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attitude towards life    
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  生活态度
    Dubious expression is a common phenomenon in Japanese,it is considered as one of the outstanding characteristics of Japanese. Not only does it reflect the traditional attitude towards life and behavior principle,but also the specific character of the whole nation.
    日语语言文化的显著特点之一是语言交际中的暧昧表达 ,它既反映了日本人的传统生活态度、行为方式 ,也反映了整个日本民族的文化个性。
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  attitude towards life
Our analysis of the interviews indicates that concurrent with a negative attitude towards life informants feel disembodied and asexual after seroconversion.
      
The first step reveals a person's predominant attitude towards life.
      
Try to encourage a positive attitude towards life in both parents and children.
      
She always did her best to keep a positive attitude towards life and to reach out to help others.
      
My attitude towards life has changed, and also my life has changed.
      
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Dubious expression is a common phenomenon in Japanese,it is considered as one of the outstanding characteristics of Japanese.Not only does it reflect the traditional attitude towards life and behavior principle,but also the specific character of the whole nation.Japanese prefer to use non-restrictive expression in their communication.They are good at expressing and understanding overtones.In addition,many ambiguous words are frequently used in Japanese.This phenomenon in expression was greatly affected...

Dubious expression is a common phenomenon in Japanese,it is considered as one of the outstanding characteristics of Japanese.Not only does it reflect the traditional attitude towards life and behavior principle,but also the specific character of the whole nation.Japanese prefer to use non-restrictive expression in their communication.They are good at expressing and understanding overtones.In addition,many ambiguous words are frequently used in Japanese.This phenomenon in expression was greatly affected by the way of living in remote antiquity,the unity in Japanese nationality and language,and the Japanese principle for behaving and living in harmony.

日语语言文化的显著特点之一是语言交际中的暧昧表达 ,它既反映了日本人的传统生活态度、行为方式 ,也反映了整个日本民族的文化个性。它的主要表现形式是 :交际中较多地采用非限定意义的表达 ;擅于向听者表达弦外之音、言外之意 ;一词两意的暧昧词汇的使用。日本独特的社会文化环境孕育了这种独特的语言文化。

Gradable antonyms are pairs of opposites with variable degrees in semantic strength. Syntactically, they can be modified by intensifiers like ″very ″ and ″too ″ and can be used in the comparative. Semantically, one term of an antonymic pair is opposed to the other, with a fuzzy boundary. This quality is referred to as committedness, and its reduction in semantic strength impartiality. Occurring in some gradable antonyms in the comparative, impartiality can be considered an additional and conditional property....

Gradable antonyms are pairs of opposites with variable degrees in semantic strength. Syntactically, they can be modified by intensifiers like ″very ″ and ″too ″ and can be used in the comparative. Semantically, one term of an antonymic pair is opposed to the other, with a fuzzy boundary. This quality is referred to as committedness, and its reduction in semantic strength impartiality. Occurring in some gradable antonyms in the comparative, impartiality can be considered an additional and conditional property. Semantically-defined impartiality is distinguished from pragmatically-defined unmarkedness in that the latter describes a neutralized state without any committedness.The use of gradable antonyms in the positive degree presupposes a comparison. The calibration for comparison is set by the nominal with which the antonym co-occurs. This implicit calibration bears the features of relativity, uncertainty, subjectivity and cultural variation. These variations can sometimes result in failure in interpersonal communication, especially in cross-cultural communication. However, gradable antonyms are usually associated with the comparative sentences, where, against the comparison domain introduced by ″than ″, a comparison is overtly made by means of a gradable antonym in its comparative degree. In such sentences, the calibration and comparison domain converge semantically.Gradable antonyms can be viewed and explicated from the cognitive perspective. When people perceive a certain property, such as a state, sensation, the most effective and efficient way is to bisect this property and coin two words contrary in meaning to represent the sub-properties, each of which is positioned towards one end of the scale opposite the other with a gray middle ground in between. Hence, gradable antonyms came into being and are used frequently. The use of antonyms in the positive degree is motivated by the economy principle in language, while an explicit comparison involving an antonym with a comparison domain is pragmatically motivated.It is obvious that, in the comparative, both terms of a polar antonymic pair and the positive term of an overlapping antonymic pair are impartial, while the negative term of an overlapping antonymic pair and both terms of an equipollent antonymic pair remain committed. This distribution of impartiality is not arbitrary but cognitive and pragmatic rule governed. Polar antonyms represent the properties which can be evaluated objectively and calibrated in terms of everyday conventional measurements. The relative quantity of such properties is more important than their presence or absence. Thus, each term of the pair is allowed to cover the part of the scale usually denoted by the other. As the properties of equipollent antonyms are typically associated with sensations or emotions, our instincts tell us that they are concepts of great incompatibility. In use, each term of the pair is allowed to move about only within the part of the scale denoted by the term in question in its positive degree. As a result, the two opposed terms do not overlap any part on the scale, even in the comparative. Overlapping antonyms denote subjective evaluation of a certain property, with one term commendatory and its counterpart derogatory. The use of these antonyms is colored by the entrenched optimistic attitude towards life, described by the Pollyanna Principle, which makes the positive term frequently used and widely distributed. Therefore, the positive one is semantically impartial in the comparative and pragmatically unmarked, while the negative stays committed and marked.

英语层级性反义词是指语义反对但语势可变的词对。这类词基本表现为偏袒性,而在比较级中有时呈现的公允性则是附加的、有条件的。层级性反义词原级的使用通常预设比较。其校标是暗含默许的,具有相关性、游移性、主观性和文化特异性。在比较级使用中,比较对象通常明示,其校标与比较局域的语义汇合。对这类反义词可以给出认知和语用解释。

Mark Twain, a mastermind of humor and realism, is seen as a giant in world literature. His humor had great impact on the following men of letters; critics also attached significant importance to it and put forward various interpretations. However, humor could no more be found in Twain's later works. On the contrary, it was replaced by bitter satire. Why did Twain change his writing style as well his attitude towards life? What was the cause of this sharp conversion? Focusing on these questions, the paper...

Mark Twain, a mastermind of humor and realism, is seen as a giant in world literature. His humor had great impact on the following men of letters; critics also attached significant importance to it and put forward various interpretations. However, humor could no more be found in Twain's later works. On the contrary, it was replaced by bitter satire. Why did Twain change his writing style as well his attitude towards life? What was the cause of this sharp conversion? Focusing on these questions, the paper tries to analyze the basic elements which affected Twain from social influence and personal encounters respectively, aiming at offering rational analysis of this shift as well as making Twain's works readily understood.

美国的幽默大师和现实主义作家马克·土温,被认为是一个世界文学巨匠。他的幽默对其后辈文人产生了巨大的影响。批评家对此亦高度重视并就此提出了不同的阐释。然而,幽默在马克·土温后期的作品里非但消失殆尽反而被辛辣讽刺所取代。马克·土温为何改变了他的写作风格和人生态度?什么原因导致了他的这种巨变?紧紧围绕上述问题,文章从社会影响和个人遭遇两个方面分别分析了引起马克·吐温写作风格和人生态度改变的原因。旨在就他的这些改变提出理性分析,从而使其作品更加通俗易懂。

 
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