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ecosystems
相关语句
  生态系统
     Analysis, Integration and Complexity Study of Industrial Ecosystems
     工业生态系统分析集成与复杂性研究
短句来源
     Studies on Cadmium Pollution in Farming Ecosystems
     农田生态系统镉污染研究
短句来源
     The Study on the Complex Ecosystems Well-cycling and It's Regulation and Control Mechanism
     复合生态系统良性循环及其调控机制研究
短句来源
     Belowground Carbon Dynamics of Secondary Forest Ecosystems in Northeastern China
     东北天然次生林生态系统地下碳动态研究
短句来源
     ECOSYSTEMS, ARGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND CONSERVATION OF ENVIRONMENT
     生态系统与农业生产及环境保护
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  “ecosystems”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Ecological-breaking zone originates and its ecosystems reconstruction in arid area
     Ecological-breaking zone originates and its ecosystem reconstruction in aridarea
短句来源
     Behavior of 134Cs in the simulated marine ecosystems.
     ~(134)Cs在模拟海洋生态系中的行为
短句来源
     Winter CO2 efflux from soils ranged from 0.002 to 1.359 μmol C·m-2·s-1 and 0.22 to 0.67 μmol C·m-2·s-1 in tundra and forest ecosystems, respectively.
     极地苔原和森林冬季土壤呼吸速率分别为0.002~1.359和0.22~0.67μmolC·m-2·s-1;
短句来源
     The biomass of litter layer in different forest ecosystems varies from 16.21 to 32.42 t/hm2on an average of 20.69 t/hm2 and the decrease order of the biomass is shrubbery,broadleaf forest,coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest,bamboo forest.
     枯落物储量为16.21~32.42 t/hm2,平均为20.69 t/hm2,依次为灌木林>阔叶林>针阔混交林>楠竹林;
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     The amout of nutrient accumulation including soil layer 0~60 cm in the ecosystems of sharptooth oak stands in Qinling Mts. was 182.644 7~394.199 0 t/hm 2 in which 97.96 %~99.39% was in soil layer.
     秦岭锐齿栎林包括 0~ 6 0 cm土层的营养元素总储量为 182 .6 44 7~ 394.1990 t/hm2 ,土壤层的占 97.96 %~ 99.39%。
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  相似匹配句对
     PERMANENCE IN ECOSYSTEMS
     种群生态系统的持续生存
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     Modeling Terrestrial Ecosystems
     陆地生态系统的模型模拟
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  ecosystems
The ecological water requirement of forests is defined as the water resources used to maintain and improve the natural balance of forest ecosystems, which can be expressed by evapotranspiration of trees during the growing season.
      
Based on the basic principles of the micrometeorology of atmospheric boundary layers and vegetation canopy, a numerical model of the interaction between forest ecosystems and atmospheric boundary layers was developed.
      
Zoning by Functions of Small-Scale Forest Ecosystems: A Case Study of Hui-Sun Forest Station in Taiwan Province, China
      
In terrestrial ecosystems, soil nutrient regimes at a plant's living site generally represent the plant's "nutrition habitat".
      
Nitrate has been recognized as the dominant mineral nitrogen form in most agricultural soils and the main nitrogen source for crops, but it is not usually the case in forest ecosystems.
      
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1. The southeastern part of Xizang is abundant in its specific topography, ecotype, biotic population and forest vegetation. In this region, there exist a large number of ancient, healthy and natural forest ecosystems, among which the subalpine dark coniferous forests are found to be a widly distributed, extensively stretched, stable and high productive formation group.

一、西藏东南部拥有极丰富而特异的地貌类型、生态类型、生物种群和森林植被类型。藏东南林区有大面积古老,健康而完好的天然森林生态系统。其中亚高山暗针叶林是分布广、面积大、稳定性强、生物生产量高的森林群系。 二,西藏亚高山暗针叶林是寒温带暗针叶林分布最南、最高的林区之一。由于地带三向性的分异,亚高山暗针叶林有明显的水平分区和垂直分带。在各区,带中,森林群系,建群种,林型及其生长状况都有明显的差异。 三,西藏亚高山暗针叶林的水平分布可分为三亚区:(1)三江流域峡谷、山原块状暗针叶林亚区;(2)喜马拉雅山南麓高山峡谷湿润暗针叶林亚区;(3)雅鲁藏布江中下游沟谷暗针叶林亚区。 在分布区的海拔2700—4300米的垂直带内,分布有云杉林群系、冷杉林群系和圆柏林群系。各群系的分布带内,随水热状况的变化组成有规律的林型垂直分布带谱。 四、西藏亚高山暗针叶林的生长特点为;立木高大,生长持续期长,林分蓄积量高。在喜马拉雅山南麓湿润区,云杉林分的蓄积最高达每公顷3500余立方米,平均胸径111厘米,平均高67米。立木最大胸径162厘米,最大树高72米。 五、不同海拔高度与坡向的暗针叶林林分生长差异显著。在喜马拉雅山南麓湿润区,云杉的...

一、西藏东南部拥有极丰富而特异的地貌类型、生态类型、生物种群和森林植被类型。藏东南林区有大面积古老,健康而完好的天然森林生态系统。其中亚高山暗针叶林是分布广、面积大、稳定性强、生物生产量高的森林群系。 二,西藏亚高山暗针叶林是寒温带暗针叶林分布最南、最高的林区之一。由于地带三向性的分异,亚高山暗针叶林有明显的水平分区和垂直分带。在各区,带中,森林群系,建群种,林型及其生长状况都有明显的差异。 三,西藏亚高山暗针叶林的水平分布可分为三亚区:(1)三江流域峡谷、山原块状暗针叶林亚区;(2)喜马拉雅山南麓高山峡谷湿润暗针叶林亚区;(3)雅鲁藏布江中下游沟谷暗针叶林亚区。 在分布区的海拔2700—4300米的垂直带内,分布有云杉林群系、冷杉林群系和圆柏林群系。各群系的分布带内,随水热状况的变化组成有规律的林型垂直分布带谱。 四、西藏亚高山暗针叶林的生长特点为;立木高大,生长持续期长,林分蓄积量高。在喜马拉雅山南麓湿润区,云杉林分的蓄积最高达每公顷3500余立方米,平均胸径111厘米,平均高67米。立木最大胸径162厘米,最大树高72米。 五、不同海拔高度与坡向的暗针叶林林分生长差异显著。在喜马拉雅山南麓湿润区,云杉的最适分布带在海拔2700—2800米,冷杉的最适分布带在海拔3600?

Introducing five Impact problems on mankind, this paper focuses on the energy and environmental probems. The energy which utilized and recognized by mankind may be classified into five categories. (1) mechanical energy (potential and kinetic energy) , (2) thermal energy, (3) electrical energy, (4) radiation energy (5) structural energy of matter (chemical bond energy and neuclear energy) . Jhree principles of utilization of energy must be followed. (1) maximun amount of energy converted from minimum amount of...

Introducing five Impact problems on mankind, this paper focuses on the energy and environmental probems. The energy which utilized and recognized by mankind may be classified into five categories. (1) mechanical energy (potential and kinetic energy) , (2) thermal energy, (3) electrical energy, (4) radiation energy (5) structural energy of matter (chemical bond energy and neuclear energy) . Jhree principles of utilization of energy must be followed. (1) maximun amount of energy converted from minimum amount of energy resource, (2) maximun best quality of goods produced by minimum amount of energy, (3) mininum effect on the ecosystems and relation to their environment fron the utilization of energy. In considering a question in eighr its aspects, the paper analyses the correlations between environmental pollution and exaggeration or abusive utilization of energy. .Therefore, conservation of energy and reasonable use of energy are best methods for environment control

本文从人类面临五方面的挑战性问题,重点探讨能源与环境问题。 能源是能量的资源。人类今天认识与利用的能量可归纳为:(1)机械能(势能与动能);(2)热能;(3)电能;(4)辐射能;(5)物质结构能(化学能与核能)五大类。能源利用应遵守三条原则:(1)用最少的能源转换出最大的能量;(2)用最少的能量生产出最多的优质产品,创造出最大的产值,作出最高的服务效果;(3)能源利用应对生态系统破坏最小。本文从八个方面分析环境污染主要是由能源滥用与浪费的结果,提出合理使用能源、节约使用能源是保护环境的根本措施。

During the last four years the authors have conducted a series of investigations on the collection, rearing and identification of the parasites of the rice gall midge in Kwangtung Province. Preliminary observations on the bionomics of the parasites and experiments on the effect of insecticides on them were also carried out. The results of studies obtained are summarized as follows:1. Altogether 5 species of hymenopterous parasites on the rice gall midge have been found in Kwangtung Province. They are:Platygaster...

During the last four years the authors have conducted a series of investigations on the collection, rearing and identification of the parasites of the rice gall midge in Kwangtung Province. Preliminary observations on the bionomics of the parasites and experiments on the effect of insecticides on them were also carried out. The results of studies obtained are summarized as follows:1. Altogether 5 species of hymenopterous parasites on the rice gall midge have been found in Kwangtung Province. They are:Platygaster sp. (gregarious endoparasite)Platygaster sp. (solitary endoparasite)Neanastatus grallarius MasiNeanastatus oryzae PerriereObtusiclava oryzae Sabba RaoThe morphology of the various stages of these parasites are described and a brief account of their bionomics is also given. Usually the gregarious Platygaster parasite is the predominant species, but during the seedling and tillering stage of the late crop (both in the seed-beds and in the field) the population of Neanastatus may increase to as high as 70-80% of the 5 species in total. These parasites possess different characteristics in biology and play different roles in suppressing the outbreaks of the rice gall midge. Further investigations will help us to know how to utilize these parasites in the program of integrated pest management in rice fields.2. The percentage of parasitism of the rice gall midge in the seed-beds and fields of the late crop was found to be very high, in some cases as high as, 90% or more. This contributes an important factor in controlling populations of the gall midge. The outbreak of the gall midge is closely correlated to the cropping system; the late crop and the triple rice crop afford a "bridge" for the favorable reproduction of the gall midge. The irrational application of insecticides kills the natural enemies and is also one of the factors leading to the resurgence of the insect pest.3. According to the investigations made in 1976 in San-Hua brigade, Hua county, the percentage of parasitism on the rice gall midge in the overwintering generation in the wild rice (Oryzae rufipogon) reached as high as 65%, and in the first aad second generations of the early crop the parasitism was found to vary from 32.5% to 33.3%. But in the seed-beds of the late crop, due to the frequent applications of insecticides, usually with a spraying of Methyl parathion-BHC and Dimethoate at an interval of 4-5 days, the percentage of parasitism dropped to 1.53-4.5%, whereas in the field with no insecticide treatment it was about 44%. This indicates that the conventional method of the application of insecticide produces adverse effects to the parasites.4. Laboratory experiments were carried out to determine the toxicity of several insecticides to the parasites of the rice gall midge. As a contact poison the organophosphorus compound Pyrimioxythion (N-23) was the most toxie, and chlorodi-meform was the least toxic. The order of toxicity to Platygaster sp. was: Pyrimioxy-thion > Trichlorofon > Dimethoate > (2,5-Dimethylphenyl-N-methylcarbamate) > Chlorodimeform. The LC50 of the five compounds was estimated to be 1.1, 3.5, 5.5, 15.0 and 24.0 ppm, respectively. As a foliar spray, Pyrimidoxythion is also more toxic than Methyl parathion-BHC to Obtusiclava oryzae and Neanastatus spp. The formulations and methods of applications of the insecticides is very important to the protection of the parasites. As a rule, broadcasting of impregnated-dusts is less hazardous to the natural enemies and the root-zone method of application givea good protection to the parasites and the spiders in the rice field. Thus there is a possibility that the rational use of insecticides will help to increasing the stability of the paddy agro-ecosystem and it may be of great utility in developing an efficient integrated control program for the rice gall midge as well as other insect pests.

在广东稻瘿蚊常见的寄生蜂有5种:(1)黄柄黑蜂Platygaster sp.(群居内寄生天敌);(2)单胚黑蜂Platygaster sp.(独居内寄生天敌);(3)黄斑长距旋小蜂Neanastatus grallartus Masi.;(4)稻长距旋小蜂Neanastatus oryzae Ferriere;(5)斑腹金小蜂Obtusiclava oryzae Subba Rao。这5种寄生蜂中黄柄黑蜂发生较普遍,在一年间大部分时间发生数量多于长距旋小蜂及斑腹金小蜂。稻瘿蚊寄生蜂在晚造秧田及本田寄生率有时达90%以上,对抑制稻瘿蚊的发生起了相当大的作用。 几种常用农药对寄生蜂毒杀作用的比较试验,分别在室内及田间进行。以嘧啶氧磷对寄生蜂毒杀最大,杀虫脒最小。对寄生蜂的毒力大小比较为:嘧啶氧磷>敌百虫>乐果>叶飞散>杀虫脒。

 
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