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refusal strategies
相关语句
  拒绝策略
     Chapter one serves as a general review of the theory of contrastive study and the findings of contrastive study of refusal strategies in interpersonal communications drawn by the scholars both at home and abroad.
     第一章介绍了对比研究理论的历史及发展,并对国内外主要学者在私人交往中总结出的英汉(日)拒绝策略进行概述,为本论文商业购物英汉拒绝言语对比研究奠定基础。
短句来源
     A Comparison of Refusal Strategies between Chinese and English Speech Act
     英汉言语行为中的拒绝策略对比研究
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     Therefore, refusal strategies are highly necessary for successful communication between different cultures.
     因此,拒绝策略对跨文化交际的成功也极其具有重要性。
短句来源
     Refusal Strategies between English and Chinese and its Pragmatic Transfer
     英汉拒绝策略及其语用迁移的实证研究
短句来源
     This paper reports a contrastive study on refusal strategies employed by American English speakers and Mainland Chinese speakers.
     本文对美国和中国大陆的拒绝策略使用情况进行了对比调查研究。
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  “refusal strategies”译为未确定词的双语例句
     A Contrastive Study of Refusal Strategies between English and Chinese
     英汉拒绝言语策略对比研究
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     A Cross-Cultural Sociopragmatic Study on English and Chinese Refusal Strategies
     英汉拒绝言语策略跨文化社会语用研究
短句来源
     The writer puts forward the theme of the thesis – a pragmatic study on refusal strategies.
     阐明了本文的研究主题-拒绝策略的语用对比研究。
短句来源
     A Cross-Cultural Study on Refusal Strategies
     “拒绝”言语行为的跨文化语用策略研究
短句来源
     From the analysis of the refusals given by Chinese and American subjects, the results indicate that (1) There are many similarities and differences between Chinese and English refusal strategies.
     结果表明:(1)在使用拒绝言语行为的语用策略上,英汉语的策略选择既有相似之处,也存在明显差异;
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  相似匹配句对
     The ? R Strategies?
     “3R”策略是银行营销的核心内容。
短句来源
     A Cross-Cultural Study on Refusal Strategies
     “拒绝”言语行为的跨文化语用策略研究
短句来源
     Chinese are more economical in using refusal strategies.
     中国人在使用拒绝策略时更“节省”些。
短句来源
     Enterprise Strategies
     企业经营战略
短句来源
     On the Refusal Manifestation in Japanese
     浅谈日语中的拒绝表现
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  refusal strategies
In addition, adolescents in the treatment condition were able to recall approximately 50% of the portrayed refusal strategies.
      


This paper reports a contrastive study on refusal strategies employed by American English speakers and Mainland Chinese speakers. The major findings are: Americans and Chinese use different formulaic expressions in refusal and tend to apply different strategies; Chinese are more economical in using refusal strategies. The differences are related to differences of social values between the two cultures, one being individually oriented and the other collectively oriented. The findings of...

This paper reports a contrastive study on refusal strategies employed by American English speakers and Mainland Chinese speakers. The major findings are: Americans and Chinese use different formulaic expressions in refusal and tend to apply different strategies; Chinese are more economical in using refusal strategies. The differences are related to differences of social values between the two cultures, one being individually oriented and the other collectively oriented. The findings of this study point to the inadequacies of some politeness theories as far as cross cultural variations are concerned. It is shown that L. R. Mao's "a relative face orientation construct" is an adequate model to analyze the data of the present study.

本文对美国和中国大陆的拒绝策略使用情况进行了对比调查研究。调查发现 :美国人和中国人使用不同的惯用表达式 ,倾向于采用不同的拒绝策略 ;中国人在使用拒绝策略时更“节省”些。这些差异都与中西文化的社会价值差异有关 ,美国是一个注重个体的社会 ,而中国则是一个注重群体的社会。本文指出了一些礼貌语用理论对于解释跨文化语用差异的局限性 ,采用了L .R .Mao的“相对面子指向的构想”作为理论框架解释了本项调查的结果。

Indirect speech act,especially indirect refusal,is a common phenomenon in Japanese.Based on Brown & Levinson's Face-saving Theory and the Moriyama's classification of refusal strategy,this paper is intended to discuss the refusal in Japanese with the focuses on the pragmatic strategy of indirect refusal.

间接语言行为是日语中的常见现象,特别是间接拒绝表达。本文拟用森山卓郎对拒绝策 略的分类方法,运用Brown & Levinson的礼貌理论对日语拒绝表达进行了探讨,并着重分析了 间接拒绝表达的语用策略。

Based on the advantages and disadvantages of refusal strategy or penalty strategy used to handle constraint problem by genetic algorithm,a hybrid strategy combining adaptive refusal strategy and penalty strategy was put forward.The optimum design for the air-launched vehicle was finished by using three strategies mentioned above,and the optimum results were compared.The results show that refusal strategy used for strict constraint problem has a disadvantage of slow convergence...

Based on the advantages and disadvantages of refusal strategy or penalty strategy used to handle constraint problem by genetic algorithm,a hybrid strategy combining adaptive refusal strategy and penalty strategy was put forward.The optimum design for the air-launched vehicle was finished by using three strategies mentioned above,and the optimum results were compared.The results show that refusal strategy used for strict constraint problem has a disadvantage of slow convergence velocity,and penalty function form has great effect on the optimum results.The hybrid strategy combining adaptive refusal strategy and penalty strategy refuses all infeasible solutions when constraint failure extent is beyond admissible range,and punishes the infeasible solutions when constraint failure extent is within the admissible range.So the hybrid strategy can significantly improve optimum property of genetic algorithm for strict constraint problem.

根据遗传算法处理带约束优化问题时常用的拒绝策略或惩罚策略的优势与不足,提出一种“自适应拒绝+惩罚”相结合的约束处理策略,分别采用3种不同约束处理策略完成了空中发射运载火箭的优化设计,并对优化结果进行了比较。结果表明,对于约束严的优化问题,拒绝策略收敛速度较慢;惩罚策略中罚函数的形式对优化结果影响较大;“自适应拒绝+惩罚”策略拒绝所有约束破坏程度超过容许范围的非可行解,并对约束破坏程度在容许范围内的非可行解进行惩罚,可大大改善遗传算法处理严约束优化问题的优化性能。

 
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