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  display rule
The display rule measures included expression regulation knowledge (i.e., whether the children altered the facial expression relative to the internal feeling without providing a motive), self-protective display rules, and prosocial display rules.
      
In this study, American subjects were self-classified into one of four ethnic groups, and provided us with data concerning affect intensity, display rule attitudes, self-reported emotional expression, emotion labeling, and intensity ratings.
      
Ethnic differences in affect intensity, emotion judgments, display rule attitudes, and self-reported emotional expression in an
      
Display rule behavior and understanding were compared in 72 4- to 6-year-old boys and girls.
      
Display rule behavior and understanding in preschool children
      
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Objective: To examine the developmental characteristics of the pupils' emotion display rules and its relationship to the peer acceptance. Methods: A sample of 157 pupils' emotion display rules and peer acceptance in third and fifth grades were tested by clinical interview and social nomination. Results: Third-graders compared to fifth-graders were more knowledgeable about expression regulation, and used more self-protective display rules. Girls were proposed more norm-maintenance display...

Objective: To examine the developmental characteristics of the pupils' emotion display rules and its relationship to the peer acceptance. Methods: A sample of 157 pupils' emotion display rules and peer acceptance in third and fifth grades were tested by clinical interview and social nomination. Results: Third-graders compared to fifth-graders were more knowledgeable about expression regulation, and used more self-protective display rules. Girls were proposed more norm-maintenance display rules than boys. Urban children compared to country children were more knowledgeable about expression regulation, and used more prosocial display rules. Self-protective display rules can predict peer rejection. Conclusion: Pupils' emotion display rules have different developing characteristics, and can predict peer rejection to a certain extent. The development of display rules is beneficial to moderate children's expression regulation and social development.

目的:探讨小学生情绪表现规则的发展特点,及其与同伴接受性的关系。方法:采用临床访谈和同伴提名法,考察157名三、五年级小学生的情绪表现规则和同伴接受性。结果:三年级比五年级有更高的表情调节知识,使用更多自我保护表现规则。女孩比男孩使用更多标准维持表现规则。城市儿童比农村儿童有更高的表情调节知识,使用更多亲社会表现规则。自我保护表现规则能够显著预测同伴拒绝。结论:小学生的情绪表现规则具有不同的发展特点,对同伴接受性有一定的预测,情绪表现规则的发展有助于儿童调节情绪表达,促进儿童社会性发展。

Display rules are regarded as an important concept i n emotion domain in psychology, which is associated with children's socialization. In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the roles of display rul es in child development. Display rules govern the appropriateness of children's expressive behaviors. Based on motivation or causes of emotion expression, displ ay rules are further divided into three specific categories such as pro-social, self-protective, and norm-maintenance...

Display rules are regarded as an important concept i n emotion domain in psychology, which is associated with children's socialization. In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the roles of display rul es in child development. Display rules govern the appropriateness of children's expressive behaviors. Based on motivation or causes of emotion expression, displ ay rules are further divided into three specific categories such as pro-social, self-protective, and norm-maintenance rules. Children's knowledge of display rules develops with age. Children are able to use the knowledge of display rules when they are very young. Although children are not likely to have a full under standing of display rules until middle childhood, they do understand the discrep ancy between the appearance of a facial expression and the real internal state e ven when they are preschoolers. Moreover, some preschoolers understand that ther e might be negative consequences for expressing negative emotions. There are als o gender differences in the knowledge of display rules. Generally speaking, girls are more adept at the use of display rules and managing their emotions. Girls may communicate their emotions through more facial expression than boys; while boys express emotions through more behaviors (such as aggression) than girls. The factors such as gender, culture, types of emotions, family environments and soc ial ability influence children's use of the knowledge of display rules. Social c ontext also plays a great part in the use of display rules. Younger children pre fer to express emotions to adults rather than to peers. Children use display rul es in the presence of an audience figure more than when alone. They express or r egulate different emotions such as sadness, pain and anger for different causes. Children from different culture are likely to use different rules to express em otions. In conclusion, children's understanding and use of knowledge of display rules, which is affected by age, gender, culture, etc., is an important indicato r for their socialization process.

情绪表现规则是情绪理论中的一个重要概念。情绪表现规则的概念最早由Ekman和Friesen在其跨文化研究中提出,从那以后,出现了许多关于情绪表现规则的研究。情绪表现规则制约着情绪表达行为的合适性,人们根据情绪表现规则调节或控制自己的情绪。儿童的情绪表现规则知识随年龄增长而发展,这种变化是认知、社会、言语和身体发展等各方面因素复杂而相互作用的结果。儿童的情绪表现规则知识受性别、人际背景、情绪类型、文化等多种因素的影响。

Children's emotional display rules(EDRs) is the result of the socialization and development of emotion.Emotional display rules(EDRs) is used by children to regulate emotion in different social interaction.It includes four styles: minimization rules、maximization rules、masking rules、substitution rules.Children's cognitive development of emotional display rules(EDRs) was most strongly related to age and gender.Positive family emotion environment was related to children's...

Children's emotional display rules(EDRs) is the result of the socialization and development of emotion.Emotional display rules(EDRs) is used by children to regulate emotion in different social interaction.It includes four styles: minimization rules、maximization rules、masking rules、substitution rules.Children's cognitive development of emotional display rules(EDRs) was most strongly related to age and gender.Positive family emotion environment was related to children's knowledge and use of EDRs.Children's knowledge and use of EDRs was positively associated with their social competence.

情绪表达规则是儿童情绪社会化的结果,用以指导特定社会情境下表现社会期望情绪的一套规则,包括最大化规则、最小化规则、面具规则和替代规则四种类型。儿童情绪表达规则的认知发展存在显著的性别和年龄差异,并受家庭情绪环境的显著影响,与儿童的社会能力有显著的正相关。

 
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