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cold environment    
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  冷环境
    The influence of cold environment on outdoor individuals who performed prolonged exercises at low temperature,and the prevention of cold induced injuries were reviewed.
    综述冷环境野外作业人员的影响 ,并提出防护措施。 冷环境对集体的影响主要包括 :低体温、冻伤、非冻结性冷损伤 ,并会引起静止状态下机体平均动脉压 (MAP)和CO升高。
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  寒冷环境
    The recta temperature of part of divers continued dropping even after leaving from cold environment.
    有的在脱离寒冷环境后,直肠温度仍有下降。
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  高寒环境
    Conclusion Dynamic changes of hydrocortisone and adrenalin in plasma after gunshot wound in pig limbs in high altitude and cold war environment are more obvious than those of normal environment and high altitude and cold environment, and will keep at a high level for a long time.
    结论 高原高寒环境战时猪肢体枪弹伤后全身应激反应明显重于高原平时致伤组和平原平时致伤组,而且持续的时间长。
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  高寒环境
    Conclusion Dynamic changes of hydrocortisone and adrenalin in plasma after gunshot wound in pig limbs in high altitude and cold war environment are more obvious than those of normal environment and high altitude and cold environment, and will keep at a high level for a long time.
    结论 高原高寒环境战时猪肢体枪弹伤后全身应激反应明显重于高原平时致伤组和平原平时致伤组,而且持续的时间长。
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  cold environment
In many applications of piezoelectrically controlled smart structures, the functionality of the system has to be ensured even in an extremely hot and cold environment.
      
Sympathetic denervation of IBAT prevented the effect of the cold environment on GABA content and impaired that on GABA accumulation.
      
Polar organisms should have mechanisms to survive the extremely cold environment.
      
A theoretical study shows that when a thermally thick sample is allowed to radiate instantaneously into a cold environment, then the resulting transient surface temperature depends solely on its hemispherical total emissivity and effusivity.
      
Survival of young and old rats in a cold environment
      
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Objective To study the effects of hypothermia and hypoxia on serum biochemical parameters. Method Acute hypobaric hypoxia experiment in cold environment was carried out in 48 healthy Wistar rats to observe changes of hepatic,cardiac and renal functions. Result Hepatic,cardiac and renal functions changed non prominently after acute hypoxia exposure under cold condition. Under hypoxic exposure of the same degree,serum lactic dehydrogenase(LDH),alanine transaminase(ALT),blood urea nitrogen(BUN) and...

Objective To study the effects of hypothermia and hypoxia on serum biochemical parameters. Method Acute hypobaric hypoxia experiment in cold environment was carried out in 48 healthy Wistar rats to observe changes of hepatic,cardiac and renal functions. Result Hepatic,cardiac and renal functions changed non prominently after acute hypoxia exposure under cold condition. Under hypoxic exposure of the same degree,serum lactic dehydrogenase(LDH),alanine transaminase(ALT),blood urea nitrogen(BUN) and creatinine(Cr) increased more significantly at 10℃ than those at 20℃(P<0.01)while creatine kinase(CK) decreased significantly at 10℃ than that at 20℃. Conclusion After acute hypoxia in cold environment,the changes in cardiac function did not simplely equal to the changes by cold environment plus changes by acute hypoxia.

目的研究冷环境中高空缺氧对动物肝、心、肾功能的影响。方法48只健康成熟Wistar大鼠分别在10℃和20℃条件下,模拟升空至3km或5km高度。观察大鼠血清乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)、谷草转氨酶(AST)、谷丙转氨酶(ALT)和磷酸肌酸激酶(CK)的活性及血清肌酐(Cr)和尿素氮(BUN)含量的改变。结果相同环境温度条件下,在5km高度,血清LDH、AST和CK的活性,血清Cr和BUN的含量显著低于地面对照组及3km组(P<0.01或P<0.05);而3km大鼠血清CK活性与对照组比较却显著升高(P<0.05);20℃时上升至3km时,血清ALT活性显著低于地面对照组(P<0.01)。2.相同缺氧程度条件下,环境温度为10℃时血清LDH、ALT活性和血清Cr和BUN含量显著高于20℃时(P<0.01);血清CK活性非常显著低于20℃时(P<0.01)。结论在10℃和20℃环境中,轻中度高空缺氧对动物肝、心和肾脏的功能无明显损害;而在相同缺氧环境中,与20℃环境温度比较,10℃时肝、肾功能改变明显但心功能改变较小。缺氧和低温复合环境因素暴露对心肌的作用并不是单一因素暴露的简单迭加。

AIM To investigate the effect of more fat and antioxidant on human blood lipid metabolism in cold climate. METHODS 158 recruits from cold areas were randomly divided into 5 groups. ① Normal diet (25% of the total calorie from fat) served as control group. ② Normal diet and zinc intake group (Zn.30 mg person -1 day -1 ). ③ High fat group (30% of the total calorie from fat). ④ High fat and VitE intake group (300 mg. person -1 day -1 ) ⑤ High fat and VitC intake group (600 mg. person -1...

AIM To investigate the effect of more fat and antioxidant on human blood lipid metabolism in cold climate. METHODS 158 recruits from cold areas were randomly divided into 5 groups. ① Normal diet (25% of the total calorie from fat) served as control group. ② Normal diet and zinc intake group (Zn.30 mg person -1 day -1 ). ③ High fat group (30% of the total calorie from fat). ④ High fat and VitE intake group (300 mg. person -1 day -1 ) ⑤ High fat and VitC intake group (600 mg. person -1 day -1 ). The experiment lasted 25 days. RESULTS The pre experimental triglyceride of the 5 groups were (1.5±0.5), (1.0±0.3), (1.9±0.6), (1.3±0.6) and (1.8±0.8) mmol·L -1 , respectively and the post experimental triglyceride were (2.0±0.8), (1.7±0 8), (1.4±0.6), (1.3±0.5) and (1.4±0.6) mmol·L -1 respectively. The pre experimental total cholesterol of the 5 groups were (7.0±2.3), (6.3±2.1), (6.1±1.7), (6.2±1.6) and (6.1±1.7) mmol·L -1 respectively and the post experimental total cholesterol were (4.4±1.5), (4.0±1.3), (4.5±1.8), (4.7±1.7) and (5.5±1.4) mmol·L -1 respectively. The pre experimental MDA of the 5 groups were (6.1±1.6), (5.1±0.9), (6.4±1.5), (5.4±1.2) and (5.4±0 6) nmol·L -1 respectively and the post experimental MDA were (5.3±2.1), (5.2±2.0), (5.7±2.3), (5.3±2.1) and (5.4±2.2) nmol·L -1 respectively. CONCLUSION High fat diet intake and antioxidant in short period cold environment does not influence the human lipid metabolism and lipid peroxidant.

目的 为进一步验证在寒冷环境下 ,高脂膳食是否引起人体血脂代谢的变化 .方法 选择驻寒区部队冬季入伍新战士 2个连队 1 5 8人 ,进行了现场研究 .设普食对照组 (脂肪生热比 :2 5 %左右 ) ,普食加 Zn 30 mg· d- 1 组 ,高脂组 (脂肪生热比 30 %左右 ) ,高脂加 Vit E30 0 mg· d- 1组 ,高脂加 Vit C6 0 0 mg· d- 1 组 .实验期 2 5 d.结果 实验前三酰甘油含量普食对照组、普食加 Zn组、高脂组、高脂加 Vit E组、高脂加 Vit C组分别为 (mmol· L- 1 ) 1 .5± 0 .5 ;1 .0± 0 .3;1 .9± 0 .6 ;1 .3±0 .6 ;1 .8± 0 .8.实验后分别为 (mmol· L- 1 ) 2 .0± 0 .8;1 .7±0 .8;1 .4± 0 .6 ;1 .3± 0 .5 ;1 .4± 0 .6 .总胆固醇含量 ,实验前各组分别为 (mmol· L- 1 ) 7.0± 2 .3;6 .3± 2 .1 ;6 .1± 1 .7;6 .2±1 .6 ;6 .1± 1 .7.实验后分别为 (mmol· L...

目的 为进一步验证在寒冷环境下 ,高脂膳食是否引起人体血脂代谢的变化 .方法 选择驻寒区部队冬季入伍新战士 2个连队 1 5 8人 ,进行了现场研究 .设普食对照组 (脂肪生热比 :2 5 %左右 ) ,普食加 Zn 30 mg· d- 1 组 ,高脂组 (脂肪生热比 30 %左右 ) ,高脂加 Vit E30 0 mg· d- 1组 ,高脂加 Vit C6 0 0 mg· d- 1 组 .实验期 2 5 d.结果 实验前三酰甘油含量普食对照组、普食加 Zn组、高脂组、高脂加 Vit E组、高脂加 Vit C组分别为 (mmol· L- 1 ) 1 .5± 0 .5 ;1 .0± 0 .3;1 .9± 0 .6 ;1 .3±0 .6 ;1 .8± 0 .8.实验后分别为 (mmol· L- 1 ) 2 .0± 0 .8;1 .7±0 .8;1 .4± 0 .6 ;1 .3± 0 .5 ;1 .4± 0 .6 .总胆固醇含量 ,实验前各组分别为 (mmol· L- 1 ) 7.0± 2 .3;6 .3± 2 .1 ;6 .1± 1 .7;6 .2±1 .6 ;6 .1± 1 .7.实验后分别为 (mmol· L- 1 ) 4 .4± 1 .5 ;4.0±1 .3;4.5± 1 .8;4.7± 1 .7;5 .5± 1 .4.MDA含量实验前各组分别为 (nmol· L- 1 ) 6 .1± 1 .6 ;5 .1± 0 .9;6 .4± 1 .5 ;5 .4± 1 .2 ,5 .4± 1 .6 .实验后分别为 (nm ol· L- 1 ) 5 .3± 2 .1 ;5 .2± 2 .0 ;5 .7± 2 .3;5 .3± 2 .1 ;5 .4± 2 .2 .结论 实验期内适量补充脂肪和抗氧化剂不影响血脂水平和 MDA含量

Objective To study the effects of hypothermia and hypoxia on plasma POMC peptides levels in rats. Method Acute hypobaric hypoxia experiment in 10℃or 20℃ environment were carried out in 56 healthy Wistar rats to observe changes of brain β EP,plasma β EP and ACTH contents determined by radioimmunoassay. Result Plasma β EP and ACTH levels increased more significantly under cold condition than under room temperature (P<0.01).Plasma ACTH concentrations after 5 km acute hypoxia exposure under 10℃ decreased more...

Objective To study the effects of hypothermia and hypoxia on plasma POMC peptides levels in rats. Method Acute hypobaric hypoxia experiment in 10℃or 20℃ environment were carried out in 56 healthy Wistar rats to observe changes of brain β EP,plasma β EP and ACTH contents determined by radioimmunoassay. Result Plasma β EP and ACTH levels increased more significantly under cold condition than under room temperature (P<0.01).Plasma ACTH concentrations after 5 km acute hypoxia exposure under 10℃ decreased more significantly than in ground control groups (P<0.01).Plasma ACTH and β EP levels after 5 km acute hypoxia exposure under 20℃ increased more significantly than ground control groups (P<0.01).Plasma ACTH levels in all groups at 20℃ and plasma β EP levels in 5 km group increased more significantly than in the groups under same attitude at 10℃. Conclusion After acute hypoxia in cold environment, plasma ACTH and β EP contents increased and it may have serious effects on body temperature regulation.

目的研究低温和低压缺氧复合因素对大鼠脑垂体和血浆阿黑皮素原衍生肽含量的影响。方法采用 56只健康成熟的雄性Wistar大鼠 ,分别在 1 0℃和 2 0℃条件下模拟上升至 3km和 5km高度 ,设2 5℃室温地面对照组。观察大鼠脑垂体和血浆阿黑皮素原衍生肽含量的变化。结果 2 0℃环境中 ,5km组血浆 β EP和ACTH含量显著高于地面对照组和 3km组 (P <0 .0 1 ) ,脑垂体 β EP的含量显著降低(P <0 .0 1 ) ;1 0℃环境中随高度升高 ,血浆β EP含量显著降低 (P <0 .0 1 ) ,脑垂体β EP的含量显著升高(P <0 .0 1 ) ,5km组血浆ACTH较地面对照组显著降低 (P <0 .0 1 )。2 0℃地面对照及各高度组血浆ACTH含量和 2 0℃ 5km组血浆β EP含量均显著高于 1 0℃相应高度组 (P <0 .0 1 )。结论 2 0℃条件下随着缺氧程度加深 ,血浆 β EP和ACTH升高 ;1 0℃条件下血浆 β EP降低 ,低压缺氧条件下 ,随着环境温度降低 ,血浆ACTH含量下降 ,将对体温调节产生重要影响。

 
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