According to the basic rules of pricing and the relationship between supply and demand of marketing commodities, a valuation decision making model is described, that firstly makes a hypothesis testing for historical price distribution of homogeneous commodities, then approximates the reasonable and the investigative price intervals.

Abstracts Financial distribution and price distribution restrict each other. That is,financial distribution restricts price distribution, and vice versa.

2. The theory is on the basis of three main ideas: 1 Theory of "7p": service marketing includes 7 variables, which represent production, price, distribution, promotion, and people, process of service, presentation as well.

Moreover, taking the GIS assisted spatial analysis (ESDA) technology as the basic analysis tool and using the different spatial interpolation methods the isoplethic curves of the land price distribution of the study area are established.

This paper still establish the marketing strategic aim, and present particular marketing strategy including five facet as power product, power price, distribution channel, sales promotion and electric service.

However, calculation of the Gini hedge ratio requires estimation of the underlying price distribution.

The implications of alternative assumptions about accounting measurement error and the unconditional price distribution are discussed.

Monte Carlo simulation with an integer programming model is used to determine the (maximal) inclusion price distribution of four combination vaccines, by randomizing the cost of an injection.

First, we find that the RL price distribution does not converge in a statistical sense to the NSE one except when competition is à la Bertrand.

Some of these conclusions though are weakened when export prices toward the center of the price distribution are considered.

The estate industry of Nanning has passed a process that came from quietly to recovery and fiery to steady. The building structure constructed by each company is similar, But disparity in price is great. The building price distributes in a obvious pattern that price in town is higher than that in Suburb and It in estern part of the city is higher than that in western part. The three impact fators guiding price distribution are geography location, traffic convernience and ecoenvironmental quality of estate....

The estate industry of Nanning has passed a process that came from quietly to recovery and fiery to steady. The building structure constructed by each company is similar, But disparity in price is great. The building price distributes in a obvious pattern that price in town is higher than that in Suburb and It in estern part of the city is higher than that in western part. The three impact fators guiding price distribution are geography location, traffic convernience and ecoenvironmental quality of estate. About estate developing and city planning in future of Nanning, it is suggested to follow the price pattern for getting more economic returns, to promote traffic facilities and environment quality for estate revaluing and to create Nanning a multitown city morphorlogy as soon as possibie.

The commerical residence in Shanghai real estate market are selected as the studyobject. Based on exploring House Property Information inquiry System, the commericalresidence datd are collected and sorted out. Applying the GIS technology. the authorenclosed the spatial distribution characters of the commerical residence price inShanghai. After the effects of the location factors on the price distribution are discussed. the Price-location Regression Model is established to reflect the relationshipbetween...

The commerical residence in Shanghai real estate market are selected as the studyobject. Based on exploring House Property Information inquiry System, the commericalresidence datd are collected and sorted out. Applying the GIS technology. the authorenclosed the spatial distribution characters of the commerical residence price inShanghai. After the effects of the location factors on the price distribution are discussed. the Price-location Regression Model is established to reflect the relationshipbetween the residence price and location factors.

The method involves the following steps. (1) The study area is first divided into several regions, each with relatively similar features such as soil, topography, ground water level, location attributes and income level. (2) In each region, a number of reference plots are identified, each bordering several other plots. The characteristics of a reference plot such as its physical features, land management, major crops, crop yield, plot size and shape should typify those of the adjacent plots. (3) Calculate...

The method involves the following steps. (1) The study area is first divided into several regions, each with relatively similar features such as soil, topography, ground water level, location attributes and income level. (2) In each region, a number of reference plots are identified, each bordering several other plots. The characteristics of a reference plot such as its physical features, land management, major crops, crop yield, plot size and shape should typify those of the adjacent plots. (3) Calculate the price of each reference plot based on its net annual income using the equation T=(O-I)/Sr where T is the price of a reference plot, O is its gross annual income, I is total annual expenses, S is its areal size, and r is the rate of return. (4) Establish a list of factors affecting land price in each region and determine their weights based on the Delphi measurement method. (5) Rank the factors and assign appropriate points to them. (6) In a region, delineate valuation land plots based on physical features, plot location, field infrastructure, major crops and crop yield. (7) Calculate the total points for each valuation land plot using the equation V=F i*W i where V is total points of the plot, F i is the points assigned to each factor affecting the price of the plot, and W i is the weights of the factors. (8) Calculate the average value of land price per point in a region using the equation K=1n? 苮ni=1P i/F i where K is the average value of land price per point, P i is the value of price of the reference plot, F i is the total points of the reference plot, and n is the number of reference plots in a region. (9) Calculate the price for all of the valuation land plots in a region using the equation P=V*k where P is price of a valuation land plot, V is the total points of the plot, and K is the average price per point of the region in which the plot is located. (10) Check the calculated land price through a comparison between the price obtained by using the approach described in this paper with the price calculated by income approach for the same sampling plot. (11) Rank the calculated land prices for all plots in the study area according to the limitation values of each class that are obtained from a statistical analysis of land price distribution against the area of all land plots in the study area. With the assistance of GIS technology, the method was used to appraise the price of cultivated land in Yudai Township, Liuhe County, Nanjing City. The results show that the approach is acceptable and has the advantages of being simple and practical. However, several points should be noted. The number of cultivated land regions to be delineated from a study area and the selection of the factors affecting land price must be in line with the local conditions. Also, the effects of such factors as variation in land management and income on land price must be considered when indices of income and expenses are used to calculate the net annual income. Moreover, to ensure the accuracy of land price appraisal, it is necessary to select an appropriate rate of return which is in line with the level of economic development of the study area.