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genotypes
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  基因型
    Response of Anther Culture to Culture Temperature in Wheat Ⅱ.Suitable Culture Temperature for Different Genotypes
    小麦花药培养对培养温度的反应 Ⅱ.不同基因型小麦花药的适宜培养温度
短句来源
    SOMATIC CELL CULTURE AND CLONAL VARIATION IN RICE 1. DIFFERENT GENOTYPES AND EXPLANTS CULTURE IN RICE
    水稻体细胞培养与无性系变异——Ⅰ,不同基因型不同外植体的培养
短句来源
    Comparison of Some Photosynthetic Characteristics between Different Cotton Genotypes with Various Leaf Colours
    不同叶色基因型棉花的一些光合特性比较
短句来源
    Analysis of HLA-DQα Genotypes by Amplified DNA Fragments Probed With Biotinylated Oligonucleotides
    用聚合酶链反应和生物素寡核苷酸探针分析HLA-DQα的基因型
短句来源
    Studies on in Vitro Fast Propagation of Asparagus officinalis L.──Ⅰ. Differences in Genotypes of ex-plants
    石刁柏离体培养快速繁育的研究──Ⅰ外植体基因型的差异
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  “genotypes”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Objective: The aim of this research was to obtain the distribution of genotypes frequencies and the allelic frequencies of DNA repair gene X-rag repair cross-complementing groups 3(XRCC3) Thr241Met of the Han population in Sichuan.
    目的:研究DNA修复基因X线修复交叉互补基因3(XRCC3)Thr241Met位点多态性在四川汉族人群的分布,并与其它种族比较其分布特点。
短句来源
    Conclusion:The distribution of genotypes frequencies of XRCC3 Thr241Met is different in different ethnicities and geographic regions.
    结论:XRCC3Thr241Met位点多态性分布在中国人群中无统计学意义,但与欧美人群比较有统计学意义,证实了多态性分布的种族和地域差异。
短句来源
    RESULTS For 85 strains,the total positive rate of plasmid-mediated AmpC genes was 32.9%,and the positive rates of DHA and ACT-1 genotypes were 29.4% and 3.5%,respectively.
    结果85株阴沟肠杆菌中,质粒AmpC酶基因阳性28株,阳性率32.9%,其中DHA和ACT-1基因阳性率分别为29.4%和3.5%;
短句来源
    Results In the 160 patients with CHB,genotype B was detected in 14 cases(8.7%),genotype C in 88 cases(55.0%),and mixed genotype of B and C in 51 cases(31.9%). 7 cases failed the genotyping(4.4%). Genotypes A,D,E and F were not found in the study.
    结果B型14例(8.7%),C型88例(55.0%),BC混合型51例(31.9%),未分型7例(4.4%),未发现A、D、E、F型。
短句来源
    The clinical analysis of HCV genotypes in acute hepatitis C
    急性丙型肝炎基因分型的临床分析
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  genotypes
The distributions of GNB3 C825T genotypes were CC (27.2%), TT (42.9%), and CT (29.9%) in the hypertensive subjects and CC (27.7%), TT (42.4%), CT (29.9%) in the normotensive subjects.
      
Further analysis shows that there is no association between C825T genotypes and age, body mass index (BMI), Glucose (GLU), Triglyceride (TG), Cholesterol (CHO), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP).
      
Compared to individuals with EPHX1 rs1051741 CC or rs2234922 AA genotype in the drinkers, the risk of CBP in those carrying genotypes of EPHX1 rs1051741 CT+TT or rs2234922 AG+GG was decreased, respectively (P = 0.04, P >amp;lt; 0.01).
      
Karyotypic analysis on the metaphase plates from the root meristem demonstrated different genotypes.
      
Effects of Genotypes at the Unspecific Esterase (Est) and Leucine Aminopeptidase (Lap) Loci on the Temporal Dynamics of Morpholo
      
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It was demonstrated cytologically that in a natural population of the grasshopper,Catantops brachycerus, located at Sheh Hills in the vicinity of Shanghai, some individualswere found to carry an extra chromosome fragment in addition to the normal complementof 11 pairs of autosomes and an X chromosome in case of males. This extra fragment,being borne at the distal end of the large arm of the autosome No. 8 with no visibleloss on the part of the latter, is composed exclusively of heterochromatin, which showsnegative...

It was demonstrated cytologically that in a natural population of the grasshopper,Catantops brachycerus, located at Sheh Hills in the vicinity of Shanghai, some individualswere found to carry an extra chromosome fragment in addition to the normal complementof 11 pairs of autosomes and an X chromosome in case of males. This extra fragment,being borne at the distal end of the large arm of the autosome No. 8 with no visibleloss on the part of the latter, is composed exclusively of heterochromatin, which showsnegative heteropycnosis at M_1 similar in behavior to that of the X-chromosome. Thisfinding, together with other circumstantial evidence seems to indicate that this extra frag-ment probably found its origin from the X-chromosome. A close examination of the be-havior of the unequal bivalent during the spermatogenesis of the hemizygotes has revealedfurther two points of interest, one is the existance of a single chiasma between the cen-tromere region and the point of the attachment of the extra fragment in the diplotenestage and the other is the appearance of equational segregation of the unequal bivalentin the first anaphase (A_1). These two facts taken together bear strong evidence in sup-port of one plane theory of crossing-over and of one chiasma and one crossing-over rela-tionship theory as well. Of 530 male insects collected and examined from the population, 100 were foundto be hemizygous and 3 homozygous for the extra fragment. This amounts to a totalfrequency of 10% for this fragment in the population. Statistical analysis of the data forthe 3 different genotypes, homozygous normal, hemizygous and homozygous for the extrafragment shows that not only the total respective frequencies obtained for the 3 classesare in close conformity with the values expected on the basis of the Hardy-Weinbergformula, but also the variation in 3 successive generations and in different seasons doesnot significantly deviate from each other, giving a strong indication that the frequencyof the extra fragment has already reached a state of dynamic equilibrium in the popula-tion. As to the mechanism of how equilibrium of this chromosomal polymorphism ismaintained in the population, it remains to be an open question, though there is an in-dication of the favorable selection for the hemizygotes.

在上海附近的佘山,发现短角斑腿蝗自然群体中的一些个体的第8染色体是不等双价体。该染色体的额外片段比较大,由异染色质组成,并在减数分裂中期I和X染色体一样呈现负异固缩现象。在带有这个额外片段的半合体减数分裂时,发现第一次都是均等分离。这个现象与所观察到的下列事实一致,就是这对异形染色体的着丝点与额外片段之间经常只出现一个交叉点,再一次证明交换与交叉一对一关系和交换先于交叉理论的正确性。有关这个片段的来源,从—些旁证指出有可能来自X染色体。 所分析的530个个体中,100个是半合体,3个是带有这个片段的纯合体,因而得知额外片段在群体中的频率为10%。统计分析表明这三种遗传型,即正常纯合体、半合体和额外片段纯合体的频率符合Hardy-Weinberg公式,而且在连续三个世代之间以及不同季节之间这些频率没有显著的变化。有关额外片段在群体中的平衡机制,我们认为有可能是选择对半合体有利而使这种染色体维持稳定的多态平衡。

During the development of anther culture in some higher plants in the early seventies, a similar genetic principle used in this field of work has been applied to start a new line of research on Laminariales in our laboratory. The individual ga-metophytes of L. japonica were isolated to study parthenogenesis and apogamy to see if some new techniques could be found to study the genetics of this seaweed.As we know from our earlier study that the genetic content of this recently cultivated species of Laminaria was...

During the development of anther culture in some higher plants in the early seventies, a similar genetic principle used in this field of work has been applied to start a new line of research on Laminariales in our laboratory. The individual ga-metophytes of L. japonica were isolated to study parthenogenesis and apogamy to see if some new techniques could be found to study the genetics of this seaweed.As we know from our earlier study that the genetic content of this recently cultivated species of Laminaria was very heterozygous, a healthy, mature sporophyte collected from the shadow sea bottom along the Tsingtao coast was used to obtain the zoospores. Prom these spores numerous male and female gametophytes grew out. Then the isolation of individual gametophytes one at a time was carried out under a microscope. Bach individual gametophyte was cultured in separate glass container.Several years intensive work has given some interesting results:Parthenogenesis was observed to happen in most of the isolated female gametophytes under lower temperature. In our experiments the temperature was usually kept, at 8-12℃.Under similar conditions apogamy was occasionally observed to take place in the apical cells of the isolated male gametophytes without any formation of gametes.Quite'a portion (about 23%) of parthenosporophytes grew normally while most of the sporophytes which grew out apogamously from the male gametophytes were abnormal and grew very slowly.All the mature parthenosporophytes were found to be female, for they gave rise to spores which all germinated into female gametophytes. It was thus suspected that there must be a genetic basis for sex in this alga under study. Abnormal cell divisions were observed in the young parthenosporophytes.Natural doubling of chromosomes from haploid n = 22 to diploid 2n = 44 in Laminaria was observed to have taken place at rather high frequency, for all parthenosporophytes which had not been treated with colchicine in the early stages of gametophytes or young sporophytes were observed to be able to yield numerous spores normally. This was taken to mean that a normal process of meiosis was present in the mature parthenosporophytes.Many isolated, individual female and male gametophytes could be cultured to carry on vegetative growth and become clones.Now, the success in transforming individual gametophytes into clones was quite unexpected and stimulating especially when this type of material appeared to be very suitable for genetic study.The vigorous vegetative growth of a gametophyte often resulted in forming a callus containing millions and millions of cells. Each cell as a rule could be induced to grow and develop into a sporophyte. The various clones thus obtained were observed to be able to live very long, remain vigorous and maintain the original sex.The above-mentioned female clones and parthenosporophytes were used to do several experiments since the summer of 1977, and some results were as follows.The callus of each clone of female gametophyts was teared up into numerous small pieces and cultured to allow the cell to undergo parthenogenesis. To our expectation, the parthenosporephytes of different origin showed different phenotypes such as differences in the length, width and thickness of the frond. The different phenotypes were thus seen to have different genotypes.A mutant was detected, which was observed to be very different in texture and morphology of the frond.The spores of the mature parthenosporophytes were collected to study heterosis in this seaweed. The hybrids of several crosses, but not all, were found to grow faster and bigger than the control.So much for the female phases of Laminaria japonica, we are not happy with the male ones. The cells of the male gametophytes after isolation culturing could undergo apogamy but could not mature to form antheridia and so no sperms were produced. It might means that the genes for maturation of male cells were somehow turned off. We are now trying to do some work to turn on the responsible genes. This is the present situation in th

几年来从海带的遗传实验中发现海带单倍体(配子体和配子)是遗传研究的良好材料。科研工作从分离单个海带配子体开始,由此得到了雌配子体和雄配子体的无性生殖系、雌性孢子体和雄性孢子体。这些不同来源的配子体和孢子体在性质上都是“纯系”。配子体的无性生殖系寿命可以很长,它们都能保持原来的性别,而且年年可以由此得到孢子体。由于雌性孢子体能产生大量的雌配子体,完成自己的生活史,用雌配子体来分析海带孢子体性状的遗传情况,或用来研究杂种优势和突变,都很适宜。

Our experimental results showed that the differentiation ability of pollen callus of wheat was gradually reduced with the increase in age. Subcultures of pollen callus had only slight effect on maintenance of differentiation ability of pollen callus. Preservation at low temperature could not only maintain the differentiating ability of wheat pollen callus at a given level for a long time but also had an enhancing effect on spontaneous chromosome doubling. High sucrose concentration was not suitable for the differentiation...

Our experimental results showed that the differentiation ability of pollen callus of wheat was gradually reduced with the increase in age. Subcultures of pollen callus had only slight effect on maintenance of differentiation ability of pollen callus. Preservation at low temperature could not only maintain the differentiating ability of wheat pollen callus at a given level for a long time but also had an enhancing effect on spontaneous chromosome doubling. High sucrose concentration was not suitable for the differentiation medium of wheat. 0.5mg/liter Kinetin was optimum. The comparison of the differentiating effect between 190-2 differentiation medium and modified MS medium showed that 190-2 medium was the better one for wheat anther culture. The differentiation frequencies of the pollen callus varied significantly with different genotypes of wheat.

小麦花粉愈伤组织年龄对分化的影响很大,随着年龄的增长其分化能力逐渐降低。继代培养的愈伤组织分化能力较之未继代培养的略有增加。低温保存既可使小麦愈伤组织在较长时期内仍能保持一定的分化能力,又有促进染色体自然加倍的作用。小麦分化培养基的蔗糖浓度不宜太高。激动素浓度以0.5毫克/升较为适宜。190-2分化培养基分化花粉植株的能力显著高于修改的MS培养基。愈伤组织的分化频率因供试小麦材料基因型的不同而表现出明显的差异。

 
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