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  crimes
However, in China, the enterprises breaking through the law are mainly penalized for the administrative liabilities, focusing less on the civil compensation liability on the environmental damage and criminal liabilities on the environmental crimes.
      
The essential result of our study is that crimes of violence committed by mentally ill and by mentally retarded are quantitatively proportional to the number of crimes of violence committed by the total population.
      
The subjects differed from the corrections population, committing more crimes that were spontaneous and against persons.
      
Of those released, the majority were either committed to a mental hospital or rearrested (often for serious crimes).
      
Even so, the relative levels of self-reported average alcohol consumption in the four towns were closely related to the rates of alcohol-related crimes, morbidity and mortality.
      
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The Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China was enacted on the basis of summing up the experience in combating crimes in our country. Its promulgation and implementation mark an event of paramount importance and farreaching significáncein the construction of our socialist legal system. Its basic principles ars as follows, the principle of crime and penalty provided by law; the principle of punishment commensurate with offence; the principle of individual responsibility for one's own offence...

The Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China was enacted on the basis of summing up the experience in combating crimes in our country. Its promulgation and implementation mark an event of paramount importance and farreaching significáncein the construction of our socialist legal system. Its basic principles ars as follows, the principle of crime and penalty provided by law; the principle of punishment commensurate with offence; the principle of individual responsibility for one's own offence and opposing illegal involvement; and the principle of combining punishment with education.

《中华人民共和国刑法》是在总结我国同犯罪作斗争的经验基础上制定出来的。《刑法》的公布施行是社会主义法制建设的大事,具有重大的深远的意义。《刑法》的基本原则有:罪刑法定原则;罪刑相适应原则;罪责自负、反对株连的原则;惩罚与教育相结合的原则。

In the past few years,quite a number of representatives of Iegal persons, under the cloak of legal persons, engaged in unlawful business or even committed crimes, often leading to serious consequences. However, owing to the lack of laws stipulated specifically for meting out duepenalty on the said representatives for their said crimes, the court more often than not rules such cases as the legal persons′ transgression of the limits of lawful business range, and therefore, deals economic punishment...

In the past few years,quite a number of representatives of Iegal persons, under the cloak of legal persons, engaged in unlawful business or even committed crimes, often leading to serious consequences. However, owing to the lack of laws stipulated specifically for meting out duepenalty on the said representatives for their said crimes, the court more often than not rules such cases as the legal persons′ transgression of the limits of lawful business range, and therefore, deals economic punishment with the legal persons involved, without directly affixing the said representatives′ crimhal responsibility. As a result, we see″economic punishment replacing criminal penalty″. The writer of this paper deems that the criminal activities committed in the name of legal persons have become one of the new features of economic crimes in the new period. The essence of the issue is that the representatives of legal persons commit crimes by abusing their authorities. Therefore,it is a must to reinforce the criminal code with a view to checking such crimes effectively.

几年来,很多法人代表以法人名义进行非法经营,甚至进行犯罪活动,造成了严重的恶果。但由于缺乏惩治法人代表以法人名义进行犯罪活动的立法,法院对此类案件,往往以法人超越经营范围为由给法人以经济制裁,而不追究直接责任者的刑事责任,出现了“以罚代刑”的现象。作者认为:以法人名义进行犯罪活动,已成为新时期经济犯罪的一个新特点,实际是法人代表利用职务犯罪。因此,有必要根据新的情况完善刑事立法,以有效地打击法人代表以法人名义进行犯罪活动。

This article gives a detailed expounding to the various definitions of the concept of crime made by the western criminologists. Then the author proceeds from the Marxist criminologist view to an elaboration over the concept and the class nature of crime. The conclusion is: crime is the behavior endangering the ruling class's benefit and the said behavior is therefore defined as one under due criminal penalty in the form of state will. Both the emergence of the criminal behaviour per se and...

This article gives a detailed expounding to the various definitions of the concept of crime made by the western criminologists. Then the author proceeds from the Marxist criminologist view to an elaboration over the concept and the class nature of crime. The conclusion is: crime is the behavior endangering the ruling class's benefit and the said behavior is therefore defined as one under due criminal penalty in the form of state will. Both the emergence of the criminal behaviour per se and the rules on crime stipulated by the ruling class are decided by the conditions of material life of the society.

本文就西方犯罪学学者对犯罪概念所下的种种定义作了评述,然后根据马克思主义犯罪观对犯罪概念及其阶级性作了阐述,认为:犯罪是危害统治阶级利益,由统治阶级以国家意志形式规定受刑罚处罚的行为;无论是犯罪行为自身的产生或统治阶级对犯罪的规定,都是由社会的物质生活条件所决定的。

 
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