Ⅲ ,其染色体组构成可能是AACR ;PRN 2的染色体数目为 2n =35 ,染色体平均配对构型为 13 89Ⅰ +8 33Ⅱ +1 33Ⅲ +0 11Ⅳ ,PRN 3的染色体数目为2n =33,染色体平均配对构型为 14 0 0Ⅰ +7 82Ⅱ +1 0 0Ⅲ ...

以OguraCMS紫菜苔×萝卜杂种F1(AR ,2n =19)为母本 ,以甘蓝型油菜 (AACC ,2n =38)为父本进行杂交 ,获得了 4棵杂种植株。其中 1株 (PRN 1)的花色为嵌合体 ,该植株上的花多为黄色 ,但是也有乳白色花 ,另外还有 1朵花甚至 1个花瓣上同时具有黄色和白色区域 ,其余 3株 (PRN 2、 3、 4 )都开白花。PRN 4的花药开花前退化 ,其余 3株都可以看到 3~ 6枚花药 ,能够产生部分花粉 ,但是PRN 2的花粉不能被I2 KI溶液染色。PRN 2具有 4个蜜腺 ,PRN 1和PRN 3具有 2个蜜腺 ,PRN 4无可见蜜腺。在低温下PRN 2叶色正常 ,其余 3株幼叶表现不同程度缺绿。PRN 1的染色体数目为 2n =38,染色体平均配对构型为 14 6 7Ⅰ +10 0 7Ⅱ +1 0 6Ⅲ ,其染色体组构成可能是AACR ;PRN 2的染色体数目为 2n =35 ,染色体平均配对构型为 13 89Ⅰ +8 33Ⅱ +1 33Ⅲ +0 11Ⅳ ,PRN 3的染色体数目为2n =33,染色体平均配对构型为 14 0 0Ⅰ +7 82Ⅱ +1 0 0Ⅲ +0 0 9Ⅳ。PRN 4的染色体数目未能确定。与甘蓝型油菜回交后PRN 1~ 3植株各自产生了一定数量的种子 ,而PRN 4则未产生种子。对这些杂种及其后代的遗传及育种意义进行了讨论

Crosses between Ogura CMS Brassica campestrisvar. purpuraria (AA,2 n =20) and Raphanus sativus (RR,2 n = 18) were made and many intergeneric hybrids were produced. Two amphidiploids (AARR, 2 n = 38) were found from the FI . The amphidiploids were similar to common F, plants in morphology, eg., the seedlings did not show chlorosis at low temperature, all the F1 plants had white flowers and normal honey glands, but the anthers of the amphidiploids were better than those of the common F1 . During meiosis...

Crosses between Ogura CMS Brassica campestrisvar. purpuraria (AA,2 n =20) and Raphanus sativus (RR,2 n = 18) were made and many intergeneric hybrids were produced. Two amphidiploids (AARR, 2 n = 38) were found from the FI . The amphidiploids were similar to common F, plants in morphology, eg., the seedlings did not show chlorosis at low temperature, all the F1 plants had white flowers and normal honey glands, but the anthers of the amphidiploids were better than those of the common F1 . During meiosis most cells of the amphidiploids formed 19 bivalents, which were divided evenly to the two poles and gametes with 19 chromosomes were produced, but the fertility of the amphidiploids were much lower than F1 without chromosome doubling, although most chromosomes of the F1 without chromosome doubling exsisted as univalents at metaphase I , and there were laggards and chromosome bridges at anaphaes I . It was supposed that fertility of the intergeneric hybrids was influenced by the interaction of genes on thromosomes of the two parents as well as cytological irregularities.

以Ogura CMS紫菜苔(AA,2n=20)为母本,以不同萝卜品种(RR,2n=18)为父本进行杂交,获得了大量的属间杂种。从杂种F_1中发现了2株染色体自然加倍的双二倍体。在形态上双二倍体与未加倍的杂种F_1相似,都表现父本萝卜的白花性状,蜜腺正常,低温下子叶及真叶均不缺绿。在减数分裂中期Ⅰ双二倍体多数细胞形成19个二价体,后期Ⅰ时染色体以19:19的方式分配到两极,最后形成具有19条染色体的配子。通过对可染花粉比例、全株种子粒数及平均每个有效角果种子粒数的比较发现,虽然双二倍体的花药比未加倍的杂种F_1发育要好得多,但是双二倍体的育性还是低于未加倍的杂种F_1,尽管未加倍的杂种F_1在减数分裂时多数染色体以单价体的形式存在,同时也有二价体、三价体甚至四价体的形成,并且存在落后染色体和染色体桥。推测Ogura CMS紫菜苔×萝卜属间杂种F_1的育性除了减数分裂染色体的配对有关之外,与双亲染色体上基因的相互作用也有重要关系。对该杂种的遗传及育种意义进行了讨论。

 
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