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forest landscapes
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  森林景观
     Characteristic Change of Several Forest Landscapes Between 1896 and 1986 in Heilongjiang Province
     1896年和1986年黑龙江省几种森林景观的特征变化(英文)
短句来源
     APPLICATION OF PSYCHOPHYSICAL METHOD IN EVALUATION OF FOREIGN FOREST LANDSCAPES
     心理物理学方法在国外森林景观评价中的应用
短句来源
     The methods of life cycle assessment(LCA) coming from environmental evaluation,with the semi-quantitative methods of LCA matrix,are introduced to evaluate the vitality of the forest landscapes.
     根据森林旅游资源具有生命周期的特点,引入环境评价中的生命周期评价方法与步骤,并利用生命周期矩阵的半定量方法,对森林景观进行生命力评价。
短句来源
     The result indicated that the area of water landscape appeared the trend from increasing to decreasing,while the integrated area of farmland and forest landscapes increased and the shape became more complex during the period of study.
     研究表明,在研究时段内水体景观面积呈先增后减的变化趋势,森林景观和农地景观整体景观面积增加,形状趋于复杂。
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     With the help of ARC/INFO software, based on the information from forest resources distribution maps of Luoning County of 1983 and 1999, six indices were used to analyze spatial patterns dynamics of forest landscapes of typical regions in the middle reaches of the Yihe-Luohe basin.
     以野外调查资料和1983~1999年森林资源分布图为主要信息源,用ARC/INFO作为空间信息处理工具,采用斑块数、平均斑块面积、破碎化指数、斑块伸长指数、分数维、稳定度等指标分析了近20年来伊洛河流域中部典型地区的森林景观格局动态。
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  “forest landscapes”译为未确定词的双语例句
     STUDIES ON SPECIES AND PATTERN DIVERSITIES OF THE FOREST LANDSCAPES OF
     北京东灵山地区森林的物种多样性和景观格局多样性研究
短句来源
     But the degree of fragmentation, degree of aggregation and degree of evenness are highest for the semi-natural landscapes including cut-over areas, fire areas, and renew forest landscapes, their fractal dimension indexes were near to 1.0, which indicated that the semi-natural landscapes were mostly disturbed and seriously broken.
     总体上讲,自然景观保持着较好的原始状态,而半自然景观中采伐迹地、火烧迹地、更新林地的破碎度、聚集度、均匀度最高,分维数指数接近于1,表明受干扰的程度最重、景观破碎强烈;
短句来源
     The evaluation of main types of in\|forest landscapes in the mountain area of west Beijing was conducted,44 representative photoes of in\|forest landscapes and interrelated material were collected. The Public Judgment Method was adopted in acquiring the likeliness values to every in\|forest landscape. Then the empirical model between likeliness values and 15 constituting elements was established by using Polybasic Mathematical Theory Ⅰ.
     以京西山区主要林内景观类型为评价对象 ,共收集了 4 4个有代表性的林内景观图片和相关资料 ,采用大众评判法获得公众对每个林内景观的喜好度值 ,然后用多元数量化理论Ⅰ模型建立喜好度与 15个景观要素间的回归关系。
短句来源
     The model showed that,the main factors which effect the quality of in\|forest landscapes most efficiently were:form of trunks,dead trees & fallen woods,arrangement of trunks,coverage of ground plants,uniformity of ground plants,degree of slope.
     建模结果显示 ,就该区域而言 ,影响林内景观质量的主要因子有 6个 ,即 :树干形态、枯树倒木、树干排列、林下层总盖度、林下层统一度和坡度。
短句来源
     and the landscape patterns in that basin were analyzed with FRAGAT3.2. Furthermore, the forecast on the dynamic variation of landscapes in that basin was executed on the Matlab6.3. The result indicates that the landscape compositions in the East Liaohe River basin are not scientific and the area of forest landscapes is too small.
     在FRAGAT3 2下,对东辽河流域各年的景观格局进行分析; 在Matlab6 3平台下,建立Markov模型,进行了景观格局的动态分析和预测。
短句来源
  相似匹配句对
     forest .
     林。
短句来源
     The Proactive Design Approach of Forest Landscapes in Britain
     英国的森林景观主动设计途径理论与技术
短句来源
     STUDIES ON SPECIES AND PATTERN DIVERSITIES OF THE FOREST LANDSCAPES OF
     北京东灵山地区森林的物种多样性和景观格局多样性研究
短句来源
     Forest And Papermaking
     森林与造纸
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     Real Landscapes
     真山水
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  forest landscapes
The Forest Land Oriented Resource Envisioning System (FLORES) project deals with social forest landscapes which are highly complex.
      
These data suggest that dry foliar surfaces in terrestrial forest landscapes may be a dynamic exchange surface that can function as a source or sink dependent on the magnitude of current Hg° concentrations.
      
Landscape measures of the SFI program, namely buffer zones, seem important in reducing channel degradation, particularly during major storm events, in intensively managed forest landscapes in East Texas.
      
These results suggest that the preservation of remnant old stands may be necessary for the maintenance of some residual plants in highly disturbed and fragmented forest landscapes in eastern Canada.
      
A role-type model (rope) and its application in assessing climate change impacts on forest landscapes
      
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Up to the present,Yuanmou Man is a unique representative of early PleistoceneHomo erectus in China.Concerning the physical feature of Yuanmou Man,his age,relative and absolute,his stratigraphical and paleontological correlation,certain impor-tant results have been achieved.As regards the living environment of Yuanmou Manthere are different opinions.Some authors maintain that Yuanmou Man lived in aglacial condition,the others do not agree with them.The present authors try to discussthe interesting problem,using...

Up to the present,Yuanmou Man is a unique representative of early PleistoceneHomo erectus in China.Concerning the physical feature of Yuanmou Man,his age,relative and absolute,his stratigraphical and paleontological correlation,certain impor-tant results have been achieved.As regards the living environment of Yuanmou Manthere are different opinions.Some authors maintain that Yuanmou Man lived in aglacial condition,the others do not agree with them.The present authors try to discussthe interesting problem,using the vertebrate paleontological achievements.In “The Quaternary glaciation and strata in the Yuanmou basin” published in1977,Qian Fang et al.considered the Yuanmou formation as an interglacial deposit andasserted that there happened many undulations of climate in the Yuanmou interglacialas indicated by an analysis of palynology and it showed a general tendency to transi-tion from tropical,subtropical to temperate,frigid or to change from moist to semiarid.In course of deposition of the Yuanmou formation,the climate became gradually cold.It predicted(showed)a new glacial age had arrived.They had a contradiction interms back and forth.Though that the Yuanmou formation totally belongs to aninterglacial received their assent,Qian et al.concluded Yuanmou Man lived in a glacialsevere climate.In 1977,Pu and Qian published another article “Study on the fossil humanstrata——the Yuanmou formation”.In conclusion,they distinctly assigned the Lushan-Yuanmou interglacial age to member Ⅰ and member Ⅱ,and the Yuanmou glacial ageto member Ⅲ and member Ⅳ,equivalent to the Danube glacial age in Europeansequence.Unfortunately,at a symposium concerning the Quaternary glaciation and geologyheld at Lushan in 1978,Sun,M.R.et al.proclaimed that Pu and Qian had wronglycited material from their palynological study and a mistaken conclusion on paleovegeta-tion and paleoclimate had been deduced from the material by Pu and Qian.Sun et alpointed out that there are 5 sporo-pollen assemblages in the Yuanmou formation.All the five assemblages reflect the subtropical evergreen broad-leaf forest landscape.Though there happened certain undulation of climate and the forest elements wereundiscontinuously changing,yet the subtropical broad-leaf forest nature of vegetationseemed to be lasting.Thus Sun et al.considered that the above mentioned five assem-blages belong to an interglacial age.Now what has the study of mammalian fossils to say in answer to the difference(?)Describing fossil mammals from Yuanmou,Lin et al.(1978)maintained that theYuanmou fauna lived in a moderate moist grassland-forest condition,in which grassland-shrub wood lands predominated.From bottom to top the Yuanmou formation seems torepresent a gradually transitional ecological environment from forest-grassland type tograssland-forest type.According to Lin et al.the Yuanmou fauna consists of 40 forms including:1)Tertiary survivals such as Machairodus,Nestoritherium,Eostylocerus,Metacervulus,Procapreolus etc.which remind the Yushe fauna from Shanxi;2)early Pleistoceneelements such as Camis yuanmoensis,Stegodon zhaotongensis,Stegodon yuanm(?)nsis,Rusa stehlini,Hyaena licenti,Ochotonides complicidens,Axis shansius,Axis cf.rugosusetc.the latter 4 forms were also found in the early Pleistocene fauna of North China;3)a certain forms such as Viverricula,Rhinoceros sinensis,Rhizomys,Hystrix recall thatof the Ailuropoda-Stegodon fauna;4)living forms such as Sus scrofa,Panthera tigris,Panthera pardus and Hystrix subcristata.Judging from the fossil assemblage,thepresent authors agree with Colbert,Pei,Hu,Lin et al.in that the Yuanmou fauna maybe dated to the early Pleistocene.Ecologically,fossil mammals from member Ⅰ mostly used to live in the subtropicaldense forest or parkland,it reflects a predominant subtropical forest condition.Stego-donts are principal fossils in member Ⅱ which comprises Hyaena used to live in thetropical and subtropical grassland or desert shrub areas.It may mean that this memberformed in a hotter,damper climate in which might once happen certain dryness.Member Ⅲ increased in forms of mammalian fossils.Among the collection Cynailurusis a running grassland carnivore and used to live in the thicket or parkland areas.In this member herbivorous animals possess almost the half of fossil mammals,butforest animals became less than in member Ⅱ.It seems possible that the climate mightbe drier,but fossil mammals show a subtropical nature.Of fossil mammals in memberⅣ the Tertiary survivals possess about one third.Must of fossil mammals used toinhabit in the subtropical forest or parkland areas.Fossil mammals of member Ⅳ arecharacterized by the predominance of herbivorous animals.In view of the live andhabits of mammals, generally,it reflects a subtropical climate.The above mentioned analysis,by and large,coincides with the palynological studyby Sun et al.Zoographically,the Yuanmou fauna consists of the following elements:1)thoselive in the Oriental region,such as Rhizomys,Hystrix,Viverricula,Cynailurus,Rhino-ceros sincnsis,Muntiacus,Axis,Rusa and Bibos;2)those bear wide adaptation andspread both in North China and in South China,such as Microtus,Arvicola,Vulpes,Felis,Panthera tigris,Panthera pardus,Gazella and Sus scrofa;3)the Tertiarysurvivals;4)those might comparatively adapted themselves to the temperate climate,e.g.Trogontherium,Ochotonoides complicidens.As a whole,the forms adapted themselves to the moderate climate predominate in the Yuanmou fauna.Though a fewelements might live in the temperate zone,it is insufficient to be proved to have beena cold climate.It is possible that in the long period by which the Yuanmou formationdeposited certain undulation of climate took place as demonstrated by the mammalianand palynological evidences:The Tertiary survivals of the Yuanmou fauna recall theHipparion fauna wide-spread in Eurasia.Generally speaking,the Hipparion faunalived in the rather warm tropical,subtropical forest-grassland,grassland or forest-bushing broad valleys.The presence of many Tertiary forms proves that the environ-ment by which the Yuanmou fauna lived is similar to the pliocene tropical-subtropicalclimatic condition.In addition,the presence of the elements of the Ailuropoda-Stegodon fauna also shows that the paleoenvironment in the Yuanmou basin is somewhatclose to the present landscape.Finally,we conclude our opinion with a remark that the Yuanmou faunaincluding Homo erectus yuanmoensis lived in a subtropical climatic natural landscape,and the study of vertebrate paleontology and palynology does not support the hypo-thesis of having a cold glacial climate in the Yuanmou formation.

元谋人到底生活在冰期寒冷气候环境中还是生活在温暖的气候环境中?这是近几年来对云南元谋盆地进行第四纪地质、古生物研究提出的问题之一。地质学家、孢粉学家、哺乳动物学家根据自己的研究各自提出不同的看法。本文从元谋哺乳动物化石的组成、生态、动物地理分布等方面分析,认为元谋的哺乳动物,包括元谋人,生活在温暖的亚热带气候的自然景观中。这一结论和孢粉分析的结果大致相符。

The fossiliferous deposits at Choukoutien, Loc. 1, where Peking Man lived, are some 40 metres in thickness, and may be divided into 13 layers from top to bottom. Their dates are summarized in Table 1. According to the dates, Layer 3 would be correlated with Stage 8 in the record of deep-sea sediments and Layer 10 would correspond to Stage 12. Just as Kahlke and Chow Benshun (1961) said, "There in no real break in the continuity of the record as well as in the composition of the fauna." So the Peking Man once...

The fossiliferous deposits at Choukoutien, Loc. 1, where Peking Man lived, are some 40 metres in thickness, and may be divided into 13 layers from top to bottom. Their dates are summarized in Table 1. According to the dates, Layer 3 would be correlated with Stage 8 in the record of deep-sea sediments and Layer 10 would correspond to Stage 12. Just as Kahlke and Chow Benshun (1961) said, "There in no real break in the continuity of the record as well as in the composition of the fauna." So the Peking Man once experienced three cold stages (i.e. Stages 12, 10, 8) and two warm stages (ie. Stages 11, 9). Fossil fauna lists of the different layers of Loc. 1 (vertebrate) were given by Kahlke et al (1961) and Chia Lan-po (1978) (Table 2). In order to correlate the Choukoutien sequence associated with Homo erectus pekinensis (i.e. Layers 3-10) with the O18 record of deep-sea sediments (Fig. la), we have used cluster analysis and other mathematical techniques. As a consequence, there are two groups in Layers 3-11. The first group is composed of Layers 5, 8-9. The other layers belong to the second group (Fig. 2). In comparison with Layers 3, 6, 7, Layers 11, 10, 4 have longer distance from the first group (i.e. Layers 5, 8-9) (Fig. 3 or Fig. Id). Li Yanxian and Ji Hongxiang (1980) held that Layers 8-9 (38 forms in eluding ostrich) are characterized by forest animals, with an abundance of Carnivora, a scarcity of Rodentia and an absence of grassland Rodentia. This suggests that the climate was warm and humid at the time. They also said that Layer 5 contained 29 forms, but still with more forest animals than grassland ones. Carnivora are aboundant. In addition there is an aquatic species in the fossil list (i.e. Trogonthervum cuvieri). The rich finds have been made in the calcareous tufas or travertines. Lithological and palaeon-tological evidences suggest that the climate was warm and damp at the time. These layers are exactly the same as the first group in Fig. 2. They show a forest landscape. Li et al (1980) held that Layer 11 contained 29 forms excluding Honho erectus pekinensis, of which the ratio of grassland animals to forest animals is 55:45. In Layer 10 were recognized 28 forms (including ostrich), here the grassland animals are predominant over forest ones. They pointed out that Layer 4 gives 21 forms, including ostrich in it. Here Carnivora decreases while Rodentia increases in number. There are more grassland fossil animals than forest ones in Layer 4 with aridadapted fossil animals as the predominant forms. Just as mentioned above, the average distances between Layers 11, 10, 4 and the first group are much longer than those of the others (Fig. 3). Layers 11, 10, 4 show a predominantly grassland landscape, though there was some forest in the Choukoutien area then. The other layers in Fig. 2 consists essen- tially of intermediate types. Layers 3 is close to Layers 11, 10, 4 and shows a grassland-forest landscape as Li et al (1980) said. Layers 6-7 are close to the first group in Fig. 2. Li et al (1980) held that in Layers 5-9 forest animals exceed grassland animals and aquatic animals outnumber arid-adapted animals. Therefore the result of cluster analysis supports the view of Li Yanxian and Ji Hongxiang (1980).

根据同位素年龄的测定,在距今46万年到23万年期间,北京人曾在周口店地区居住。这段时间相当于海洋的O~(18)的第12—8阶段。对周口店第一地点的第3—10层的各哺乳动物群,我们利用聚类分析等数理统计方法进行了分析和对比。第5层和第8—9层的哺乳动物群分别代表温暖期,它们相当于O~(18)的第9和第11阶段;而第3层、第6—7层和第10层的哺乳动物群则分别代表寒冷期,它们相当于第8、第10和第12阶段。

There are 240 kinds of migrant in Jilin province,and 59.6 per cent of them are summer bird,35.0 per cent are travel bird and 5.4 per cent are winter bird. In all of months,the curve change of the kinds of migrant is the highest in May. The most kinds of migrant are tapy of grassy marshland a small lake and forest landscape in Jilin province,the former are 128 kinds and the Later are 96 kinds.

本文积多年资料,阐明吉林省候鸟的种类组成,共240种,其中夏候鸟与旅鸟占绝对优势。通过具体数据,分析吉林省候鸟在时间上与空间上的分布规律。湿草甸水区与森林是候鸟的主要栖息环境与分布地区。阐明保护候鸟的重要意义与具体措施。

 
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