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hydrological phenomena
相关语句
  水文现象
     MATHMATICAL MODELS FOR SIMULATION OF HYDROLOGICAL PHENOMENA
     水文现象的模拟数学模型
短句来源
     The complexity of hydrological phenomena and the deficiency of hydrological information restrict the development of hydrology theory.
     水文现象的复杂性和水文资料信息的不足,在一定程度上限制了水文学理论的发展。
短句来源
     Combining the fundamentals of the fuzzy sets with natural hydrological phenomena,a method offuzzy statistic analysis is given in this paper for computing hydrological parameters,analysing relations among va-riables and identifying systematical hydrological models.
     将模糊分析原理与水文现象相结合,推导出了水文统计参数的模糊计算公式,给出了水文变量间相关关系的模糊分析方法及系统水文模型的模糊识别方法。
短句来源
     The advanced hydrological conceptual model is adopted and modified by diving the catchment into sub units for calculation of runoff yield and flow concentration in order to consider the unevenness of hydrological phenomena.
     研究采用改进概念性产汇流模型先将流域分单元 ,再对单元流域进行产汇流计算 ,以考虑水文现象在面上的不均匀性
短句来源
  “hydrological phenomena”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Based on the physical principles of hydrological phenomena in small forested watershed, a mathematical model of rainfall-runoff process is proposed and validated in this paper. The model is used to analyze and predict runoff changes caused by clear-cutting or afforestation.
     本文从森林流域水文过程的物理机制出发,研制了降雨径流过程的数学演算体系和计算模型,并用于分析预测小流域森林采伐和造林所引起的径流变化。
短句来源
     With the aid of some methematical formulas and computer techniques, the hydrological process of the system, which includes flow interception, surface flow, stared in soil, groundwater and the other hydrological phenomena, can be systematically simulated in a quantitative form.
     借助于数学公式和计算机技术,对包括截流、表面流、土壤贮藏水与地下水等现象在内的水文过程以定量的形式进行了模拟;
短句来源
  相似匹配句对
     MATHMATICAL MODELS FOR SIMULATION OF HYDROLOGICAL PHENOMENA
     水文现象的模拟数学模型
短句来源
     interpretations of phenomena;
     对现象的解释;
     THE WHITE PHENOMENA
     纯白色
短句来源
     The complexity of hydrological phenomena and the deficiency of hydrological information restrict the development of hydrology theory.
     水文现象的复杂性和水文资料信息的不足,在一定程度上限制了水文学理论的发展。
短句来源
     The Development of Hydrological Model
     流域水文模型研究的进展
短句来源
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  hydrological phenomena
Prediction of hydrological phenomena using self-organizing mathematical models
      
Bacterial concentrations varied widely in every reach due to fluctuations of loading and/or hydrological phenomena.
      
Earthquakes cause a variety of hydrological phenomena, including changes in the ground water levels in bore wells.
      
Study of hydrological phenomena by extreme value theory
      
The method of Relative Entropy with Fractile constraints (REF method) is explained and applied to model extreme compound hydrological phenomena, such as extreme sea levels under storm conditions.
      
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This paper attempts to answer the following two questions: (1) Is it possible to derive the law of distribution of hydrological frequency theoretically(2) What type of distribution curve should be adopted as the model of hydrological frequency curve and how to determine their parameters? The results obtained may be summarized as follows: 1. Hydrological phenomena are time series with concealed periodic fluctuations. The results from statistical analysis based upon the current assumption that hydrological...

This paper attempts to answer the following two questions: (1) Is it possible to derive the law of distribution of hydrological frequency theoretically(2) What type of distribution curve should be adopted as the model of hydrological frequency curve and how to determine their parameters? The results obtained may be summarized as follows: 1. Hydrological phenomena are time series with concealed periodic fluctuations. The results from statistical analysis based upon the current assumption that hydrological phenomena are independent stochastic variables should be accepted with due considerations. 2. In view of the regional nature of hydrological phenomena, the current parctice of analyzing samples taking from a single station only is, in effect, to narrow the sampling field arbitrarily from a larger area to a point, thus reducing the accuracy of the statistical results. Hence, the synthetic utilization of the data of all stations within the hydrologically homo- geneous region is an important measure to increase the accuracy of statistical analysis. 3. The belief that the flood frequency obeys the binomial theorem or Poisson's theorem is but to mix up the priori with the empirical probability problem. The binomial theorem, being a powerful weapon to deal with the problems of priori probability, has not been adquately and properly utilized in the hydrologieal frequency analysis. 4. Analyses have been made of the nature of distribution of shydrologieal series on the basis of Kaptyen's derivation of the skew distribution, which indicate: (1) That the theoretical interpretation of the log-probability law of the hydrologic phenomena by V. T. Chow is not sound; (2) that hydrologic phenomena being results of very complicated meteorological and hydrological processes, it is impossible to derive theoretically the law of distribution for the hydrological series. 5. The view that the flood frequency obeys the Gumbel's distribution is theoretically not sound and also not verified by actual data. 6. According to the nature of the mathematical treatments applied, the method of description of the empirical probability can be classified into three systems: (1) The methods of the generalization of the characteristic factors of the distributions, such as Pearson's curves, Goodrich's curves, etc.; (2) The methods of the modification of a fundamental distribution by series and polynomials, such as Gram-Charlier curves. curves, etc.; (3) The methods of transformed functions, such as the log-probability law, curves, etc. It should be remarked that not only Pearson's and Goodrich's curves are frequency curves of empirical nature, but even the theoretical laws, such as the normal law and the log-probability law, will be aceepted as curves of empirical nature, when used as models for empirical probability problem. 7. Hydrological frequency analysis should not be mystified and made absolute. Instead of free selections, the models of hydrological frequency curve should be uniquely selected and specified. Statistical parameters should be determined not solely by the short period data of single station, but also by the synthetic utilization of the data of possible more stations. 8. It is recommended that one of the two types of distribution, i.e. the log-normal frequency curve with both sides limited and the Pearson's type Ⅲ curve, may be selected as unified models. The author suggests that the K-value corresponding to recurrence intervals of say 10~4, 10~5, or 10~6 years may be selected as the upper and lower limits for the log-normal curve. For Pearson's type III curves, C_s should be treated not as independent but as dependent variables of C_v. 9. The proper way to select and determine the model frequency curve is to see whether it fits well with the actual data of grouped stations (stations to be grouped by regions for rainfall data and by C_v for runoff data) and the reasonableness of the extrapolating part. 10. Suggestions on the method of determination of x and C_v: For point rainfall, iso-x map may be utilized, and the mean C_v for each hydrologicregion may be adopted in order to minimize the errors from single stations and to avoid the discrepancies in results obtained from the same region. With regard to flood frequency analysis, flood mark reconnaissance must be utilized to determine the magnitude and the recurrence interval of the unusual flood. The x and C_v values of the floods and runoffs of hydrologically similiar river basins may be compared. Besides, the reasonableness of the results of frequency calculations as well as of the statistical parameters adopted therein may be checked by comparing runoffs and point-rainfall values of the same frequency.

我国近期水文频率计算方法的研究工作在选择方法,经验频率公式,参数的误差和利用我国水文资料检验各种频率线型等方面有了一定的成果和实用的结论[1],但是下面两个问题还没有获得解决: (1)能否从机率理论证明水文频率属于何种分布律? (2)水文频率曲线应当采用什么线型?如何确定参数?本文试图解答以上两个问题。本文分析了水文系列的时序性质和区域性质,把机率问题按先验、极限和后验三种基本性质对水文频率问题进行了分析;利用开布屯推导偏态分布的方法分析了水文系列的分布性质,并从而批判了有关水文频率肯定属于对数正态律,耿贝尔极限律或二项式定理等等说法。认为属于后验机率性质的水文频率,不能从机率理论证明它属于何种分布律。最后提出联合利用各站水文资料来选择线型和确定参数的方法,并建议在两端有限对数正态和皮尔逊Ⅲ型两种线型中选择一种作为统一采用的线型,对两端有限曲线提出了简易可行的确定上下极限的方法,对皮尔逊Ⅲ型曲线认为应该把Cs作Cv的倚变参数。

Based on the physical principles of hydrological phenomena in small forested watershed, a mathematical model of rainfall-runoff process is proposed and validated in this paper. The model is used to analyze and predict runoff changes caused by clear-cutting or afforestation. The results show that forest felling makes both runoff amount and peak flow increase and afforestion decreases the amount and peak flow. But these effects almost disappear when rainfall is extremely heavy.

本文从森林流域水文过程的物理机制出发,研制了降雨径流过程的数学演算体系和计算模型,并用于分析预测小流域森林采伐和造林所引起的径流变化。计算结果表明:皆伐使径流量和洪蜂增大,造林使之减小,而当雨量非常大时,这些效应几乎不存在。

In this paper, a mathematical model of the hydrological cycle of the forest set up on the basis of a man-made forest which originated from a bog land in the suburbs of Edinburgh in southern Scotland is described. The whole process is abstractly recognized as a forest ecosystem with 5 compartments, namely, trees, grasses, ditches, ditch slopes and ditch bottoms. With the aid of some methematical formulas and computer techniques, the hydrological process of the system, which includes flow interception, surface...

In this paper, a mathematical model of the hydrological cycle of the forest set up on the basis of a man-made forest which originated from a bog land in the suburbs of Edinburgh in southern Scotland is described. The whole process is abstractly recognized as a forest ecosystem with 5 compartments, namely, trees, grasses, ditches, ditch slopes and ditch bottoms. With the aid of some methematical formulas and computer techniques, the hydrological process of the system, which includes flow interception, surface flow, stared in soil, groundwater and the other hydrological phenomena, can be systematically simulated in a quantitative form. The amounts of rainfall and evaporation are put into the model and the runoff water is drained away from it- It is given here for an example to simulate the hydrological process of the system in 1986 and check the simulation efficiency. Through comparing the computed and observed flows of the forest ecosystem, it is found that the simulation efficiency is 93.5% on the daily basis and 85.1% on the two-hour basis.The model reveals the mechanism of the hydrological cycle of the forest. We can estimate the runoff by using the amounts of input pricipitation and evaporation only. It will be helpful to understanding the hydrological effect of the man-made forest which originates from a bog land.

本文描述了一个根据起源于南苏格兰爱丁堡郊区沼泽地的人工林建立的数学模型。该模型把群落的整个水分过程抽象地看作有5个分室——乔木、草本、沟、沟坡与沟底组成的生态系统;借助于数学公式和计算机技术,对包括截流、表面流、土壤贮藏水与地下水等现象在内的水文过程以定量的形式进行了模拟;模型中输入降雨和蒸发量,输出径流量。文中以1986年系统的水文过程作为一个例子,并利用模拟值与真值对模拟效果进行了检验:以天为单位的模拟效率为93.5%,以2h为单位的模拟效率为85.1%。该模型揭示了森林水分循环的机理,仅利用降雨和蒸发量就能估计径流量。它将有助于了解起源于沼泽地人工林的水文效应。

 
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