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Caffeoyl naphthalene sulfonamide derivatives act against HIV integrase and thus have the potential to become a part of an antiHIV drug regimen.


A single drug regimen of either 5FU, MMC and ADM and a combination drug regimen were used.


In general, it is extremely difficult to treat fulminant hepatitis by conservative regimen, particularly, in cases with rapid progression.


The Role of the Macrosymbiont Genotype in the Optimization of Nitrogen Regimen of Soils


Possible prospects of the use of eikonol for optimization of cognitive processes in humans with an individual selection of the dosage and regimen are discussed.

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 Since the year 1886, the DupuitForchheimer theory and formulas for gravityflows toward wells and galleries have been broadly used in all nations of theworld. In these formulas, assumptions are made for underground flows fromfarther distances in horizontal directions at a constant rate toward wells andgalleries. According to the author's analysis, these assumptions are not consistentwith the actual conditions of flow, hence the formulas obtained therefrom are notrational, and the employment of these formulas... Since the year 1886, the DupuitForchheimer theory and formulas for gravityflows toward wells and galleries have been broadly used in all nations of theworld. In these formulas, assumptions are made for underground flows fromfarther distances in horizontal directions at a constant rate toward wells andgalleries. According to the author's analysis, these assumptions are not consistentwith the actual conditions of flow, hence the formulas obtained therefrom are notrational, and the employment of these formulas to investigate the general effectof surface drop or well diametre upon yield is devoid of rational foundations. According to the author's analysis, the flows toward wells or galleries areactually supplied vertically by draining the stored water above the free surface inthe course of its descending and enlarging. As the drainage of gravity water fromthe pores of soil particles in order to reduce the water content to that of filmshells takes one to two days, as the capillary water columns are interconnectedand mutually supplied sidewise, this vertical supply of water may maintain quite along time, yet the flow may not be absolutely steady. As regards vertical supply of water with unsteady regimen, equations of freesurface for flow pattern near galleries are deduced, corresponding to the Boussinesqpartial differential equation. Besides, the author has derived simplified equationsfor computing flows into wells and galleries. The latter, in comparison with theDupuitForchheimer formulas, gives a higher yield, while the free surface curve isreasonably tangent to the horizontal water table at a point which moves fartheraway as time goes on. J. Kozeny first pointed out the phenomenon that the water depth in the groundon the wall will not be further lowered when it reaches one half of the depthbefore pumping. The author hereby proposes a theoretical proof of it on the basisof theorem of least work. Based upon these theories, formulas are proposed for maximum possible yieldof wells and galleries dug to horizontal impervious strata, to be used in preliminary estimations for hydrogeological workers.  1886年以来,杜布义福熙罕默(DupuitForchheimer)的井流及沟流的理论与计算用公式被世界各国广泛地应用着。公式假设地下水从远处沿着水平方向以定率流向井内或沟内,按作者分析这种假设并不符合实际情况,因之所得公式也不合理,用这些公式来推论水位降落或井径对於出水率的影响也没有合理的凭据。作者推论,井流或沟流的水实际上是从水面线以上,在其降落并扩大的过程中,排除了存积的水,沿着直垂方向所供应着的。因为从土壤颗粒的空隙间排除重力水,使减为薄膜水,每需时一两天,而水面上的毛细管水又是横向贯通并互相接济着,所以垂直供水可以维持很久,而潜流也决不会绝对稳定。根据这垂直供水的不定汉条件引出了沟流的水面线公式,结果符合蒲薪奈斯克的偏微分方程式。另外,作者又拟具了简化的井流及沟流计算用公式。这些公式和杜氏福氏公式比较,所得出水率较大,而水面线则合理地切於静水线,切点随着时程向远处移动。柯臣尼(J.Kozeny)最早指出井边地内水深不会低於静水深一半的现象,本文中作者根据最小工作定律试拟了理论的证明以支持之。根据这些理论,引出了从静水中抽水时井流、沟流最大可能出水率的公式,以供水文地质工作者初步估算之用。  Basing upon investigation on surgical metabolism and nutrition made by Moore, Rhoads, Wretlind and other scientists in the 1950's, Dudrick and his colleagues first reported their successful use of long term parenteral nutrition ( TPN ) in 1968. This new advance has been now widely accepted in larger hospitals, but complications still remain a problem in clinical practice.During the period of 19711979, 57 patients received TPN treatment in our hospital, including; gastrointestinal fistula, 19 cases ( 33% ) ;... Basing upon investigation on surgical metabolism and nutrition made by Moore, Rhoads, Wretlind and other scientists in the 1950's, Dudrick and his colleagues first reported their successful use of long term parenteral nutrition ( TPN ) in 1968. This new advance has been now widely accepted in larger hospitals, but complications still remain a problem in clinical practice.During the period of 19711979, 57 patients received TPN treatment in our hospital, including; gastrointestinal fistula, 19 cases ( 33% ) ; severe infection and burn, 10 cases ( 18% ) ; inflammatory bowel diseases, 5 cases (9%) ; cancer of GI tract, 7 cases ( 12% ) ; renal failure, necrotizing pancreatitis and miscellaneous conditions 16 cases (28%) . The total therapeutic days were 2,004 with an average of 35. In this paper, we discuss briefly the guidelines for calculating TPN requirements as well as the regimens for clinical observations and laboratory monitoring. The nature and prevention of complications are discussed. Complications related with sepsis appeared five times, thus aseptic technique in every step of TPN treatment can not be over emphasized.In formulating the TPN solutions, we emphasizet he importance of supplying trace elements, especially Zn and Cu. Clinical application of this modern technique necessitates the use of various apparatus, complex monitoring methods and specially trained personnels.  本文报道了应用胃肠外营养治疗57例重病人的结果,并对胃肠外营养的适应症、临床应用准则、临床和实验室监测和并发症等问题,进行了扼要的介绍和讨论。  The time required to obtain steadystate plasma level by intravenous infusion will be quite long for a drug with a long halflife. It may be convenient in such cases to administer an intravenous loading dose to attain immediately the desired drug concentration and then attempt to maintain this concentration by continuous infusion.Equations (1) and (2) describing the dosage regimen of intravenous infusion of twocompartment model drugs were given by Boyes in 1971.X_0=C_(ss)·V_c (1)k_0=C_(ss)·V_c·k_(10)... The time required to obtain steadystate plasma level by intravenous infusion will be quite long for a drug with a long halflife. It may be convenient in such cases to administer an intravenous loading dose to attain immediately the desired drug concentration and then attempt to maintain this concentration by continuous infusion.Equations (1) and (2) describing the dosage regimen of intravenous infusion of twocompartment model drugs were given by Boyes in 1971.X_0=C_(ss)·V_c (1)k_0=C_(ss)·V_c·k_(10) (2)where X_0 is the loading dose, k_0 is the zeroorder rate constant of intravenous infusion, Css is the steadystate plasma level which may be adjusted to the desired plasma concentration for clinical treatment, V_c is the volume of central compartment, and k_(10) is the firstorder elimination rate constant from the central compartment.The plasma level from this dosage regimen is slightly lower than that of the desired plasma level.In 1972, Mitenko presented the following equations:X_0=(k_(10))/β·C_(ss)·V_c (3)k_0=C_(ss)·V_c·k_(10) (4)In equation (3) and (4) β is the slow disposition rate constant, and the other symbols are defined as previously described.The plasma level of this dosage regimen is higher than that of the desired plasm level.Considering the advantages and shortcomings of these two dosage regimens, the author derived the following equations:X_0=((1/α)+(1/β)((k_(10))/(αβ)))·k_(10)·C_(ss)·V_c (5)K_0=C_(ss)·V_c·K_(10) (6)where α is the fast disposition rate constant.From this dosage regimen, the author obtained the equation of plasma leveltime curve:where t is the time of intravenous infusion, C_t is the plasma level at time t.The advantage of this dosage regimen was theoretically evaluated.  静脉输注是临床上广泛用于抢救危重病例的一种有效的给药方法,缺点是开始输注时血药浓度偏低。为了使血药浓度迅即达到临床治疗的最佳有效血药浓度,有一种简便易行的方法是在开始时立即静注一个底药剂量,同时以恒定速度进行静脉输注,以维持该血药浓度。这种静脉输注方案的关键问题在于采用何种底药剂量和以何种速度静脉输注。对于双室模型的药物,1971年及1972年Boyes及Mitenko先后提出了两种不同的静脉输注方案。本文用组合曲线求组合常数的方法推导出了介于上述两种方案之间的一种新的静脉输注方案,给出了这种新方案的“血药浓度一时间”曲线公式,并从理论上证明这种方案的优越性。   << 更多相关文摘 
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