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They can achieve competitive equilibrium and coexistence according to their biological characteristics and life habits.
      
The study was made on model mixtures containing small silver bromide particles (about 60 nm) and larger microcrystals of different sizes (100-400 nm) and habits (cubic and octahedral).
      
Feeding habits of the Alaska greenlingHexagrammos octogrammus in the coastal waters of amurskii bay (sea of Japan)
      
Feeding habits of the Alaska greenlingHexagrammos octogrammus were studied in the coastal waters of Amurskii Bay in April-October 1997-1998.
      
The spawning habits of the sea ravenHemitripterus villosus were investigated by scuba diving at shallow rocky bottom sites around Bolshoi Pelis Island (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan).
      
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The pine caterpiller,Dendrolimus punctatus Walker, has the habit of leav-ing the crown part of a tree and hibernating under the loose bark of thetrunk. The present paper reports the successful control of this pest by treatinga part of the trunk with a DDT suspension. All experiments were carried outat Nanking, 1947-48. When solutions and water suspension containing 5% DDT, 1%γ 666,or 5% 1068 were applied with a brush to the trunk for a width of one footand over-wintering larvae were allowed to crawl over...

The pine caterpiller,Dendrolimus punctatus Walker, has the habit of leav-ing the crown part of a tree and hibernating under the loose bark of thetrunk. The present paper reports the successful control of this pest by treatinga part of the trunk with a DDT suspension. All experiments were carried outat Nanking, 1947-48. When solutions and water suspension containing 5% DDT, 1%γ 666,or 5% 1068 were applied with a brush to the trunk for a width of one footand over-wintering larvae were allowed to crawl over the treated area, all theinsecticides tested were found to be effective when freshly applied. After oneweek, how-ever, only preparations containing DDT remained effective. DDTwater suspension was markedly better than DDT in kerosene, soybean oil, oracetone. Trees treated with a 5% DDT water suspension were still very toxic tothe caterpillars at the end of six weeks. The number of caterpillars crawling over a DDT-treated area would notinfluence the toxicity of the DDT film under practical field conditions. In oneexperiment all area of twenty inches square, treated with a 5% DDT suspension,still showed high toxicity to the caterpillars after 1,800 larvae had crawled overthe area in a period of nine days. Caterpillars were found to be more resistant to DDT in summer than inwinter. By increasing either the concentration of DDT to 10-15% or thewidth of the treated area to 2-3 feet, the "trunk treatment method" could beused as well in summer, if the caterpillars were beaten down to the grounedafter the trees had been treated with DDT. Under the field conditions in Nanking, 1947-48, the pine caterpilIars beganto leave the crown part of the trees and seek hibenation quarters in November.They became active again early in March, hence tree should he treated withDDT not later than the dates mentioned above. A total of 157,658 trees were treated with DDT on the Purple Mountain,Nanking, 1948. Examinations showed that larval population decreased 90-99%in the treated area, while in the check area an increase in population of16-350% had been observed.

本文研究在松树干上涂刷有持久性的药剂以防治越冬松毛虫的可能性。1947—48年在南京试验及实施防治的结果简述如下: (一)在实验室内使越冬松毛虫爬行越过涂有一市尺宽各种药液的松树干的结果,证明5% DDT,1%γ666,与5% 1068的悬液或溶液。在涂药的当天均 有相当高的杀虫效力,惟一周以后γ666与1068完全失效,仅DDT仍保持强大的毒力。DDT水悬液显著较DDT火油、大豆油或丙酮溶液为佳。涂有5%DDT悬液的松树杆曝露田间六星期后,杀死松毛虫能力仍达100%。 (二)据试验的结果,自制的可湿性DDT,内含DDT50%,稀释剂45%,与肥皂5%,尚适宜于防治松毛虫之用。 (三)松毛虫爬行的次数对涂药面积上DDT毒力的影响极微,在二十平方市寸涂有5% DDT悬液的小面积上,9天之内经过1800头松毛虫爬行后,毒力仍未减小,死亡率尚在90%以上。 (四)夏季松毛虫较越冬松毛虫不易杀死。夏季松毛虫抵抗DDT的能力随龄期而增强。试验中显示如增加药液浓度至含DDT 10—15%,或增加涂药的宽度至2—3市尺,夏季幼虫亦能中毒死亡。故树干涂药法亦可应用在夏季防治上,惟必须在涂药后将松毛虫从树上击落,使其在爬返树冠...

本文研究在松树干上涂刷有持久性的药剂以防治越冬松毛虫的可能性。1947—48年在南京试验及实施防治的结果简述如下: (一)在实验室内使越冬松毛虫爬行越过涂有一市尺宽各种药液的松树干的结果,证明5% DDT,1%γ666,与5% 1068的悬液或溶液。在涂药的当天均 有相当高的杀虫效力,惟一周以后γ666与1068完全失效,仅DDT仍保持强大的毒力。DDT水悬液显著较DDT火油、大豆油或丙酮溶液为佳。涂有5%DDT悬液的松树杆曝露田间六星期后,杀死松毛虫能力仍达100%。 (二)据试验的结果,自制的可湿性DDT,内含DDT50%,稀释剂45%,与肥皂5%,尚适宜于防治松毛虫之用。 (三)松毛虫爬行的次数对涂药面积上DDT毒力的影响极微,在二十平方市寸涂有5% DDT悬液的小面积上,9天之内经过1800头松毛虫爬行后,毒力仍未减小,死亡率尚在90%以上。 (四)夏季松毛虫较越冬松毛虫不易杀死。夏季松毛虫抵抗DDT的能力随龄期而增强。试验中显示如增加药液浓度至含DDT 10—15%,或增加涂药的宽度至2—3市尺,夏季幼虫亦能中毒死亡。故树干涂药法亦可应用在夏季防治上,惟必须在涂药后将松毛虫从树上击落,使其在爬返树冠时接触药剂而死亡。 (五)自然情形下,南京松毛虫在十一月即开始下树越冬,至来年三月初开始活动上树,故采用树干涂药法防治下?

The injurious insects of cotton of this province, however, have not hithertobeen carefully studied, especially the pink bollworm, which annually reducesthe cotton production by 10 to 30 per cent. The present authors spent twoyears in observing the life history and habits of this insect, in attempting tofind some effective control measures. The result is herewith summarized :- 1. In the vicinity of Wu-chang, the pink bollworm has three generationsa year. The first generation occupies May and July. The second...

The injurious insects of cotton of this province, however, have not hithertobeen carefully studied, especially the pink bollworm, which annually reducesthe cotton production by 10 to 30 per cent. The present authors spent twoyears in observing the life history and habits of this insect, in attempting tofind some effective control measures. The result is herewith summarized :- 1. In the vicinity of Wu-chang, the pink bollworm has three generationsa year. The first generation occupies May and July. The second one occursin mid-July and the last in late-August. Due to the lower temperature, theemergence of the first generation need about two months. 2. In day time, the adult is usually inactive, while in windless night,after seven o'clock, it becomes very active and lays eggs mostly on green bollsand calyx. about a week later, the eggs hatch and the newly-hatched larvaeare shortly getting into the bolls. After four days they often eat into theseeds. Ten days later, the lint is so stunted as to become dusky yellow incolor, thus both the yield and the quality of cotton are greatly lowered. Themature larvae appear about half a month after. 3. Field experiments have shown that three dustings of 10% DDT- sulfurpowder were very effective. In the severely damaged cotton area, the thirdspray may be simultaneously done with controlling the cotton leaf-hoppers andthe cotton leaf-rollers. 4. About 84% hibernating larvae in cotton seeds will come out when thecotton exposed in sun light and stored in the farmer's house. Hence it seemsadvisable to put cloth or other soft material covers on the cotton stored inorder to collect and kill the larvae under them. In addition, destruction of allremaining bolls on the cotton stalks, as early as possible in winter is important. 5. For controlling the bollworms in cotton store-houses, the followingresults have been obtained 50% wettable DDT diluted with 20 parts of water,91% of larvae were killed within 30 days; 6.5% 666 (benzene hexachloride)gave a mortality of 63% in four months. Wettable 6.5% 666 diluted withwater (1:100), has been proved to be the most effective ovicide which destroys99.4% of eggs while parathion (E605) also gave a very high mortality at97.7%. But 50% wettable DDT (1:100) Kills eggs at 64.2% and lead arsena-te only 16.2% respectively. 6. There were 39.1% overwintering larvae parasitized by parasitic mitesand wasps. Among them, most are the mite, Pediculoides ventricosus Newport,while the parasitic wasps Eurypterna arakawae Mats. less than 0.5%.

红铃虫在南方棉区为害棉花相当严重,除去脱落蕾铃外,僵黄花率为10—30%,我们针对这个严重问题,进行了红铃虫生活史的观察研究与防治方法试验,写出初步结果,提供防治参考。 1.红铃虫在华中武昌棉区一年有三代。第一代羽化在5至6月,7月中旬为第二代;8月下旬为第三代;第一代的蛹和幼虫所需时期均较第二、三代长。 2.成虫白天不活动,夜晚7时以后无风天气活跃最盛,产卵以在青铃上及花萼上为最多。孵化后三十多分钟即钻入棉桃内为害,4天即侵入棉籽内取食,10天棉瓤纤维呈僵黄状,半月后幼虫即可老熟(第三代的)。 3.田间防治红铃虫以10%滴滴涕硫磺粉喷三次效果显著,在后期棉虫严重地区可结合防治叶跳虫卷叶虫等同时进行。 4.籽花内的幼虫在群众家里及晒花时逃出84%,因此指导群众将籽花堆上加覆盖物,再结合帘架晒花是消减过冬红铃虫最经济有效的办法。 4.防治仓库越冬红铃虫以50%可混性滴滴涕1:30倍水溶液杀虫效果最佳。30天内死亡率达91%.6.5%可混性666(1:20)死亡率为63%。但是1:100倍的水溶液杀卵效率高到99.4%。稀释万分之一的E605为97.7%。50%可混性滴滴涕1:100杀卵率为64.2%,砒酸铃最差...

红铃虫在南方棉区为害棉花相当严重,除去脱落蕾铃外,僵黄花率为10—30%,我们针对这个严重问题,进行了红铃虫生活史的观察研究与防治方法试验,写出初步结果,提供防治参考。 1.红铃虫在华中武昌棉区一年有三代。第一代羽化在5至6月,7月中旬为第二代;8月下旬为第三代;第一代的蛹和幼虫所需时期均较第二、三代长。 2.成虫白天不活动,夜晚7时以后无风天气活跃最盛,产卵以在青铃上及花萼上为最多。孵化后三十多分钟即钻入棉桃内为害,4天即侵入棉籽内取食,10天棉瓤纤维呈僵黄状,半月后幼虫即可老熟(第三代的)。 3.田间防治红铃虫以10%滴滴涕硫磺粉喷三次效果显著,在后期棉虫严重地区可结合防治叶跳虫卷叶虫等同时进行。 4.籽花内的幼虫在群众家里及晒花时逃出84%,因此指导群众将籽花堆上加覆盖物,再结合帘架晒花是消减过冬红铃虫最经济有效的办法。 4.防治仓库越冬红铃虫以50%可混性滴滴涕1:30倍水溶液杀虫效果最佳。30天内死亡率达91%.6.5%可混性666(1:20)死亡率为63%。但是1:100倍的水溶液杀卵效率高到99.4%。稀释万分之一的E605为97.7%。50%可混性滴滴涕1:100杀卵率为64.2%,砒酸铃最差为16.2%。 6.越冬幼虫被寄生的平均有39.1%,发现天敌有二种,其中绝大多数是榖痒螨(Pediculoides ventricosus

(1) Euonymus geometer, Abraxas miranda (Butler), is one of the principal garden pests inShanghai, infesting, in particular, Euonymus japonicus Thumb and E. Fortunei Hand-Mazz.,Celastraceae. In China, its distribution includes the provinces of Kiangsu, Chekiang and Kwei-chow as well as some northeastern provinces. (2) Investigations in Shanghai reveal that three generation of euonymus geometer occur inthe course of a year, with the pupa surviving the winter underground. Adults of the first genera-tion start emerging...

(1) Euonymus geometer, Abraxas miranda (Butler), is one of the principal garden pests inShanghai, infesting, in particular, Euonymus japonicus Thumb and E. Fortunei Hand-Mazz.,Celastraceae. In China, its distribution includes the provinces of Kiangsu, Chekiang and Kwei-chow as well as some northeastern provinces. (2) Investigations in Shanghai reveal that three generation of euonymus geometer occur inthe course of a year, with the pupa surviving the winter underground. Adults of the first genera-tion start emerging in the first half of April and the larvae of third generation go undergroundto enter into pupa stage in the middle of November. During this period the larvae infest theleaves of Euonymus japonicus Thumb and E. Fortunei Hand-Mazz. (3) This report deals with the life cycle and habits of this pest. It also includes data rela-tive to the horizontal and vertical distribution densities of its winter pupa. The horizontal dis-tribution density is highest in places just under the plant-stems, reaching 37.8-53.3%, while inplaces about 1 ft beyond the stems, no pupa is to be found. Its vertical distribution density ishighest in places 2 mm from the ground surface, ranging from 37.5% to 45.1%, while below5 mm no pupa has been found. (4) Chemical control experiments have been carried out in the laboratories. The results ofthese experiments show: (a) 10% DDT powder is fully capable of exterminating larvae of all stages; (b) 5% DDT powder registers 95% mortality when treated against olders larvae; (c) 1/1000 dipterex solution registers 97.5% mortality when treated against the larvae of laterstages; (d) 1/2500 dipterex solution registers 100% mortality when treated against larvae of 2-3stages; 78.4% against larvae of later stages; (e) 1/150, 1/200 and 1/300 solution of lead arsenate effects only low mortality. On the basis of the data on the horizontal and versical distribution densities of the over-wintering pupa as reported here, it is recommended that steps should be taken to unearth andesterminate the winter pupa in combination with the anti-four-pests campaign in the winter. Inview of the poor flying ability of the adult, it is also recommended that survey should be madeto ascertain the growth data of the adults of the first generation and exterminate them whenthey start emerging. The survey should be made on basis of past records and the weather condi-tion of the current year.

一、大叶黄杨尺蠖(Abraxas miranda Butler)是重要的园林害虫之一,为害卫矛科的两种植物,即:大叶黄杨与爬行卫矛。在中国分布于江苏、浙江、贵州及东北等地。 二、大叶黄杨尺蠖在上海一年发生三代,但在室内饲育可完成四代,以蛹在土中越冬。第一代成虫自4月上旬开始羽化,幼虫自4月下旬开始为害,至5月下旬进入蛹期。第二代成虫自6月上旬开始羽化,幼虫自6月中旬开始为害、直至8月下旬进入蛹期。第三代成虫自8月中旬开始羽化、幼虫自9月上旬开始至11月中旬进入蛹期。 三、根据室内饲养,成虫的寿命第一代雄虫平均7.8天,雌虫平均9.6天;第二代雄虫平均11天,雌虫平均15.4天;第三代雄虫平均9天,雌虫平均10天;第四代雄虫平均12天,雌虫平均14.5天。卵期第一代为14.5天,第二代8.6天,第三代9天,第四代12天。幼虫期第一代平均34.9天,第二代平均23.4天,第三代平均25天,第四代平均58天。蛹期第一代平均11.4天,第二代平均45.8天,第三代平均15.9天,第四代为越冬蛹。 四、成虫飞行力很弱,白天栖息在大叶黄杨树下或附近草丛中,晚上活动,趋光性不强。成虫羽化多在下午3—5时,羽化后即可交尾,一...

一、大叶黄杨尺蠖(Abraxas miranda Butler)是重要的园林害虫之一,为害卫矛科的两种植物,即:大叶黄杨与爬行卫矛。在中国分布于江苏、浙江、贵州及东北等地。 二、大叶黄杨尺蠖在上海一年发生三代,但在室内饲育可完成四代,以蛹在土中越冬。第一代成虫自4月上旬开始羽化,幼虫自4月下旬开始为害,至5月下旬进入蛹期。第二代成虫自6月上旬开始羽化,幼虫自6月中旬开始为害、直至8月下旬进入蛹期。第三代成虫自8月中旬开始羽化、幼虫自9月上旬开始至11月中旬进入蛹期。 三、根据室内饲养,成虫的寿命第一代雄虫平均7.8天,雌虫平均9.6天;第二代雄虫平均11天,雌虫平均15.4天;第三代雄虫平均9天,雌虫平均10天;第四代雄虫平均12天,雌虫平均14.5天。卵期第一代为14.5天,第二代8.6天,第三代9天,第四代12天。幼虫期第一代平均34.9天,第二代平均23.4天,第三代平均25天,第四代平均58天。蛹期第一代平均11.4天,第二代平均45.8天,第三代平均15.9天,第四代为越冬蛹。 四、成虫飞行力很弱,白天栖息在大叶黄杨树下或附近草丛中,晚上活动,趋光性不强。成虫羽化多在下午3—5时,羽化后即可交尾,一般交尾时间为6—7小时,最长可达11小时,交尾后7小时即行产卵,每一雌蛾可产卵360余粒。 五、幼虫共五龄,羽化后3、4小时就开始取食,受?

 
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